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  • 1.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Bennet, Louise
    Lunds universitet, Centrum för primärvårdsforskning, Limhamns vårdcentral, Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Fellbrant, Klas
    Family Medicine, Department of Primary Health Care, Skövde, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Margareta
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Medicine, Department of Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Attitudes Regarding Participation in a Diabetes Screening Test among an Assyrian Immigrant Population in Sweden2016In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, article id 1504530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants from the Middle East have higher prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with native Swedes. The aim of the study was to describe and understand health beliefs in relation to T2D as well as attitudes regarding participation in a screening process in a local group of Assyrian immigrants living in Sweden. A qualitative and quantitative method was chosen in which 43 individuals participated in a health check-up and 13 agreed to be interviewed. Interviews were conducted, anthropometric measurements and blood tests were collected, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. In total, 13 of the 43 participants were diagnosed with impaired glucose metabolism, 4 of these 13 had TD2. The interviewed participants perceived that screening was an opportunity to discover more about their health and to care for themselves and their families. Nevertheless, they were not necessarily committed to taking action as a consequence of the screening. Instead, they professed that their health was not solely in their own hands and that they felt safe that God would provide for them. Assyrians’ background and religion affect their health beliefs and willingness to participate in screening for TD2.

  • 2.
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Ringdal, Mona
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Developing and evaluating an instrument to measure Recovery After INtensive care: the RAIN instrument2018In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring and evaluating patients' recovery, following intensive care, is essential for assessing their recovery process. By using a questionnaire, which includes spiritual and existential aspects, possibilities for identifying appropriate nursing care activities may be facilitated. The study describes the development and evaluation of a recovery questionnaire and its validity and reliability.

  • 3.
    Forsberg, Anna
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Flodén, Anne
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, PO Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lennerling, Anette
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Äldre och långvariga hälsoproblem, Older Adults and Long-Term Health Problems).
    Nilsson, Madeleine
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fridh, Isabell
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden / University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    The core of after death in relation to organ donation: A grounded theory study2014In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 275-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate how intensive and critical care nurses experience and deal with after death care i.e. the period from notification of a possible braindead person, and thereby a possible organ donor, to the time of post-mortem farewell. Research methodology: Grounded theory, based on Charmaz' framework, was used to explore what characterises the ICU-nurses concerns during the process of after death and how they handle it. Data was collected from open-ended interviews. Findings: The core category: achieving a basis for organ donation through dignified and respectful care of the deceased person and the close relatives highlights the main concern of the 29informants. This concern is categorised into four main areas: safe guarding the dignity of the deceased person, respecting the relatives, dignified and respectful care, enabling a dignified farewell. Conclusion: After death care requires the provision of intense, technical, medical and nursing interventions to enable organ donation from a deceased person. It is achieved by extensive nursing efforts to preserve and safeguard the dignity of and respect for the deceased person and the close relatives, within an atmosphere of peace and tranquillity.

  • 4.
    Forsberg, Anna
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Lennerling, Anette
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fridh, Isabell
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden / University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Äldre och långvariga hälsoproblem, Older Adults and Long-Term Health Problems).
    Nilsson, Madeleine
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Understanding the Perceived Threat of the Risk of Graft Rejections: A Middle-Range Theory2015In: Global Qualitative Nursing Research, ISSN 2333-3936, Vol. 2, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a clinical viewpoint, graft rejection is one of the greatest threats faced by an organ transplant recipient (OTR). We propose a middle-range theory (MRT) of Perceived Threat of the Risk of Graft Rejection (PTRGR) as a contribution to the practice of transplant nursing. It could also apply to the detection of risky protective behavior, that is, isolation, avoidance, or non-adherence. The proposed MRT covers the following concepts and the relationship between them: transplant care needs, threat reducing interventions, intervening variables, level of PTRGR, protective strategies, and evidence-based practice. Parts of this theory have been empirically tested and support the suggested relationship between some of the concepts. Further tests are needed to strengthen the theoretical links. The conceptual framework might serve as a guide for transplant nurses in their efforts to promote post-transplant health and reduce threat-induced emotions.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Äldre och långvariga hälsoproblem, Older Adults and Long-Term Health Problems).
    Att vårdas vaken med respirator: patienters och närståendes upplevelser från en intensivvårdsavdelning2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, light or no sedation has become a common approach in patients who require mechanical ventilation (MV) when cared for in an intensive care unit (ICU). This new approach has resulted in medical advantages as well as a shorter time on MV and in the ICU. Aim: The overall objective of the thesis was to describe, illuminate and interpret patients' and relatives' experiences of caring and communication in connection with MV while the patient is conscious. Methods: The data collection methods were inductive and included interviews and observations, both audiotaped and video-recorded. The study group consisted of patients and relatives; fourteen patients in paper I, twelve in paper II and nineteen in paper III as well as ten relatives in paper IV. In paper I, the video-recorded interviews were analysed using content analysis and hermeneutics. The text in paper II was analysed using the phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur. The observations in paper III were analysed by means of a hermeneutic approach based on Gadamer's philosophy. In paper IV, relatives were interviewed on two occasions. The text from these interviews was also analysed using a hermeneutic method inspired by Gadamer. Results: The patients experienced an overall sense of being breathless. While conscious, they were aware of the mechanical ventilator as a life saver. Besides being breathless, being voiceless was considered the worst aspect. Communication was difficult and awkward as it demanded all their will power. Patients' communication patterns varied but there were commonalities; they also developed an individual style of communication. Being subjected to someone else's will and direction meant being painfully aware of one's dependency. Despite this, the patients struggled for independence in various ways as part of the recovery process. Being conscious while receiving MV demands caring communication, which in turn requires proximity, presence and constant attention by a nurse who is "standing by" and prepared to take care of the patient whatever happens. The patients' non-verbal communication through their gaze and facial expression was interpreted as sadness and sorrow, understood as expressions of unuttered suffering. The overall struggle and primary existential aim of relatives in the ICU is to be in contact with the patient, a need which overshadows everything else. Conclusion: Being conscious during MV means being painfully aware of one's dependency while voiceless and helpless. It is possible to endure this situation when the caregivers are "standing by", attentive to the patients' expressions, prepared to act to make sure that the patients are feeling better and do not leave them unattended. Caring for a conscious patient on MV presupposes nurses' ability to understand and be able to "standing by". If this approach is not possible, consciousness might be too painful and sedation should be considered.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Äldre och långvariga hälsoproblem, Older Adults and Long-Term Health Problems).
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    ICU Professionals' Experiences of Caring for Conscious Patients Receiving MVT2014In: Western Journal of Nursing Research, ISSN 0193-9459, E-ISSN 1552-8456, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 360-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, caring for patients who are conscious while receiving mechanical ventilator treatment has become common in Scandinavian intensive care units. Therefore, this study aimed to describe anesthetists', nurses', and nursing assistants' experiences of caring for such patients. Nine persons were interviewed. A hermeneutic method inspired by Gadamer's philosophy was used to interpret and analyze the interview text. Staff members found it distressing to witness and be unable to alleviate suffering, leading to ethical conflicts, feelings of powerlessness, and betrayal of the promises made to the patient. They were frustrated about their inability to understand what the patients were trying to say and often turned to colleagues for help. When caring for conscious patients, it takes time to get to know them and establish communication and a trusting relationship.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Äldre och långvariga hälsoproblem, Older Adults and Long-Term Health Problems).
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Forsberg, Anna
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    The lived experiences of adult intensive care patients who were conscious during mechanical ventilation: A phenomenological-hermeneutic study2012In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate the lived experience of patients who were conscious during mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU).Method: Interviews with 12 patients assessed as being conscious during mechanical ventilation were conducted approximately one week after discharge from an ICU. The text was analyse dusing a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur. Results: Apart from breathlessness, voicelessness was considered the worst experience. The discomfort and pain caused by the tracheal tube was considerable. A feeling of being helpless,deserted and powerless because of their serious physical condition and inability to talk prompted the patients to strive for independence and recovery and made them willing to 'flowwith' the treatment and care. Comments from the patients suggest that their suffering can be alleviated by communication, participation in care activities and companionship. Conclusion: A patient's endurance whilst conscious during mechanical ventilation seems to be facilitated by the presence of nurses, who mediate hope and belief in recovery, strengthening the patient's will to fight for recovery and survival.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Äldre och långvariga hälsoproblem, Older Adults and Long-Term Health Problems).
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ringdal, Mona
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Jonsson, Annikki
    School of Health Science, Borås University College, Borås, Sweden..
    After discharge home: a qualitative analysis of older ICU patients' experiences and care needs2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 30, p. 749-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most patients in intensive care units suffer from critical diseases/injuries and are in need of life-saving medical treatment. Recovery after such diseases/injuries may be lengthy and may vary. Little is known about older patients' own assessment of recovery following intensive care. The aim of this study was to explore and describe older patients' experiences of recovery and need of care within 2 months following discharge from hospital after being cared for in an intensive care unit. Fifteen patients 65 years or older, who had received care in an intensive care unit, were telephone-interviewed 2 months following discharge. The interview texts were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six themes were identified: 'Discharge – a matter of physicians' and nurses' decisions', 'Wanted to go home', 'Feeling well and feeling better, but...', 'Recovered or not, that is the question', 'In need of help from others' and 'In need of care'. Patients trusted in the medical experts' assessment of their condition as regarded hospital discharge, but they also stated that they wanted to go home, as soon as possible, to their own familiar and private environment. Patients did not see the hospital as a place for recovery. Patients claimed that they were used to taking care of themselves within the limits of their strength and energy. If they need help, they first of all turn to family members or relatives. Patients who reported comorbidity did not assess themselves as recovered, while others stated that they had recovered but also suffered from a variety of discomforting symptoms.

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Äldre och långvariga hälsoproblem, Older Adults and Long-Term Health Problems).
    Forsberg, Anna
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Health is yearning: Experiences of beingconscious during ventilator treatmentin a critical care unit2008In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate experiences of being conscious during ventilator treatment in the ICU from a patient perspective. Hermeneutic, phenomenological methods were used. Eight patients who had received ventilator treatment were interviewed. The time on a ventilator varied from 1 day to several months. Some patients had been more heavily sedated during the acute phase while some were only lightly sedated and others had no sedation at all. The motor activity assessment scale was used to rate the sedation level. The patients had been sufficiently conscious to communicate with the help of the alphabet board, by means of facial expression or by nodding or shaking their head. The results show that the experience of care by patients who were conscious during ventilator treatment was described under the headings of: memories, mastering the situation and individual consequences. Health in the ICU is associated with yearning. The patient undergoes different stages of yearning as part of his or her recovery process. The patient who is conscious during ventilator treatment views him/herself and his/her worth on the basis of the attitude and behaviour of the caregivers, where the value of caring consists of the holistic confirmation of individual suffering.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Äldre och långvariga hälsoproblem, Older Adults and Long-Term Health Problems).
    Forsberg, Anna
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Communication when patients are conscious during respirator treatment: A hermeneutic observation study2012In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe, interpret and describe nurses' communication with conscious patients receiving mechanical ventilation treatment (MVT) in an intensive care unit(ICU), and to examine if such communication could be interpreted as caring. Design: Hermeneutic observational study inspired by the philosophy of Gadamer. Method: Nineteen patients were observed on several occasions for a total of 66 hours, when conscious during MVT. Findings: A form of caring communication was identified and interpreted as comprising seven themes: being attentive and watchful, being inclusive and involving, being connected, remaining close, being reassuring and providing security, keeping company and using humour and using a friendly approach. Communication that mediated a non-caring approach was also identified and described under two thematic headings, i.e. being neglectful and being absent. Conclusions: Caring is communicated by the caring act of ''standing-by'' the patient. Caring or non-caring is communicated in non-verbal and verbal communication, in the words used, the tone of voice and behaviour, as well as in the performance of nursing care activities.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Äldre och långvariga hälsoproblem, Older Adults and Long-Term Health Problems).
    Forsberg, Anna
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Relatives' experiences of visiting a conscious, mechanically ventilated patient: A hermeneutic study2010In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In recent years, light or no sedation has become a common approach to invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory distress. The experience of visiting a conscious patient receiving mechanical ventilation in the ICU has to our knowledge not yet been investigated.

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to describe the meaning attributed by relatives to their experiences of meeting, seeing and communicating with a patient cared for on a mechanical ventilator while conscious.

    Method

    This study used a prospective, exploratory design comprising interviews with ten relatives conducted on two occasions; in connection with their visits to a patient cared for on a ventilator while conscious and approximately a week after the end of intensive care. The data were analysed by means of hermeneutic interpretation to obtain a deeper understanding of relatives' experiences.

    Results

    Striving to achieve contact with the patient was the most important aspect of being a close relative of a patient receiving ventilator treatment while conscious and was described by four main themes: feeling ambivalent towards consciousness; feeling ambivalent towards sedation; feeling dependent on the carer and being disappointed; and suppressing own suffering and sadness.

    Conclusion

    The patients' consciousness enabled the relatives to judge their condition for themselves and enter into contact. This resulted in a sense of being in control but also efforts to suppress own suffering.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Äldre och långvariga hälsoproblem, Older Adults and Long-Term Health Problems).
    Lindahl, Berit
    Department of Intensive Care Unit, SkaS, Skaraborgssjukhus Skövde, Skövde.
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Patients' statements and experiences concerning receiving mechanical ventilation: a prospective video-recorded study2012In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 247-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients' statements and experiences concerning receiving mechanical ventilation: a prospective video-recorded study Prospective studies using video-recordings of patients during mechanical ventilator treatment (MVT) while conscious have not previously been published. The aim was to describe patients' statements, communication and facial expressions during a video-recorded interview while undergoing MVT. Content analysis and hermeneutics inspired by the philosophy of Gadamer were used. The patients experienced almost constant difficulties in breathing and lost their voice. The most common types of communication techniques patients used were nodding or shaking the head. Their expressions were interpreted as stiffened facial expression, tense body position and feelings of sadness and sorrow. Nursing care for patients' conscious during MVT is challenging as it creates new demands regarding the content of the care provided. In caring for patients undergoing MVT while conscious, establishing a caring relationship, making patients feel safe and helping them to communicate seem to be most important for alleviating discomfort and instilling hope.

  • 13.
    Kisch, Annika M
    et al.
    Department of Haematology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Anna
    Lund University, Institute of Health Sciences Lund, Sweden..
    Fridh, Isabell
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Borås, Sweden..
    Almgren, Matilda
    Lund University, Institute of Health Sciences ,Lund, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Martina
    Lund University, Institute of Health Sciences ,Lund, Sweden.
    Lovén, Charlotte
    Transplant Unit, Department of Surgery and Gastroenterology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden..
    Flodén, Anne
    Transplant Unit, Department of Surgery and Gastroenterology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Madeleine
    Department of Neurology, Psychiatry and Habilitation, Queen Silvia's Children's Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Veronika
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Lennerling, Annette
    Department of Transplantation, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Meaning of Being a Living Kidney, Liver or Stem Cell Donor: A Meta-Ethnography2018In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 102, no 5, p. 744-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies on living donors from the donors' perspective show that the donation process involves both positive and negative feelings involving vulnerability. Qualitative studies of living kidney, liver, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell donors have not previously been merged in the same analysis. Therefore, our aim was to synthesize current knowledge of these donors' experiences in order to deepen understanding of the meaning of being a living donor for the purpose of saving or extending someone's life.

    METHODS: The meta-ethnography steps presented by Noblit & Hare in 1988 were used.

    RESULTS: Forty-one qualitative studies from 1968 to 2016 that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The studies comprised experiences of over 670 donors. The time since donation varied from 2 days to 29 years. A majority of the studies, 25 out of 41, were on living kidney donors. The synthesis revealed that the essential meaning of being a donor is doing what one feels one has to do, involving 6 themes; A sense of responsibility, Loneliness and abandonment, Suffering, Pride and gratitude, A sense of togetherness, and A life changing event.

    CONCLUSION: The main issue is that one donates irrespective of what one donates. The relationship to the recipient determines the motives for donation. The deeper insight into the donors' experiences provides implications for their psychological care.

  • 14.
    Rudolfsson, Gudrun
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level. Nord University, Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Bodø, Norway.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level. Skovde Univ Coll, University of Gothenburg Inst Hlth & Care Sci.
    Interacting with parents in Sweden who hesitate or refrain from vaccinating their child2019In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, article id 1367493519867170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences of encountering parents who are hesitant about or refrain from vaccinating their child. A qualitative approach was chosen and data collected through individual, semi-structured interviews with 12 nurses. The text was analyzed using thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the interviews: giving room and time for acknowledging parents' insecurity concerning vaccination, striving to approach the parents' position with tact, and a struggle between feelings of failure and respect for the parents' view. The findings indicate that it was crucial to give time, be tactful when meeting parents, as well as to appear credible and up-to-date. The nurses wanted to be open and respect the parents' views on vaccination but found it difficult and frustrating to be unable to reach out with their message because their quest was to protect the child.

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