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  • 1.
    Abdulkareem, Haji  
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Javidan, Mustafa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nätutvecklingsplan för området Hälltorp i Trollhättan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After many long power failure occurrences on the overhead line that feeds the receiving substation Torsred, and because of the household expansion in nearby area, Trollhättan Energi Elnät AB has decided that a new receiving substation that replaces the existing one should be built at a new location. This thesis includes investigation and calculation of a new electricity network and suggestions on how the new electricity network can integrate with the existing one. Also, a new selective coordination plan and new backup power alternatives are investigated.

    The existing receiving substation Torsred is fed by Vattenfall Eldistribution AB:s 130/10 kV transformer OT00 by an 1 km long overhead line. The neutral point in Torsred is connected to the high voltage bar and consists of neutral grounding resistor and neutral point reactor. The total load current in Torsred is 925 A and during short-circuit in the busbar 154 MVA short-circuit power emerges. The substation Ängen with a short-circuit power 138 MVA is an underlying substation to Torsred that feeds the areas Öresjö, Edsäter and Hjärtum. All the outgoing electric lines in Torsred and Ängen are protected with relay protection and with different time- and current setting on these relays is selectivity installed for the underlying electrical network.

    The new receiving substation is planned to be built near the feeding point OT00. According to calculations the short-circuit power in the new receiving substations will be 227 MVA and in Ängen 200 MVA. The capacitive current increases because the over 1 km overhead line is demolished, and additional 7,5 km underground cable is added on in the new electrical network. A neutral point reactor needs to be upgraded to a 20 A bigger than the existing one because of the increasing capacitive generation in the electrical network. The price to build the receiving substation will be about 9 Mkr. The existing receiving substation Torsred will be demolished and replaced with a new 800 kVA network substation which will be used to feed a couple of the low voltage network in the area Strömslund. The distribution substation Ängen will be modernized. The total price for the whole project is calculated to 11,4 Mkr.

  • 2.
    Adamsson, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analys och optimering av verktygsförslitning vid skärande bearbetning i superlegering2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the aerospace industry today, super alloys are used in components for jet engines. To increase the efficiency of these engines, through higher combustion temperatures, new materials are developed which maintain their strength at elevated temperatures. The increase in strength as well as the ability to maintain the strength at elevated temperatures, makes them more difficult to manufacture with metal cutting technology.

    The Sector Workshop at GKN Aerospace Sweden in Trollhättan produces a large number of products with a variety of cutting tools. Some of these tools, for a certain product, have been investigated in this work. The products are manufactured from a hard-wearing superalloy which results in extremely high tool wear and high tooling costs.

    To enable improvements in the metal cutting process, a literature study was first conducted. The study focus was to identify information about the various tool wears that occur in metal cutting process of super alloys. Thereafter, specifically selected tools were analyzed. The analysis consisted primarily of a classification of the different tool wear types. In parallel with the tools being classified, measurements were made of the size of wears using a digital microscope.

    The collected data was later used for a statistical analysis, which identified the tool wear type that was the most common. The analysis showed that most of the tools had chipping. Then, to identify where in the machining process the chipping occurred further analyzes were made where the tool wear curves for two cutting tools were plotted. During this analysis to produce the tool wear curves, it was found that the chipping appeared when the tools engaged the workpiece.

    In the later parts of the work, a list of proposal was generated about how the metal cutting process could change to reduce the identified tool wears. One suggestion was to optimize the tool engagement of the workpiece. Also, an optimization of cutting data and especially the spindle speed were also recommended to reduce chipping. This due to some of the chipping could be caused by chatter vibration. For the ceramic tools an increased cutting speed was recommended because machining today was carried out at a much lower cutting speed than research results indicate is necessary for ceramic cutting tools in super alloys. Finally, a checklist for manufacturing personnel was formulated, which could be used to optimize tool wear at GKN Aerospace Sweden.

  • 3.
    Ahrnfeldt, Olof
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Användning av reservelverk för att minska avbrottstiden på grund av fel på mellanspänningskablar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every Network operator strives to have as few and short outages as possible. Network operators therefore work continuously to convert the overhead lines to cables. Therefore, there is a need to gather knowledge about outages on cables and look into methods to decrease the outage time. There are laws and guidelines that need to be taken in consideration that limit the allowed maximum outage time and that is why backup generators could be a method to prevent breaking them.

    Problems that can arise regarding cable outages are to locate the flaw. Visual troubleshooting is often not a viable option which requires that the prerequisites are good enough to be able to use other fault detection methods. Factors that could affect the possibilities to use other measurement methods are the length, number of joints and the surrounding environment of the cable.

    Backup generators are most commonly used for maintenance and to reduce the outage time. The generators are mainly connected at the low voltage busbars but with additional equipment as portable transformers it can also be connected to the high voltage busbars.

    The result of the work performed shows that there are different factors that affect the outage time and frequency. One contributing factor that leads to increased outage time is the length of the cable. It may be due to difficulties to locate the flaw or that the cable pass inaccessibility areas increases when the length of the cable increases. During the winter period the average outage time is longer as compared with summertime, but during the summertime the outage frequency is higher.

    Vattenfall have backup generators, portable transformers and diesel containers available for booking on the internal website. The most common time before a backup generator is connected is between three and four hours. By using backup generators, it would be possible to reduce the outage time on about 100 outages during the analyzed time period. The potential decrease of SAIDI by using backup generators has not been able to be calculated because of lack of data.

    Available data is based on what is documented and there have probably been more situations when backup generators have been used but not been documented. With access to higher quality documentation the analyzes could be done more accurate.

  • 4.
    Akram, Yasser
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mirzad, Elias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Studie av övertoners inverkan på relätripptiden hos ett elektromekaniskt överströmsrelä2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A problem that has been noticed in the electricity grid is the increase in level of harmonics. In some cases, there may also be currents or voltages with frequencies that differ from the fundamental tone and this leads to the grid having harmonics meaning that when loads and components in the electricity grid are not sinusoidal, harmonics occur. For example, an increase in these types of loads e.g. charging an electric car or computers, in the electricity grid gives rise to an increasing harmonic content.

    In view of the aforementioned, this thesis has been carried out in collaboration with the Megger Sweden AB, Stockholm, as the official client for this study. The purpose here is to study the effect of harmonics on the relay trip time of an electromechanical overcurrent relay that is installed in the power grid's control facilities.

    The tests are performed with the test instrument Sverker 900 and an electromechanical overcurrent relay, ASEA RI. For testing the RI relay, a Swedish standard, an upcoming international standard as well as instructions from the client have been thoroughly followed and applied. The results of the tests shows the difference between the trip time with harmonics and the trip time for the fundamental tone.

    Conclusions based on the results are partly that the overcurrent relay is slower at weak currents, that is 2.8A and 3A respectively, as well as for long trip times in relation to the behavior without harmonics. According to the findings conducted herein, there is no significant correlation between the presence of harmonics and the influence of the relay trip time on medium and strong currents, between 4A-8A, or on shorter trip times.

    By reason of the time constraint experienced in conducting this study, the results and findings reached leaves a sound potential and promise for future tests conducted at different harmonic levels. A future recommendation for similar studies will be to test only at low currents, long trip times and slow disk speeds as this would facilitate the possibility of fulfilling a more robust result analysis.

  • 5.
    Alagic, Almira
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Balint, Norbert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Marknadsanpassning av kabelskopa2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Excavating buckets are tools that construction machines use for excavation, demolition or moving different sorts of soils. Buckets are exposed to harsh environments there for ex-ample weather and the soil material that wears and strains the tool. To minimize wear and increase the tool's efficiency, can the material for the bucket be suited for the environment in which the tool is used.

    The aim of the project is to help the company to increase their exports to the EU. The goal is to produce a cable bucket adapted for the Dutch market, which is based on the product's current weight, material composition, performance and cost.

    Based on the company's needs the focus of this project is to adapt a cable bucket to the conditions and the market in the Netherlands. In order to implement a market expansion the company also needs to get information about market conditions, circumstances and customer requirements.

    In the end of the project a cable bucket considered to be adapted for the Dutch market were proposed. The comparison between the new bucket and the existing bucket resulted in a lighter and cheaper bucket where the material choices are based on the most common in the Netherlands and the bucket performs as its competitors.

  • 6.
    Alfredsson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av kravspecifikation och affärsmodell för fjärrdiagnostisering av lyftlösning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In collaboration with Binar Quick-Lift Systems AB, a product development project has been carried out at the University West in Trollhättan. Binar Quick-Lift Systems AB manufactures and develops lifting solutions for loads up to 300 kg and is an affiliate of the Binary Group, where operations are conducted in two primary areas: Industrial Solutions and First Responder Technology.

    The vision for most companies is to develop and given the current trend of the Internet of Things, Binar wanted to see how a wireless communication solution can integrate with the company's existing lifting solutions. The goal of this mission was to establish a requirement specification and a business model for wireless diagnostics of their lifting solution, based on customer needs and the company's basic requirements.

    The introduction of the project consisted of a preliminary study which included information gathering and interviews with stakeholders and experts. A market investigation was performed in parallel with the interviews where a function and competitor analysis were conducted to obtain relevant customer data as well as an understanding of the market. The requirement specification was established using collected information in the preliminary study and the business model was generated from the preliminary study as well as the customer and base requirements.

    The result was a requirement specification with mainly subjective requirements as well as a business model with a basic contract offer for the sale of the wireless solution.

  • 7.
    Alléus, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Dalin, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Vass, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Planering av laddstationer vid flerbostadshus2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sales of electric vehicles grow annually which increases the need for charging stations on parking lots at apartment houses. This report explore both the technical and the economical aspects of electric car charging for Stenungsundshem. The types of electric cars available on the market that can be charged by energy from the electric power network is the Plug-in hybrid and the electric car. The most common type on the market is the Plug-in hybrid which is driven by an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. The electric car is only driven by an electric motor. Charging times for electric cars depend on if the charging station is designed with normal charging or fast charging. For home charging, normal charging is the most common type of charging where the car is fully charged after six to ten hours. The connection between charging stations and cars can be made by different types of connectors. The European standard is the Type 2 connector. Safety is very important when charging electric cars, Therefore, charging stations have been divided into four different safety modes. Safety modes differ depending on the type of communication available between the charging station and the car. Mode 3 is the standardized mode in the Nordic countries. Charging of electric cars can result in power peaks which the main fuse must be dimensioned for. Power peaks can be reduced by using some type of load balancing system where available power during the day is distributed between charging stations to keep the power consumption below rated power. Terms of how charging is done and installation of charging station must be in compliance with Ellagen. For easier compliance and clarification of Ellagen standards and regulations should be used. In this project cable dimensioning by power requirements for different amounts of charging stations has been made, PEX insulated aluminum cable is exclusively used within the project. The market of charging stations is explored to look at different solutions and costs for charging stations and routing of cables. The best option for Stenungsundshem is currently to install two charging station for charging outlets to four parking spaces. Contributions like “Klimatklivet” can reduce total costs of investments for charging stations and cable routing with up to 50%.

  • 8.
    Alsing, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson Storm, Sandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sustainability of Additive Manufacturing: Electron Beam Melting of IN7182019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine and describe the process of Additive Manufacturing (AM) and the energy use in the production of parts manufactured with the Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology in particular IN718, which is a Nickel-based superalloy with specification according to UNS n07718 that is used in the aerospace industry. The objectives also include a brief overview of powder bed AM methods and a sustainability analysis. Consequently, this thesis will examine both energy use and the CO2-footprint for the EBM with IN718. The result of this thesis will be used in the SuMan-Next project at the Centre for Production Research, PTC, in Trollhättan where University West conducts research in materials for the Aerospace industry. AM is currently a rapidly expanding area of manufacturing. This process adds the material layer-by-layer, which results in a design freedom and flexibility that is almost impossible for traditional subtracting manufacturing. To examine the energy use, measurements with an electrical network analyzer was performed on the EBM while two different geometries was manufactured. After these measurements, the data was collected and the energy use for the build could be calculated. By doing that, the CO2 footprint for the build could be estimated. A study visit to the AM division of Sandvik Machining Solutions in Sandviken was conducted to observe, investigate and learn more about atomization of metal powder. A small Life-Cycle-Inventory was conducted and the production process could be assessed, to establish the CO2 footprint from material extraction to product. When it comes to CO2 footprint, it is definitely the production of the material before atomization that gives the most CO2 footprint, this thesis can establish that the geometry does matter for the build part and that in these conducted studies it is with a factor 2. However, compared to manufacturing of the powder or/and the build, the bulk material production gives 5-50 times more CO2footprint than the rest of the process. If using more recycled material in the metallurgy instead of virgin, the CO2 footprint will decrease significantly. Recycled material is good to decrease the energy use and CO2 footprint, but also to decrease the mining of the critical elements that are included in the alloys.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Anette
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Bojort, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nätplan för fördelningsstation M5 Hålta2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the area of Tjuvkil on the west coast, about 16 kilometers west of Kungälv city, a new residential area is about to be planned for about 140 new houses and holiday houses turned into permanent houses. A grid plan will therefore be made to investigate if there are any flaws to consider for the 10 kV-net, before and after the introduction which the new load will cause on behalf of the houses, plus extra space for the installation of an amount of charging posts.

    The purpose of this thesis is to compile the grid plan which will make the groundwork for the power distribution grid under the M5 transformer Hålta, which contains the areas for the new settlement. Backed up by the software dpPower this work will point out the flaws such as thin cables where large load currents and voltage drop occur, and also the statistics for interruption for the five outgoing lines from M5. This work also shows the status for the transformer in Hålta and how the surrounding grids status will be affected during their backup of emergency power for the M5. This work shows the grid status in the 4 steps as present status, with new load, emergency power and solutions.

    The thesis's evaluation of M5 Hålta will result in a suggested change of cable for the line L501 to Tjuvkil, which will decrease voltage drop and lower load current to avoid interruptions on the grid. Emergency power is lacking for a large-scale consumer and can be fixed with a looped feeding instead of a single line feeding on line L503. The transformer M5 in Hålta is already heavy loaded and in need to be replaced by a larger transformer later on. The thesis gives a suggestion on how to connect the adjacent transformers M1, M4 and M6 for emergency power.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Back, William
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utvärdering för att främja AMS i relation till planerat SAIDI i Vattenfalls distributionsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall Eldistribution AB is striving towards maintaining high service reliability for customers in their distribution grid. This ideally implicates that power outages cannot occur from neither unpredictable disturbances, nor as a direct result of planned work. The supervisory authority for the energy markets, The Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (Ei) regulates and limits Vattenfall’s revenue based on the key performance indicator (KPI) System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI). To improve SAIDI it is preferential using working methods causing no power outages, where the method of Live Working (AMS) is included.

    Vattenfall’s distribution grid is divided into ten contract areas where one entrepreneur, after leaving a suitable proposal, wins the solicitation process for either of these contract areas’ service agreement. A single entrepreneur (Entrepreneur A) holds all service agreements during this study’s interval (year 2016–2018). There is a high prevalence of compactly built substations today, usually built with fully insulated switchgear, which due to a lack of working clearance and cramped working spaces inhibit the prospect for AMS. A high prevalence of underground cable also inhibits AMS due to difficulties connecting bypassing units.

    A statistical evaluation and compilation of switching orders was conducted and used to determine how AMS is affected by prerequisites and limitations in relation to entrepreneurs, contract areas and substations. The number of established switching orders was 2969 during the year of 2018, of which 17,48 % were established as AMS; which is a decline since year 2016 where 22,86 % of 2616 swiching orders were established as AMS. An increase in investment projects may be a cause for this decline, due to their lower amount of AMS compared to maintenance work. Lowest SAIDI was found in Contract Area 5, 6 and 9, where further studies regarding prerequisites for AMS could be considered, with intention to implement eventual findings in areas with high SAIDI, for instance Contract Area 1 and 4.

    Vattenfall should increase cooperation and diaglogue between and themselves and solicited entrepreneurs with the aim of increasing the number of switching orders established as AMS. Entrepreneurs posess highly valuable knowledge and experience regarding risk identification and future construction possibilities. Goal cards in the service agreement could also contain KPI’s where a certain quota of AMS may entail a suitable bonus. Only 13,75 % av all unique entreprenurs conducted work using AMS year 2018. Vattenfall should research the cause for this decline and evaluate the profitability of substantially subsidizing AMS education and equipment for entrepreneurs, which could be compared to increased costs due to power interruptions from dead working (AUS), like customer notifcations and compensation.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Ida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analysis and Process improvements of Volvo Penta's process for supplier related warranty issues: with focus on the Purchasing department2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Penta is a worldwide company that provides power solutions all over the world. They aim to be the most forward thinking and customer focused supplier of sustainable power solutions. The company's core values are Quality, Safety and Environmental care.

    Volvo Penta works with quality issues found by customers in the field. The current Quality Journal (QJ) process is perceived to be slow and inefficient. For Volvo Group customer focus is important and field complaints are both expensive and damaging to the brand. The approach method to solve a QJ is the eight discipline of problem solving.

    This thesis aimed to find where in the process time is wasted and reduce the throughput time for the QJ process. To achieve this the thesis, a Case Study has been the approached methodology. A Case Study's purpose is to gain a deeper knowledge of a subject. The methods that were used to gain deeper knowledge for the subject were semi- and open interviews, workshop and internal documents and data. To secure validity and reliability of the thesis different perspectives have been taken into consideration for each method.

    The theoretical framework for this thesis has also been used to ensure validity for the study. The choice of theoretical framework for this study has been founded on Lean manufacturing tools, Agile project methods, flow within processes and group dynamics.

    DMAIC has been the structure for this thesis. DMAIC is a method that can be used to improve upon a process. It stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. The method states that to improve a process there must first be a process.

    The workshops purpose was to conduct a process- and value stream map as well as to find potential causes to why the process was perceived to be too slow. It was conducted with a cross-functional team that previously had worked in a QJ case.

    The interviews conducted for this thesis were approached in a semi-structured and opened way. This generated a lot of information that needed to be reviewed. 

    The data was to be used to find statistical and measurable conditions for the thesis. This was however not possible. The obtained data was deemed unreliable to make any conclusion from.

    The internal documents provided to this thesis have helped to get a general knowledge of how the QJ process is supposed to work. However, a lot of self-made documents have been received. They have been deemed to be unusable for this thesis since they are conducted on subjective facts. No documentation obtaining work instructions for each department has been received for this thesis.

    All methods generated potential causes to why the process did not achieve its purpose. They have been conducted in an Ishikawa cause-and-effect chart. With each approach method potential causes listed could be discarded. Eventually there were four causes left that were identified as the root causes to the problem. There was no standardized approach to QJs, lack of well formulated Key Performance Index (KPI), lack of communication tools and inefficient teams.  

    The result of the thesis is that the fundamental preconditions for improving a process were missing. It was found that there was no use to improve upon the existing QJ process, since no evident facts could be obtained that assure that the improvements would make the process more efficient.

    This thesis suggests assigning a cross-functional pilot QJ team. They will put all their focus on solving QJs and start to establish a standardized process. Making a structural change within the organization, which this thesis proposes, takes time. Full support in the entire organization is needed for this improvement to succeed. 

  • 12.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av standardiserat arbetssätt och kitlådor för montering av lågtrycksturbiner2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis has been executed at GKN Aerospace at the manufacturing department Low Pressure Turbine (LPT), also known as LPT. The thesis presents the creation of standardized working methods for the assembly of the LPTs, that are manufactured for the aircraft engines Leap 1B and Leap A/C. The standardized work has been compiled in Job Training Documents, also known as JTD. A kit box for the material that will be assembled has been designed for each model. Due to a nonexistent standard it has led to assembly failures and quality defects in the production. The existing assembly box has been inadequate for the operators and the controllers that pack the boxes which has led to longer assembly time. The purpose of this project has been to assure the quality of the work through creating standardized work instructions. The design of the kit box has been executed in order to organize the details of the assembly in a certain structure to facilitate for the operators and controllers. An operation description with course of action was provided and used as a basis for the design of the JTDs in order not to risk deviating from the existing method. Interviews and observations of operators and controllers have also been used for the JTDs and the design of the kit boxes. Kit boxes was reused from another department and assortment boxes was sorted and structured inside in two different sizes. These were coded with different colors, marked and fitted to the size and quantity of the material so that every piece that is being assembled has its own place. The JTDs and the kit boxes was made in two versions to adapt to the assembly of both Leap 1B and Leap A/C. The boxes were tested in the production and the JTDs was reviewed of the operators before signature was made. All of the operators were not interviewed and observed as planned because of the unplanned stops in the production. The shape of the kit box was limited because the existing boxes were reused. From the results that has been developed the goals for this thesis including creating standardized work instructions and design of a kit box to organize all the pieces has been achieved.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Kristian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jason, Evelina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beskrivning och vidareutveckling av en modell för beräkning av övertoners fördelning i distributionsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to describe and develop a model used to determine demand permissions regarding power quality on behalf of Vattenfall Distribution. The purpose of the model is to calculate the level of current harmonics allowed for different types of energy subscriptions by studying how harmonics spread in a power grid and how subscribers affect each other. This model needs to be described seeing that the documentation of the original model was lacking. The model also needs to be further developed to increase the flexibility and its ease of use.

    Harmonics are a phenomenon that occurs on the power grid and are generated by non-linear loads like EV-chargers and photovoltaic systems. If the harmonic distortion level is too high, grid connected electronics can experience issues or stop working.

    There are a number of standards, reports and regulations regarding emission rights considering harmonics. This report summarizes three of these as a background to how emissions are regulated today (2018). Two of these papers focus on voltage harmonics levels which is also the case for Vattenfall Distributions governing documents. Vattenfall Distribution needs to develop a new method to determine these current harmonics emission levels, and the model is a part of that process.

    A thorough analysis and mapping of the model were made to produce the documentation for the model. The model was then further developed to allow for more flexibility and could be simplified compared to the original model.

    The original model is considered to fulfil its purpose and therefore no structural changes have been made. The changes that have been made have been implemented to make the model as flexible and user friendly as possible. To help the user to understand the model, a flowchart was made to describe the structure and internal workings of the model.

    The authors believe that a thorough and detailed documentation of the model has been produced and that the model fulfills the purpose of producing representative values to determine demand permissions regarding power quality. The model has been restructured and is now perspicuous and easy to use. However the result from the model is highly dependent of the input data and it's important that it is of good quality.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Markus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Säkerhetsanalys av interna IT-säkerheten på ett mellanstort företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about a security analysis of a company's use of IT and their internal network security. The company is a midsized with about 100 employees and half of them use IT in their daily work. The company is active within industrial manufacturing and is located in western Swe-den. They want to develop in IT and are curious about how secure their network is today.

    A review of the layer 2 network security and computers used in the daily work was performed and evaluated. Anonymous interview of employees were made to find out how IT is used at work. A risk analysis was filled in by the responsible employees at the company to get an overview of how they think about risks and vulnerabilities in the use of IT. All this was done to bring recommendations to the company about how they can improve their security compared to what it is today.

    The results from the analysis of the network indicates weaknesses in the layer 2 security and that no security features are currently used to stop attacks from the inside of the net-work. The company has no high demands on the network or the security on the in-side but has given priority to flexibility and physical security.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Rebecka
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av styrdokument för elanläggningsinnehavare2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A control plan is a document that makes the maintenance work more efficient. These documents can for instance be used on a power plant to maintain routines and inspections on the electrical equipment. It is the plant owner's responsibility to ensure that the plant and its associated equipment is checked continuously to ensure the safety of the plant. The frequency of the inspections and what needs to be checked is not mentioned in any laws or regulations. It is thereby up to the owner to decide the ranges and the need of which inspections that are implemented on the plant. This study has been made to simplify the decisions that the owner must take when developing the routine and inspection plans.

    The developed control plan is taken from literary studies and two interviews from two separate companies. Through a comparative study data has been produced that describes what should be performed during a visual inspection and functional controls on a power plant. The study is limited to equipment that is generally occurring in a restricted access area. The produced result is two control documents – one for patrols and one for functional controls. The documents show what type of inspection that should be performed during a control, while the report describes how often these routines should be implemented. The time intervals are produced from a comparison of four companies' routines. Two of the companies has been interviewed while intern documents at two other companies have been reviewed.

    The study has given insight into the inspections that are implemented in a restricted access area and the responsibility that power plant owners have on the plant. The sources are considered relevant to the study and the interviews have been made with persons that possess knowledge in the field of study.

  • 16.
    Augustsson,, Jimmy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Printz, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Svensson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Larmanalys för Vattenfall Vattenkrafts produktionsanläggningar längs Göta Älv2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall Vattenkraft AB owns 57 large scale hydro power plants in Sweden with installed power exceeding 10 MW. The study relates to four of the plants located along Göta river. This report analyzes incidents and the related remedial actions that have occurred during the period 2014 – 2017 as well as the alarm and control systems with the aim to identify potential improvements. The incidents are categorized by error, what actions have been undertaken to correct the issue, plant and season. The incidents have predominately originated in the turbine and generator facilities and have been caused by abnormal levels or temperatures. During summer and winter time, this is mainly due to variation in temperature and flow in the river. The four plants have caused a similar amount of alarms, which is interesting as there is a large variation in age. The analysis does not identify any reoccurring issues which were previously unknown to the company, but the authors recommends that an investigation is conducted to assess if eel screens should be installed for the cooling pumps of Lilla Edet. The alarms are generated in the plants and are sent to the control facility in Bispgården near Sundsvall, where the operator calls the local engineer on duty in Trollhättan. The engineer subsequently goes to the plant to access detailed information on the incidents from the local computers. This report examines the possibility to provide the engineer on duty with detailed information from the plant computer via VPN. This would be possible to implement but would require a detailed assessment of the security implications. The status of the alarm system have also been assessed as it have been modified and extended retroactively, and there is currently no comprehensive overview. The conclusion is that a review of the list of incident codes and their priority is recommended.

  • 17.
    Augustsson, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mansori, Farsad
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Skapande av dynamiskt modellnät för analys av lasters beteenden vid nätstörningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis is carried out on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution AB in Trollhättan. This work aims to make modelling of power grids for simulations, of load behaviour during perturbations, in PSS/E more effective. Modelling will be made more effective by means of programming, using the programming language Python, and also by allowing certain assumptions to be made about the grid. The idea for this work arose from a certain case, during which Vattenfall was tasked with investigating why voltage levels near an industry would not recover after a short circuit, on the transmission line feeding the industry, was cleared. Investigations demanded simulations of the disturbance to be carried out in PSS/E, to describe what had happened. To enable simulation and to make it representative, the grid and its components must be adequately modelled. Svenska kraftnät has the data nessecary for such modelling, but it is inaccessible due to confidentiality. Due to the data being confidential extensive work with modelling was nessecary. Early simulations were based on the idea that some parts of the grid can be modelled using only simplified models, and with typical, or default, values. This thesis uses that hypothesis in the programming code. The low voltage after these perturbations were caused by motors, more specifically induction motors, drawing high currents from the grid during reacceleration when the voltage starts to recover after the perturbation. This high, and mostly reactive, current causes significant voltage drops across the lines and transformers, in turn causing other motors to draw more current and further lowering voltage. The programming code, called a script, developed during this work allows the user to quickly create dynamic model data to use when conducting simulations of the dynamic behaviour of this type of loads. Modelling of the generators is done quickly thanks to the assumption that generators are located far enough away that they are barely affected by the studied disturbance. They are, for this reason, modelled using typical values. Through a graphical interface, the user then select which loads to model. For each load model, the distribution across different types of loads is specified by the user. Finally, protection relays are modelled to enable current monitoring. The script has been tested by comparisons to a reference network model created by Vattenfall. The comparisons show minor deviation between the script and the reference. This could be because the script uses default values and models less components than the reference.

  • 18.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Olsson, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Utvärdering av olika dynamiska lastmodeller i PSS/E2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis has been performed for Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. The purpose of this work has been to create understanding of dynamic load models and clarify how they function and how they can be used. The aim has been to perform simulations on short circuits and motor starts for two different load models. A part of the work is also to describe the basic principles of the induction motor to create a connection between simulation and theory. The theory of the induction motor contains information about the electric induction that is the basic principle of the induction machine. It also contains the correlations between torque, speed, current and voltage and also a description of the equivalent electric circuit. The IMD program is a program connected to PSS/E and it has been used to create the model for the induction motor that has been used for the simulations. The simulations have been based on instructions from the advisor and instructions from the PSS/E manuals. Simulations have been run with two of the built-in load models in PSS/E, one general load model and one model for induction motors. Short circuits have been simulated on both models and motor starts on the induction motor model. Short circuits have been simulated with two different fault durations 0.15 and 0.4 seconds. Motor starts have been simulated with two different transformer sizes 1.5 and 3.0 MVA and three different values of the inertia time constant 0.7, 1.0 and 1.5 MWs/MVA. At short circuit the fault duration causes larger currents and longer recovery times for both load models. At motor start the size of the transformer, in MVA, and the inertia time constant affects the motors starting time. Larger transformer means shorter time because of lesser drop in voltage. A larger inertia time constant means longer time.  If only the size of the voltage drop is of interest and not the course of the event, the motors start admittance can be used instead.

  • 19.
    Basaran, Hüsnücan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    El Labaki, Jonathan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Byggprojektledning: att strukturera upp projektledares tillvägagångssätt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor's thesis of 15 credits was carried out in Vara municipality after the property manager stated a need. The task was to standardize the project managers' approach in terms of management and structure, and to improve the possibility of new recruitments and takeovers of existing projects. With the help of interviews, it was identified that the project managers worked in different ways without tools to support structuring and managing their projects.

    In order to be able to answer how the problem image could be sorted out, the writers designed a content for a manual that the project managers could use. By following the contents of the manual, the project managers are expected to be able to more easily manage and structure their projects. As a result of a standardized work method, new recruitments and takeover of projects are also expected to be simplified.

    The introductory chapter of the bachelor's thesis describes how the background to the work looked, as well as the purpose, goal and delimitation.

    The second chapter describes the writers' method for designing the work that followed a scientific starting point.

    The third chapter consists of the writers' theory sections that were needed to create an understanding of how the actual construction process and the project management process could look. This chapter was used as a knowledge base to be able to make decisions about the contents of the manual.

    With the help of interviews and meetings at the municipality, a current situation analysis was formed, which is presented in chapter four. The current situation analysis was used as a basis for designing the contents of the manual.

    In the fifth chapter, the contents of the manual are described using a presented result as well as discussion and analysis of why the content was necessary for the project managers to follow.

    Finally, in the sixth chapter, a conclusion is drawn about how the purpose of the degree project should be fulfilled and a future recommendation for continued work in the subject area.

  • 20.
    Bassem Yehia, Khaled
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Abdowod,, Vahab
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analys av indikatorerna AIT, AIF, SAIDI och SAIFI i lokalnätet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (EI) is a regulatory authority for electricity, district heating and natural gas, where one of their tasks is to control the company's power distribution quality. A good electrical delivery reliability is determined on the basis of EI:s regulations and general advice in the publication EIFS 2013:1.

    Every year, the power distribution companies reports data to EI of the disturbances they have had in their networks, which is used to measure and analyse the electrical delivery reliability in the Swedish electricity grid. EI uses established indicators that describe the electrical delivery reliability of the distribution networks in Sweden. The indicators used today are named SAIDI and SAIFI, which are customer-weighted indices that describe the average interruption duration and the average interruption frequency for a specific network.

    In the beginning of 2019, EI will consider introducing two indicators to replace the current SAIDI and SAIFI indices, the indicators are being defined as AIT and AIF. According to EI, these indicators will be better than SAIDI and SAIFI as they take into consideration the customer's expected power consumption during the power outage.

    The purpose of this report is to investigate how the new indicators AIT and AIF affects the delivery reliability indicators in GENAB:s network, where these indicators are exercised on different types of networks and then compared. How the network can be made more efficient in the future by means of automation in the network is investigated based on the results on the indicators.

    From the results and investigations, it can be concluded that the transition to AIT and AIF will result in an increase of the indicator´s interruption time and the number of interruptions for customers per year in GENAB:s network.

  • 21.
    Beissinger Bart, Andres
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Soto Vallejos, Nicolas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av kabelnät i området Sjöhaga - Lerdala Gård2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis describes a preparation work for Ellevio AB. The preparation work is supposed to rebuild the power grid in Sjöhaga - Lerdala in Skövde municipality with the aim to weatherproofing the local area network and increase the reliability. The project concerns all work on preparation such as contact with authorities and landowners involved in the project, in order to agree on where the new cables can be built. Field visits were conducted continuously during the project for an overview of the area and to plan possible cable stretches, as well as the best possible location for the network stations in agreement with the landowners. The preparation of the underground cable is carried out in four parts, part one is Sjöhaga - Melldala, part two is Melldala - Karlsfors, part three is Karlsfors - Dämman and part four is Dämman – Lerdala Farm. Part one will have a serial satellite network station with a 200kVA transformer and no local network preparation will take place at this stage. In part two Karlsfors will keep its current local distribution network and network station, part three will have an ELIT3 network station fitted with a 100kVA transformer. For part four, there will be an ELIT3 network station with 100kVA transformer and three cable cabinets. In addition to these parts, the possibility for a redundancy feeding between Karlsfors - Yttersöra was investigated. However, when this was perceived as not possible due to the environmental conditions, it was decided, on the recommendation of a supervisor at PSN Kraftkonsult, to be placed between Dämman - Björnsäter with a overhead cable on existing poles. The cost of the renewal amounts to 2.6 million SEK and 449 thousand SEK for the redundancy from Dämman to Björnsäter. Network stations are positioned in Melldala, Dämman and Lerdala Farm which also has three cable cabinets. The total cable length of the HV-system is 6.5 km and the LV-system is 1.70 km.

  • 22.
    Ben Mabrouk, Amina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Maalallah, Mustafa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utvecklingsarbete gällande metoder för beräkning av bortkopplad last vid automatisk förbrukningsfrånkoppling2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall Eldistribution wishes to compile in real time which load that is available for disconnection via AFK (Load shedding) to avoid network collapse. This is done by implementing methods on Vattenfall's operating system to get an estimation of the load available for disconnection when AFK is activated.

    The purpose of the work is to create a summarized measurement value which, in real time, indicates how much load is available for disconnection with AFK in Vattenfall's network. This is to ensure that Vattenfall Eldistribution meets the requirements of SvKFS 2012: 1 during all hours of the year.

    The work is divided into two parts; one part to produce useful methods for obtaining the desired measurement values and another part for the implementation that has taken place in Vattenfall's operating system. These goals have been achieved by carrying out analyses and calculations of approximately one hundred stations containing AFK equipment that are located in three different zones in the electricity area SE3.

    Results are presented through a final overview, which is a fictitious picture of how it looks after implementation based on the methods developed in Vattenfall's operating system. In the resulting overview image, each station containing the AFK equipment is presented with a sum of the available active power for disconnection and each station is located under respective disconnection step.

  • 23.
    Bengtsson, Carl
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Franklin, Jesper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utväxlingssystem för testanordning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New electric motors and drivelines are constantly being developed to progress with faster and more efficient electric cars. To match the growing industry it may be necessary to use existing equipment in new ways. NEVS have been requested to test electric motors with speeds up to 20 000 rpm, which they are currently not able to perform. The goal of the thesis work is to produce the foundation for an adapter system that will use the existing equipment in NEVS test cell TR6 to test directly driven electric machines with speeds up to 20 000 rpm.

    In the methods section the limitations and demands are presented in which customer needs and relevant components are depicted to serve as a foundation for the development process. Included in the development method is for example a literature study, internal and external idea generation and concept selection matrices.

    The result section describes the result of each section in the method and details the specifications of the suggested adapter system. The result section depicts the theoretical maximal load and performance of the dimensioning components and presents a concept for a complete system.

    In the discussion section relevant components, aspects of the development process and the result of the thesis work are discussed. The conclusion is that the system concept satisfies the customer needs and is a possible option to expand on TR6's test range.

  • 24.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kvalitetsarbete inom mätteknik med FARO-arm2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis has been performed at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Trollhättan. The company manufactures combustors for gas turbines. The purpose of the work has been to investigate whether qualified measurements can be performed with Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB's measuring instruments. This study has been performed through a measurement system analysis. The purpose has also been to investigate whether it is possible to introduce statistical process control for a detail.

    To carry out this study, the study designs case study and action research have been used. The case study has been for the measurement system analysis because it concerned a specific case that has been analyzed. Action research has been used to investigate statistical process management since the survey has been part of planning work for the introduction of an improvement. Measurements on a gauge block with known dimensions have also been made. The measurements were compiled in an Excel sheet and analyzed in Minitab. Then a VMEA was performed.

    Analysis of the measurements made it clear that the operators vary in both repeatability and reproducibility. The measuring instrument has proved to be stable and not a basis for variation. The study on implementation of statistical process control has shown that it is not possible to be introduced because the measurement results are too unstable. This leads to the company having to review its measurement methods to achieve a reduced spread of the measurement results. That the study has not used enough measuring objects for a statistically correct result should be emphasized. Consideration should therefore be taken that the result of the study is not entirely reliable, but rather indicate that it is a probable result that has emerged. Suggestions that have emerged during the study is:

    • The details are placed indoors long enough before they are measured.

    • The company introduces a separate, customized room for measuring the details.

    • The company reviews the work methodology for the measurements.

    • The company updates work instructions for measurements.

    • The company introduces measurement training for operators.

    What has not been made is the actual introduction and making of user data for statistical process control. This is because the measurement results have a too great variation for the use of SPS.

  • 25.
    Bengtsson, Victor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Svantesson, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Teknisk och ekonomisk analys av svetsmetoden HF-TIG i Ti-6Al-4V2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB belongs to one of the four divisions within GKN and has most of its operations in Trollhättan, where development, manufacturing and maintenance are performed on components for jet engines. GKN is more than 250 years old and has nearly 60 000 employees, of whom approximately 2 200 works in Trollhättan.

    The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the high frequency tungsten inert gas (HF-TIG) welding method technically and economically for potential future implementation in GKN's production. The hope is that the welding method can contribute to a more stable manufacturing process with fewer delays and reduced quality deficiency costs on the product XWB-ICC (Xtra Wide Body – Intermediate Compressor Case), where today conventional TIG welding is applied. The existing welding method creates deviations in the quality of certain weld joints due to high thermal impact, and according to previous studies, HF-TIG should have a lower thermal impact on the material compared to conventional TIG welding. The project group, in consultation with the supervisors at GKN and University West, has delineated the work to titanium plates with 1.5mm thickness which has been welded "bead-on-plate" without filler material during the experiments.

    Literature studies in HF-TIG, design of experiments, investment assessment and quality deficiency costs have combined with welding experiments, data collection, measurement of results and meetings with staff at GKN contributed to good knowledge of HF-TIG technical and economic impact on GKN. This has been evaluated and compiled to be able to report a technical and financial result for a potential future implementation.

    In the study's design of experiment, the tip angle of the electrode, frequency, balance and the relationship between background current and peak current have been selected as factors to be investigated. The result shows that all factors affect the measured welding results in one way or another. This provides an understanding of the welding process and indicates which factors can reduce costs, caused by lack of quality.

    In conclusion, project participants together with GKN supervisors estimated a 25% reduction of quality deficiency costs for five specific welds on XWB-ICC. The result shows that an implementation of HF-TIG is economically profitable for GKN.

  • 26.
    Berggren, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Engevik, Hampus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av en båtstol med stötdämpningsegenskaper2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for a shock absorbing boat seat for power-driven leisure boats. The concept will be presented in the form of a CAD model and proposals for materials and components. The work is a product development project and is carried out on behalf of Segula Technologies. The company believes that there is a great potential for shock absorption seats in the leisure boat market. In order to reach the wide market, an important requirement is that the shock absorption function is integrated into the seat and not in the pedestal. This is because the seat will be able to mount on existing pedestals and still fulfill its function.

    To establish a requirement specification for the seat, a market survey has been conducted. The market survey has included visiting the boat fair in Gothenburg to study the types of seats available on the market and to speak with various experts. Internet searches have also been conducted to identify what types of boat seats are available on the market. A literature search in the field of ergonomics has been made to clarify how a seat should be designed. Laws and requirements regarding boat seats have also been investigated.

    Following the market survey, a specification could be established in consultation with the company. When generating concepts, brainstorming, brainwriting and patent investigation have been the most important methods of inspiration. Brainstorming and brainwriting have been performed a number of occasions with experts in different areas. For example, a former employee at Ullman, a world-leading company in shock absorbing boat seats.

    The definitive concept is a bucket type boat seat. This means that the seat is designed so that the armrests are integrated with the backrest. In this way, the chair also allows lateral support. The chair consists of an injection molded plastic frame with glued on cold foam. Cold foam is a common material uses as a cushion in armchairs to increase comfort. The chair's clothing is made of artificial leather, a material suitable for marine environments as it is both UV-resistant and water resistant. The shock absorption consists of an air bellows, four sliding bearings and two attachment plates in acid-proof steel. To protect the components and eliminate the risk of clamping, the shock absorber is covered with a rubber bellows. The device is mounted between the seat and the boat pedestal.

    The final concept is theoretical only and has not been tested in practice. If the company chooses to proceed with the concept, it is recommended that a prototype be prepared to perform proper tests.

  • 27.
    Bjernstrand, Carl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förstudie inför uppförande av laddstationer för elbilar på personalparkering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years electric cars has increased in numbers, this increase is expected to continue in the coming years. With an increasing number of electric cars, more charging stations are required. Arctic paper Munkedals AB intends to construct charging stations for charging electric cars, primarily for visitors to the factory. There are several parking spaces for employees located next to the factory, and one parking space for visitors. Approximately 120 of the parking lots for the employees has access to sockets for block heaters. To reduce the investment cost, it is beneficial to connect the intended charging stations to the existing installation for the block heaters. The pilot study includes a compilation of data for the existing installation of the block heaters. Based on the compiled data the maximum current load for the existing cables has been calculated, the result of the calculations shows that in 2 centrals it is possible to switch to a higher fuse. The report explains generally about how electric cars and charging stations work. Products from a selection of suppliers that are considered relevant for this work, are described. Solutions and costs have been developed based upon 2 scenarios, where either the existing centrals for block heaters is replaced with charging stations or remains according to current version. The solutions are covered by the parking space next to the 40kV switchgear and a charging station on the parking lots for visitors. Essential for both solutions are the load balancing system, which enables a larger number of charging stations that otherwise wouldn’t be possible regarding to the dimensions of the existing installation. Of the 2 reported alternatives for the construction of charging stations, alternative 2 where the existing block heaters are replaced with charging stations are considered most suitable to proceed with. With this alternative 15 charging stations can be installed to a total cost of approx. 525 kkr. Because of the scalability of the solution, it is recommended to make the installation of the charging stations in stages as the need arises. This means that statistics for the charging stations can be compiled and analyzed to provide a good basis for further expansion. By carrying out the expansion in stages, the total cost will be distributed over time. Initially this means the construction of 1 charging station for visitors to a cost of approx. 110 kkr.

  • 28.
    Bonilla Hernández, Ana Esther
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Fredriksson, Claes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Energy and Cost Estimation of a Feature-based Machining Operation on HRSA2017In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 61, no Supplement C, p. 511-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forward-looking manufacturing companies aim for sustainable production with low environmental footprint. This is true also for aerospace engine-makers, although their environmental impact mostly occurs during the use-phase of their products. Materials, such as Nickel alloys, are used for special applications where other materials will not withstand tough working conditions in terms of pressure and temperature. Heat Resistant Super Alloys are, however, considered difficult to machine and cutting tools will wear off rapidly. In this paper, a simple way to estimate the energy required, the cost and environmental footprint to produce a work piece using standard engineering software is presented. The results show that for a hypothetical 3 tonne work piece, Inconel 718 will be considerably cheaper and require less water but will require more energy, and has considerably larger CO2 footprint than Waspaloy.

  • 29.
    Boonnak Jacobsen, Linnfaa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nord, Linda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ett konfigurationsverktyg för Plug & Produce2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for fast and flexible production is increasing every year. Today's automated systems are not effective enough and do not meet the demands. University West is trying to develop a system to increase the level of automation and the efficiency of a production system. University West's framework for Plug & Produce is based on MAS (multi-agent system). One problem with systems based on MAS is the complexity of the configuration. The purpose of this work is to develop a user interface for a configuration tool to Plug & Produce. The user interface should simplify the configuration process of the system which is currently configured by programming in C#.

    Guidelines for how the user interface should be designed and which semantics to use have been reviewed through literature studies. Since the Plug & Produce system should be able to be applied in different industries, has semantics been an important part of the work. This is because generality is a requirement for the user interface.

    The result presents the design of the user interface and the semantic words that have been studied. The design is a proposal for University West to how they can develop the user interface for the configuration tool.

    Discussion of the methods and the validity of the results generated by these methods are presented in section for discussion. Problems encountered are also presented here.

    What the authors believe that the thesis has contributed to is described in the conclusion. The authors also provide recommendations for further work in that section.

  • 30.
    Borgljung, Karl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptframtagning av fixtur för mekanisk provning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a time frame of 10 weeks a bachelor’s thesis, by the institution of engineer by University West, has been made with the task of designing and dimensioning a concept proposal for a fixture to be used in mechanical testing for PTC, Production technical centrum. The guidelines for this project are that the fixture shall work with two different machines that are at PTC: s disposal. The fixture is supposed to be able to do tensile-, flexureand compact tension tests For this, a requirement specification has been set up, were interviews with two research groups have been done to assess their needs. Based on the requirements, different concept proposals have been sketched and compared against each other to find an optimal solution. This has resulted in a fixture that meets the given requirements from the reserachsgroups, relevant standards and directives for mechanical testing.

  • 31.
    Bräck Nordman, Natalie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning av Uddevalla Energis elnätskapacitet med avseende på Uddevalla kommuns framtida utbyggnadsplaner i centrum2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This preliminary study has been carried out at the department for operation and maintenance at Uddevalla Energi. The purpose has been to investigate the capacity of the powerlines with regards to Uddevalla Council's future development plans in the port and to identify strong and weak points.

    During a future 25-year period, Uddevalla Council plans to gradually expand the city center towards the harbor area, which today consists of industries and business facilities. The council estimates that the new district will be able to provide 3000 new homes and various types of businesses. The time frame for the exploitation plans are 5-15 years for the southern side of Bäveån and 20-25 years for the northern side. In order to investigate whether there is available power for the additional district, a load forecast is made of the future power requirement. A survey and analysis is made of the lines in central Uddevalla and the transformers of the substations M1, M2 and M5. This is made in order to be able to investigate whether any reinforcement is needed. Reference the values used in the calculations are based on measured values from the peak of load on February 28, 2018.

    The expected power requirement for the planned residential areas is estimated at 4.9 MVA for the south side and 5.1 MVA for the north side.  The cable network in the port has a total capacity of 7 MVA and will be almost saturated after the southern area’s construction is completed. With regard to redundancy, all substations are able to supply an additional residential area on the south side alone, while only M1 has the capacity for the entire forecasted load. The transformers in M2 and M5 will be overloaded only during the development of the residential area on the north side. To the future expansion of the city center, suggestions for placement of three new lines from M1 are made. In connection with the installation, most of M1-L206 can be replaced, which consists of undersized oil cables. The cost for this amounts to 10,3 million (SEK).

    Another future option that would have to be investigated more closely is how the possibilities are to place a new substation in central or southern Uddevalla. The existing ones are located in the northern, western and eastern parts of the city.

  • 32.
    Börjesson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av landsbygdsnät i Hassle, Mariestad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with how preparation work is accomplished in rural networks, by field work, landowner contact, contracts and permit applications. The described preparation work is the basis for the implementation of the project from Ellevio AB.  The reconstruction is performed in order to secure the voltage and get a more weatherproofed network, but also to get rejuvenation of the network. The preparation work is done for PSN Kraftkonsult Eldistribution AB in Vedum and performed using their working methods. The preparation work is performed in the area of Hassle north of the town Mariestad. The project is divided into two interim stages. Stage one is called Hassle sub-station – Källtorp and the second one is Fåleberg – Nolhassle. These two stages are parts of one large reconstruction of the distribution network in the area by Ellevio AB in the near time. Due to the fact that a major rebuilding project of the E20 in the affected area the projector’s intended rout for the cable had to be changed. And it became 1100 m further. The result of the preparation work includes two new 10/04 kV substations, one new cable cabinet, 5850 meters of high-voltage cable and 500 meters low-voltage cable. All the cables will be placed in the ground and for the most they will be plowed down. Substations and cable cabinets will be placed strategically to create the strongest network as possible and for good availability for future maintenance.

  • 33.
    Capriles, Claudia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning av kommunala utvecklingsplaner gällande laddinfrastruktur för elbilar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden aims to be completely fossil free by 2030. Politicians want to reduce fossil fuel cars while expanding the charging infrastructure for electric cars. The ownership of electric cars has increased by 73% in the last year. The charging infrastructure is increasing and now there are over 3,500 charging points in Sweden. It's possible to apply for investment support through State owned Klimatklivet, which offers financial support up to 50% of the cost of building new charging stations.

    The purpose is to investigate and compare different municipalities' plans regarding the development of charging stations for electric cars, and to compare their methods, strategies and infrastructure. The purpose is also to see which municipalities cooperate with each other and in what way.

    In order to investigate and compare the charging infrastructure in Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö, Borås and Trollhättan, interviews were conducted with those in charge of these selected municipalities.

    The result shows that the larger municipalities such as Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö have come quite a long way with the charging infrastructure issue, while the smaller municipalities haven't come as far in their development. The larger municipalities have staff who work with the issue and they have major projects in progress, which will be completed by 2018. Stockholm is moving ahead and is expanding their charging infrastructure onto city street buildings and residential neighborhood areas, while Malmö and Gothenburg are more careful and want to prioritize residential neighborhood areas over city streets as they want to continue giving precedence to bicycle- and bus lanes. The laws are the same but are interpreted differently. Common to all is that they often see legislation as an obstacle. Besides Stockholm, the other municipalities don't really know how to proceed. They don't know how to plan for- or who is responsible for developing the charging infrastructure.

    This is a new area which means that most municipalities are still trying to find their model. Better cooperation between municipalities could mean faster and more cost-effective development.

  • 34.
    Cirkic, Aldin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Qaljaee, Ali
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av motoriserad vertikal linjärenhet för kontinuerlig drift2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work has been carried out with the purpose of developing and defining a motorized vertical linear actuator for continuous operation. In the present situation, the company does not haves a linear actuator that is capable of 1600 millimeters stroke with a load of 100 kilograms. The goal of the thesis is to present a final conceptual solution through a product development process. Software programming or electronics development is available within the company to define the function, which has been considered as a demarcation.

    The project's method is a general product development process. The first step was to establish a project plan. By identifying the client's requirements the specification could be developed which has transferred into a QFD. The next step was to develop different solutions using external and internal search methods and choose a final concept. To ensure that the final concept is safe, two different risk analyzes have been created. The concept was demonstrated in a CAD software and then different calculations and FEM analyzes were performed. The final conceptual solution turned out to be a motorized linear actuator. To make the load weightless, a pneumatic cylinder has been introduced into the system. The positioning of the weight is carried by a ball screw which is driven by a belt and a stepper motor.

    The result of calculations and analyzes of machine elements showed that the device has a theoretical service life of at least 10,000 hours. The developed conceptual solution meets the goal of establishing a final concept for a linear actuator that can handle a stroke of 1600 millimeters with a load of 100 kilograms.

  • 35.
    Dahlberg, Vincent
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utvidga försäljning till marknader2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company for which the work is done is Swedish and has about 50 employees in two locations. They offer safe transport solutions for pets in cars which are meant to protect pet, human and the vehicle in a collision. Among the products that they produce are dog transport carriers with a patent solution related to safety. This makes the dog transport carriers unique on the market and therefore compared to competitors, a fairly high price is set by the company. The company does not sell the carriers directly to consumers, sales go through retailers. Sales are mostly done in Scandinavia but there are small sales to Europe, Australia and North America. Managers within the company express a wish to expand the sales and in this case to the European markets of France, Italy and Spain. There is low knowledge so far about these markets due to language difficulties and low priority.

    Managers gave a student from University West the job to plot the markets France, Italy and Spain.

    Through collected theories about company's dog transport carriers and way of doing business, a number of questions where formulated to plot the markets. The questions were answered mostly through online research and resulted in a sheet of information about each market. Result was overall information about each market:

    • Culture

    • Competitors

    • Economy

    • Consumers

    • Channels

    Result showed that the highest purchase power in France is located to big cities, along the coastline and eastern part of the country. Highest purchase power in Italy and Spain are located to the northern parts of the countries. The result generated the customer areas within each country that might be interested in purchasing a dog transport carrier.

    The information about the markets were analyzed between themselves and in some cases with Sweden as a reference. The analyze showed pros and cons with the markets according to the company's dog transport carriers and way of doing business.

  • 36.
    Darefelt, Kristina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Vidén, Filip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Projekthantering hos Vattenfall Eldistribution AB jämfört med andra nätbolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work has been carried out on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the improvement potential of the design process in the optimization department, with the aim of being able to provide suggestions for improvement of the process which ultimately can lead to a more efficient project flow. It is perceived in the department that there are non-value-creating activities at work that should be reviewed. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the process, the group has performed a network design according to the working process. The purpose of the work was to increase the electrical quality of the abonnee fields. Upon completion of the project, electricity quality could be increased for all customers in the area. For all subscribers except for one were the agreed limit values was within Vattenfall's guidelines. To make a comparison with other ways of working, a study inspired by benchmarking has been conducted at different network companies. Based on the analysis, data has been collected through qualitative interviews. The interviews have been recorded and transcribed. The material has since been sorted and analyzed using a qualitative data matrix. Following the interviews conducted, it was found that the working methods of the various companies largely resemble each other. However, some differences in the performance and view of economic calculations and key ratios could be observed. Differences can also be seen in the size of initiated projects. All participants in the benchmarking study stated that they overall are satisfied with the work process. Analysis of the collected material showed that for some aspects of the work process there is an improvement potential. After completion of work, the conclusion could be drawn that there are some elements in the process that contribute to non-value creation. This has been shown in the form of activities in which any form of forced interruption occurs in the process. Improving or eliminating these steps should provide a more efficient workflow. The management of calculations and key ratios is one of these factors. Proposals were made to clarify the information about the purpose and use of these for employees. Even the shortcomings found in the design tools can contribute to a slower process flow. For these, no proposals for improvement could have been provided, but it was still considered important to emphasize these inadequacies.  

  • 37.
    Dawid, Michael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tidseffektivisering av materialflöden och materialhantering inför produktion2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As competition increases in markets, it is important to use resources efficiently. Santa Maria, which is currently Northern Europe's largest flavoring company, has identified a need to review the material handling and material flow before production at Spice Factory in Mölndal.

    The study conducted at Spice Factory, is a qualitative study made by Michael Dawid from University West. The aim of the study is to present improvement proposals that lead to a material flow before production, which is 20% more time-efficient than the material flow before production at present. The approach is based on the steps taken during a change work. A state analysis is established to get a clear picture of how the flow looks like today. Data collection methods in the study consisted of interviews, benchmarking, observations and literature studies. Then, improvement proposals is presented.

    The improvement proposals presented are zone storage as well as orderly storage at the production buffer. With the help of key figures in the form of throughput times, a time study have been made, to compare the flow times for the material flow at present and with implemented improvement proposals. The time study showed that the material flow with implemented improvement proposals had a shorter throughput time. When implementing the improvement proposals in the material flow, the goal of the study to create a material flow before process that is 20% more efficient, is reached according to the time study.

    In future work, Santa Maria is recommended to apply the improvement proposals among the other process flows at Spice Factory, to create more standardized processes, which creates the basis to work actively with improving all process flows at Spice Factory.

  • 38.
    Degermosse, Christoffer
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Emil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Upprätta en standard för vibrationsmätning i provrum2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Penta is a manufacturer of complete propulsion systems used in yachts and larger ships, besides the propulsion systems they also produce so-called gensets. A genset combines a combustion engine with an electric generator to induce electricity. Volvo have gotten indications of that their gensets in some cases might produce too much vibrations during full loads, therefore they want to investigate the possibility to include vibrational tests of gensets when they are produced. This thesis aims to define a standard which Volvo can use to measure vibrations on the gensets. Within this thesis it should also be assigned how Volvo should align the test equipment, define the tolerances of vibrations for the gensets, define a test routine for each vibration test, create job descriptions to the equipment and evaluate which risks that is involved during vibrational measurements. Several vibrational measurements were made during this project to acquire knowledge about vibrations, their measurement and the equipment. All data that was recorded during these measurements were later saved to an Excel datasheet as a beginning to database for their continued work, these have also been programmed to switch between different colors depending on what value enters a specific cell, the color depends on whether the value exceed the tolerances or not. Vibration measurements have been made upon three different engine sizes, D5, D13 and D16 which depends on that those were the most frequency produced within period of this project. The vibration measurements gave quite different results from one to another which could be backtracked to depend on them being of different specifications. The measurements did also fail to be accurate in some cases because of the gensets being places in different way upon the concrete floor. Every data value that followed from the vibration measurements have been checked to follow the tolerances given by ISO 8528-9. The thesis brings up several bullets with instructions regarding how to install the measure equipment and how to use the software Dewesoft X1. The bullets have been tested by personnel at Volvo to reduce the risk of them including steps that could be misunderstood. The standards have been defined with the help of the people who are going to use them, which is important according to the Lean methodology. During this project, there have been some mistakes done with the vibrations measurements and other problems that have occurred, those have been declared within the thesis. This is done to help Volvo Penta from doing the same errors and thereby eliminate waste of time and money. There is also included one chapter which declares some of the authors thought of what Volvo should do in their further work with vibrational measurements. The thesis includes a chapter for analysis whether Volvo should investigate if the vibration measurements is affected by the gensets being tested within a controlled environment. At Vara the gensets are placed upon a concrete floor while they usually are placed with some vibration dampening material in between the genset and its placement when it has reached the client. The final conclusions are based on two methods where Volvo themselves need to decide over which one to pick. The first one is that Volvo could do single samples at some gensets and thereby doesn’t need to make any further investments regarding measure equipment. The other method is to start measure every genset that’s is produces and save the data to be able to backtrack if the client makes a complaint regarding vibrations. The data could then also be used as support for new product development or quality control, the second method however is associated with large investments. Regardless of which one Volvo is going to choose, it is recommended that Volvo makes a larger amount of vibrational measurements before doing the final choice. This is recommended since Volvo needs a larger statistical basis, they could then rely on the average values and standard deviation to make up their own tolerances.

  • 39.
    Einarsson, Linus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Fixtur till 30k TEC: Konceptframtagning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report regards the manufacturing process of 30K TEC, an ingoing part to the PW1000 engine from Pratt & Whitney. The complexity of the parts geometry and the material makes for a problematic manufacturing process. The part is strapped down into a milling fixture which holds the part in place. The part is then machined with a cutting process to it final geometry. The process produces a high temperature on both the tool and part which leads to a geometry change in the part. Due to the geometry changes vibrations occur and affects the result on the part with poor surface and shortened tool life. In this report a concept is established for a milling fixture that accounts for the manufacturing aspects named above. The report and work follow the general concept development process from establishing the customer´s needs to generating concepts and selecting the final concept.

    The work resulted in a concept for a fixture witch in theory meets the customer´s needs and favors the process. The fixture holds the part down with help of pneumatics and controls the geometry changes with vacuum to prevent vibrations. To evaluate if the fixture achieves the established target specifications further work is needed. The fixture or parts of it needs testing in practice before the result can be fully evaluated.

  • 40.
    Eklund, Sebastian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Strömberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av lokalnät i Bäckefors2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project describes the procedure how preparation work is executed both for high voltage and low voltage power grid. The preparatory work concerns a power grid in Bäckefors. Today’s high- and low voltage power grid consist of overhead power lines and will be demolished. The overhead power lines will be replaced by underground cables. An underground cable power grid secures a higher reliability which means less interference and fewer disruptions in the power grid. During the project, map studies have been performed to give an overview over the area. After the map studies have been performed, a field visit has been conducted to give a better view of the area and see the eventual problems that can occur during the cable laying. Major obstacles and problems have been avoided. One guided drilling will be performed to pass a railway track in combination with a road. The project will include the demolition of 5 427 meters of high voltage power line and 3 799 meters of low voltage power line. 5 pole-mounted stations including transformers will be replaced by new substations and transformers, all of them 100 kVA each. 5300 meters of high voltage cable and 3500 meters of low voltage cable will be placed. 10 new cable distribution cabinets will be placed in the area. In total the project will affect 20 subscribers. A P2 cost calculation has been carried out and the total cost for the reconstruction in the power grid will be 3,37 million SEK.

  • 41.
    Elfwing, Jonny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Thersthol, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptutveckling av provriggsutrustning för framdrivningssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To carry out different tests on an electric car’s driveline, it often necessary to produce different unique test rigs, which may become costly in terms of both time and money. Thus, in the development of vehicle propulsion systems, there is a need for new modular rigging equipment that can allow shorter set times for switching between different test missions and more tests could be performed at the same time. The purpose of the thesis work is to produce one or more theoretical concepts of a test rig module. In the method section, a theoretical frame of reference is presented, describing the theories and assumptions that were considered relevant for solving the task. The approach to achieving the results includes, among other things, the tools TRIZ, idea generation, literature study and concept screening and weighting matrices. The result includes a proposal for a module-based concept and its characteristics and possibilities are described. The concept consists of three different types of functional elements which are objects that are used to hold and linearize the different components of an electric cars driveline, a module used to position and stabilize the objects and fasteners to attach components to each other and to the T-slots. The final part discusses the implementation and outcome of the thesis work, but there are also suggestions for further studies. The conclusion is that it seems possible to carry out tests with different drivelines using the module-based concept.

  • 42.
    Emami, Iman
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Pilqvist, Martin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Implementering av översiktsbild för att hjälpa driftoperatörer bistå anvisningar från Starta Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall is currently working to meet the instructions of the project "Starta Sverige" that is created by the Swedish transmission system operators in which a cooperation between different control rooms and control centers will minimize problems during power system restoration after a major disturbance. This work aims to aid the completion of the strategy in Starta Sverige for the control-room operators at Vattenfall to reconnect load after a system failure in the simplest, fastest and safest way possible. This will be done through development of a schematic overview to Vattenfall's operating system.

    The way to achieve this is to conduct interviews with control-room operators and operating system specialists with the purpose of understanding their needs and expectations but also to understand the technical limitations of the operating system. The development has been performed in an iterative way where follow-up interviews weremade to persistently improve the schematic overview.

    The result is a schematic overview roughly the size of an A4-papersheet. Technical limitations prevent some of the control-room operator's wishes to become reality, such asto use graphs to show the remaining active power to reconnect. There is one schematic overview to each of the eight zones of Starta Sverige in Sweden which will contain information about relevant stations, reactive components and transformer taps in addition to showing the voltage and frequency for the connection point to the national transmission grid. According to the instructions of Starta Sverige there is a priority to present the available and used active power since this information is important for system restoration.

    The schematic overview is planned to be implemented in the operating system the same year as the publication of this report, although currently an example is accessible in Vattenfall's operating system. Since the schematic overview is planned to be used after amajor system breakdown there's an uncertainty when the actual use will be.

  • 43.
    Enander, Marcus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Optimering av tankcontainerlastningar för Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals i Stenungsund2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Akzo Nobel is a global chemical company. The company is divided into three business areas. The business areas are divided into business units. One of the company’s sites are located in Stenungsund, the site belongs to the business unit Functional Chemicals Ethyleneamines. The plant produces different varieties of ethylene and ethanol amines. Production takes place on a large scale and the products are delivered in barrels and tank containers. This study examines the loading and scheduling of the tank containers. According to the company, the schedule for the loadings causes a bottleneck. The company does not think there is enough room for all orders. Delivery precision is a key indicator the company uses to measure how well the deliveries are performed. Loadings that miss loaded pre-determined loading date differ from the delivery precision. At present, the company is well below the set target for the delivery precision. In order to offer more space in the schedule, Akzo Nobel needs to change how they handle and plan the loadings. The purpose of the study is to provide alternative solutions for how the loadings can be handled and planned. The solutions should focus on reducing the bottleneck effect of the loading terminal. The aim of the study is to identify why the loading terminal is a bottleneck. The aim of the study is also to develop solutions that can increase delivery precision. In order to complete the study, a literature study was conducted. Relevant topics associated with the study area were studied. Example of studied topics where supply chain, logistics and Lean. The literature study worked as a reference frame for the study. The study was based on an analysis of the situation and a benchmark. The purpose of the analysis was to gather information about the business. It was important to be able to derive the causes of the problem. The purpose of the benchmarking was to find other ways to manage and plan the loading terminal. The analysis, benchmarking and literature study then lay the foundation for the development of alternative solutions. The conclusion of the study was that Akzo Nobel's fear of a bottleneck did not quite match the reality. On the other hand, there are good opportunities for improvement. The sales trend also points to increased sales. Which means that in the future a more efficient loading terminal may be needed.

  • 44.
    Fredriksson, Thorgrim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Elkvalitetspåverkan vid utlokaliserad felbortkoppling i radiella 40 kV distributionsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis investigates the changes in electrical power quality that can arise from relocating switchgear and protection relays, from the power-feeding station, for a power grid with radial operation. The report highlights the potential problems with a prolonged faultclearance time in the power grid. The report uses existing regulations and a previously completed bachelor’s thesis, in which a substantial socioeconomic benefit was concluded, as a starting point for the study. The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis is to determine if unlawful voltage sags can appear in the power grid following a relocation of the switchgear and protection relay. There is also an interest in investigating if the earlier determined socioeconomic benefits remain if the previously unconsidered cost following a voltage sag is included. There is also included in the scope of the bachelor’s thesis to describe a basic method for evaluation of the expected cost of a voltage sag. By observing the nature of occurring voltage sags following simulations in PSS/E for proper power grids several illustrations over the magnitude and disconnection event were produced. The resulting disconnection event was then used in combination with estimated valuation factors to estimate the expected cost following a voltage sag. Which leads to that the socioeconomic benefits can be estimated by contemplating the change in cost following a forced outage in relation to the voltage sag cost. With regards to the occurrence of unlawful voltage sags in the examined power grids the bachelor’s thesis concludes that there is no risk for the appearance of such. The thesis also demonstrates that an overall socioeconomical benefit follows the use of any of the presented relay protection methods. Even though this benefit does not present itself in all the radials for the observed power grids following a relocation. In these cases, a deeper analysis is required to guarantee a positive outcome. The thesis contains an uncertainty with regards to the presented benefits following the use of non-established valuation factors. Following this the thesis should be viewed as a proof of concept and not as a in depth case study for the evaluated power grids. Despite these uncertainties the authors advocates, following the result of the thesis, for the use of relocated current measuring protection relays as a standard method when using relocated switchgear and protection relay. Furthermore, the authors also advocates for the activation of an instantaneous disconnection step, in the power-feeding station, in order to minimize the fault-clearance time of the most critical voltage sags.

  • 45.
    Gabro, Gabriel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Yasin, Abdulrahman
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Solceller på ett villatak2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the process of procuring a solar cell facility on a typical house located in Gothenburg. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate which methods are best applied for the installation of solar panels on the roof and the management of the production surplus. An installation of a solar cell facility will reduce the electricity consumption costs but increases the fixed costs for a house because the plant must be paid, partly through amortization and partly by interest on the loan. The study analyzes the profitability of such an investment. The study deals with a specific house with known electricity consumption and examines the possibility of reducing the monthly costs. The cost of spent electricity in the house in 2018 was just over 48,000 SEK. The house roof has a total area of 120 m2 which can accommodate 60 solar panels with the total surface area of 102 m2 . This plant is expected to produce 13,100 [kWh / year] with a cost after investment support of 229,000 SEK. This investment results in a revenue of approximately 18,500 SEK compared to the cost before installation. The economic calculations include all costs for the loan with a pay-backtime of just around 12,4 years.

  • 46.
    Gohil, Kuldeepsinh
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Verification and Visualization of Safe Human Robot Collaboration for Robotic Cell2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Robotics and Automation field is booming in today´s scenario. Researchers and Technologist comes up with new ideas in the robotics field to achieve a higher productivity, flexibility and efficiency. To achieve the above goals, it shall be required that human and robot share their work space with each other and works in a collaborative nature. Safety is a main concern and in focus. Robot should not injure the operator in any way during working in robotic cell. In this master thesis main focus is to create a various test plans and validate them to ensure the safety level in robotic cell. The test plan should be validated in a real robot environment. The test plans consist of functional and individual verification of safety devices which are being used in a robotic cell at PTC which is known as smart automation lab. Apart from that it includes design simulation of robotic cells with manikins to ensure validation of safety in virtual environment. Design simulation of robotic cell with manikins are created in RobotStudio 6.06. However, smart components, trap routines, SafeMove and offline program in RAPID have been created. Various test results are incorporated in the results section to ensure the verification and validation of safe human robot collaboration of virtual environment in RobotStudio 6.06.

  • 47.
    Gopinath,, Kiran
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mimicking of human hand motion on robot arm using point cloud and Machine learning techniques2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robots may be required to do complex assembly operations during production and programming the Robot to perform such operations can be a challenging task. If the motions of the human palm could be mimicked on the Robot, it would mitigate the com-plexities involved in teaching such skills to the Robot. This mimicking action could also be used in other applications like robot based painting where it is necessary to capture motion generated by a skilled human hand and reproduce it on a robot.

    To achieve this there may be many methods. A point cloud camera could be used to capture and store point cloud data of an object at different positions and orientations inside the Robot work volume. Corresponding Tool centre point positions and orientations read from the Robot controller serve as labelled data necessary for machine learning.

    The task involves generation of Robot programs to synchronize point cloud capture and robot pose capture resulting in generation of data necessary for machine learning. The point cloud data is generated using Kinect point cloud camera by establishing the communication between the robot and the Kinect V2.

    The objective in this paper is concluded by gathering the point cloud data for limited positions using Kinect V2 which is necessary for machine learning. Since machine learning techniques can be applied for further process huge amount of data is required hence this data is generated.

  • 48.
    Gran,, Ludvig
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av parameter för svetsprocessen Nyckelhål-TIG i titan-6Al-4V för tjocklek 7 mm2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace Trollhättan produces components for the commercial, military aerospace and space industry. The company belongs to GKN PLC since 2012 which got approximately 58 000 employees and was founded over 250 years ago in Great Britain.

    Keyhole-TIG has gained attention in the aerospace industry for its capability of producing high quality welds in metals such as titanium and nickel-based alloys. The process has shown to complete welds in thickness up to 14 mm, which is a considerable difference in comparison to conventional TIG. Keyhole-TIG appears to be a more robust alternative to plasma arc welding because of fewer influencing factors.

    Today GKN Aerospace is welding a 7,3 mm thick titanium joint using plasma arc welding, but it fails occasionally which leads to quality deficiency costs. It is in the company's interest to investigate how Keyhole-TIG behaves so they can compare it to the existing welding method.

    The purpose of the study it to investigate how the key process parameters of Keyhole-TIG are affecting the welding geometries and to identify a welding parameter for material thickness 7 mm titanium that fulfill the company's requirement specification.

    A literature review was preformed to acquire knowledge about the process Keyhole TIG, control methods and statistical experimental design. A practical way of gathering information was made in the form of welding experiments, measurements and statistical analysis tool, which were made to investigate the parameter association and identify a potential parameter. The main parameters that were investigated were current, electrode distance and advancing speed. Limited areas occurred when creating the design of experiments because the constraints of current and advancing speed was affecting each other. Therefore, the design of experiments was created resembling a D-optimal design.

    The study’s conclusions were that the electrode distance should be short because it contributed to increased penetration, heat input was decreased and underfill was reduced. All key process variables impact on the welding geometries were identified except for underfill. Lastly a parameter was identified with a statistically optimizing tool that generated a valid weld geometry according to the requirements. The parameter was recommended to GKN Aerospace for future use. 

  • 49.
    Granlund, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av koncept för tryckindikator och informationsöverföring för luftaxel2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the project has been to develop a concept for both indicating the pressure level in the rolling axle hoses and for transferring this information from the rotating shaft to non-rotating machine parts. The report's literature study describes sensor technology and information-transferring-techniques for non-stationary objects. Study visits and interviews have been made to pay attention to the demands and expectations of future stakeholders on the product. During the concept generation phase, several methods have been used, including function trees and investigations of patents. A total of 21 concepts were generated. During the concept screening and concept scoring phase, an independent engineering student has been used for feedback. A cost analysis based on estimates for the sub-concepts has been carried out before the concept selection. The work resulted in a total of four subconcepts. Two sub-concepts for pressure indication and two sub-concepts for information transfer. Prior to final conceptual selection, more assessment steps should be performed, for example, subcontractors should be contacted regarding quotation requests and a FMEA should be created.

  • 50.
    Gröndahl, Sander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utförande och dimensionering av jordning i inomhusställverk upp till 145 kV2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written as a system study with the purpose of ensuring, through studies of existing knowledge, that Otera Ratel AB's construction regarding grounding in substations is up to par with today's standards. The challenge is that in-depth knowledge is required to understand and apply existing implementation and design standards for construction of grounding systems. Additionally, the requirements regarding safe voltage levels must be laid down so a standardized workplan based on that can be formed.

    The report processes the overall theories and concepts which are necessary for the contractor’s decisions. Theory is collected from studies of regulations, standards, handbooks, reports and interviews. The theories treat subjects such as: earth fault currents, earthing conductors, earthing electrodes, earth potential rise, and touch voltage. These theories are subsequently applied to an example based on real data.

    Thereafter, a discussion about the importance of a correct executed grounding system follows. The consequence of an incorrect designed system could be fault currents which take the wrong path to ground. The theory section and example case are both also discussed and inserted into a broader context. Despite the extensive knowledge of the standard provided in the report no standardized workplan can be determined. The decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis relying on case specific facts. The validity of the example case can be called in question since data is missing which affects the result of the example.

    The report concludes by presenting the results and recommendations on how to scrutinize the standard and its concepts regarding successful grounding. The voltage requirements are also determined and hence the aim of the report is achieved.

    Proposals for continued work include the themes which this report neglects but which are in some way connected to grounding, like EMC compatibility and lightning conductors. Furthermore, fault current splitting and methods for measurements are areas in which extra insight is needed.

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