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  • 1.
    af Geijerstam, Emelie
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wedenberg, Emelie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Menyers effektivitet och användbarhet på webben2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, everything is expected proceed quickly, easily and smoothly. This also applies to websites on the Internet. When you visit a website, you want thewebsite to be easily accessible and you also want to find what you are looking for quickly. It is therefore important that the menu is easy to navigate. The menu is very important for the experience of the website, as you use the menu to navigate through the website. The menu will guide users through the website, will help them plan their actions, will determine where they are and will help them find their way back if they would get lost.In this study, we have created and designed a website with menus of four different types. Our study is based on a number of theories about cognition, perception,usability and effectivity together with theories about how to create a good menu. We will use these theories in our study to determine which of the menus is the most effective. To find out which menu is the most effective, test participants were asked to conduct a usability test. During the usability test, we tested the effectivity of themenus by measuring the amount of time required by the test participants to perform different tasks, as well as how many clicks were required and how frustrated the test participants became. Then, we compared how the different menus performed inrelation to each other. The test participants were also asked to respond to aquestionnaire where they subjectively described their thoughts on the menus.Our results from this study can be used as guidelines when choosing which type of menu to use on a website, where navigation is expected to be as effective as possible.Our results show that the horizontal menu is the most effective one of the different menus we have tested. However, which menu is the most effective in a given situation or on a given website depends on many factors, and thus, the horizontal menu is not always preferable to use on every website.

  • 2.
    Ahlinder, André
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Jerner, Marcus
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    viljan att dela med sig: En undersökning i svenska användares delningsvanor på Facebook.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work researches what motivates swedish Facebook users to pass along and share

    information on Facebook, their attitude towards shared information and what affects this behavior. The goal of this thesis is to research todays behavior and motivations to enlighten  what makes information worth sharing to others on Facebook, instead of simply attracting attention. By using a web survey we have collected data by sampling a part of the actual population  of  swedens Facebook users.Our results show that swedish Facebook users main reason for using Facebook is to socialize with offline friends and share information to show others

    something

    they

    belive

    they

    will

    have

    use

    for

    and/or

    will

    appriciate.

    We

    compare

    our

    findings

    to

    existing

    research

    and

    the

    FIRO

    theory

    about

    human

    interpersonal

    needs.

    We

    find

    that

    users

    sharing

    habits

    can

    be

    identified

    as

    motivated

    by

    interpersonal

    needs

    to

    maintain

    social

    bonds,

    influence

    others

    opinion

    about

    themselves,

    feel

    unique

    and

    stand

    out

    in

    the

    crowd.

    We

    conclude

    that

    human

    needs

    are

    contributing

    to

    sharing

    activity

    on

    Facebook

    and

    influence

    the

    sharing

    habits

    of

    the

    Swedish

    Facebook

    users.

    The

    users

    show

    a

    critical

    view

    on

    sharing

    behavior

    in

    general

    but

    do

    not

    believe

    that

    they

    share

    for

    the

    same

    reason

    themselves.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    viljan att dela med sig
  • 3.
    Ahlström, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Reinholdsson, Stina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Äldres motivation till att använda och lära sig informations- och kommunikationsteknik (IKT): En kvalitativ studie om faktorer som är viktiga för att äldre ska motiveras till att använda och lära sig IKT2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to get a deeper understanding of what motivates older adults to use and learn information and communication technology (ICT). This has been investigated with qualitative interviews with older adults who use ICT. During the interviews the participants were allowed to share their experiences and thoughts about what motivates them to use and learn ICT. 

    The result of the study shows that older adults are motivated by various reasons to use and learn ICT. In order for them to be motivated to even start using new ICT services or units, they need to be introduced to it and after that a need can be created. This means that ICT must be useful and older adults need to understand the benefits and advantages of using it in order to even want to learn it. Important factors that older adults experience when learning new ICT are clear instructions, repetition, that they should be able to try for themselves, and that the learning session shouldn’t go too fast. The social environment around our informants has also proven to be an important factor in learning ICT.

  • 4.
    Ajanovic, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    A lesson in film2019Inngår i: HRVATSKI FILMSKI LJETOPIS, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. 25, nr 100, s. 183-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Ajanovic, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    De visuella tonsättarna II: Animationens mästare i urval2012Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Filmvetare Midhat »Ajan« Ajanovic har valt ut ytterligare 30 av sina favoriter i

    De visuella tonsättarna 2. Förutom klassiska animatörer som Bruno Bozzetto, Ray Harry -

    hau sen, Ub Iwerks, Chuck Jones, Jerzy Kucia, Ryan Larkin och Len Lye finns

    nyare världsberömda namn som Igor Kovaljov, Chris Landreth, John Lasseter, Michel Oce -

    lot, Nick Park och Peter Lord (Aardman), Joanna Quinn, Pjotr Sapegin, Georges Schwiz -

    ge bel och Koji Yamamura också med. Även framstående svenskar som Johannes Nyholm

    och Jonas Odell uppmärksammas förstås.

    Boken är andra delen av en planerad heltäckande animationshistoria samlad i fyra populärvetenskapliga böcker.

  • 6.
    Ajanovic, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Filmdockan: Dockfilmen : genre historia estetik2021Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att undersöka en gren inom animationen som framstår som en alltmer betydelsefull del av vår tids bildkultur bidrar ”Filmdockan” till den pågående, både livliga och spännande, processen inom forskningen kring animerade bilder. Bokens huvudämne är dockfilm, en filmgenre som kännetecknas av att ett animerat, personifierat och människoliknande föremål används som rollfigur inom ramen för en bildberättelse. Genom undersökningar och analys av de animerade filmernas genrekonventioner, estetik, berättar- och montagestrategier kan man även närma sig en förståelse av de historiska, ideologiska, teknologiska, och politiska klimaten och maktförhållandena vid tidpunkten för deras tillblivelse.

    Det första avsnittet ”Docka, begrepp och typer” diskuterar olika definitioner av ordet ”docka” som utgår ifrån dockornas ursprung, deras form och funktion, tekniska aspekter etc. I det här avsnittet ligger betoningen på den så kallade föreställande dockan som med hjälp av dockteaterns spelteknik, filmisk eller digital animation framställs som en särskild sorts ”skådespelare”. Avsnittet inkluderar ävenfrågeställningar som specifikt behandlar animationens art, stil och väsentlighet som bland annat diskussioner om genre, estetik, och representation.

    Det andra avsnittet ”Historiskt panorama” gör en kronologisk genomgång av både de viktigaste estetiska tendenserna och några av de mest framstående människorna bakom historien om den animerade dockan. Den föreställande dockan är i regel en kulturell symbios – resultatet av mellanfolkliga blandningar. Dockfilmens estetik, teknik, motivkretsar, genrekonventioner och hybridiseringar förflyttar sig över tiden och i geografin via internationella kontakter och relationer mellan olika film- och kulturkretsar.

    Det tredje avsnittet ”Dockan på den digitala scenen” framstår som en kort promenad genom historien om digital animation. Flera av pionjärerna inom filmanimation i början av 1900-talet inspirerades av estetiken inom dockteatern i det då nya filmmediet. På samma sätt använde man i slutet av 1980-talet, när den ”digitaliserade dockan” trädde fram, datorer för att skapa en framställningsmodell som i grund och botten har sitt ursprung i teater- och filmanimering.

    Ämnet för det avslutande avsnittet ”Visuellt berättande och dockfilm” är alltså berättandet inom animerad film, och framförallt dess dockfilmsgenre. Animationsberättelsen (animerad film) består av filmspråk som grund med animationsspecifika och uttrycksfulla element som dess överbyggnad. Berättandet är även en viktig koppling mellan dockfilmer som stöds av filmisk respektive digital teknik. På det här viset är dockfilmen tydligt definierad i förhållande till berättelsen i allmänhet

  • 7.
    Ajanovic, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Između sna i smijeha/Between dream and laughter: Luis Bunuel – život, karijera i dvije duboke brazde koje je prvak filmskog nadrealizma zaorao/Luis Bunuel – life, career and a profound imprint left by the pioneer of surrealist cinema2015Inngår i: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis/Croatian Film Chronicle, ISSN 1330-7665, nr 82-83, s. 05-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The paper gives an overview of the work, career and poetics of Luis Bunuel, the most important surrealist in the world (active in the cinema of several countries – France, Mexico and Spain). The paper explains the roots of Bunuel’s poetics that derive from the filmmaker’s life experience and different art forms (Goya, Cervantes), his cinema role models (Lang, Eisenstein), his status among other filmmakers, social environment, provocation methods, stylistic techniques, his favorite themes and worldviews (for example, sexuality and constant criticism of Christianity in his films), the context of surrealist art and relationship with film industry. Although very often demonstrating a lack of interest for the rules of the dominant cinema, the traditional film making, even opposing in a planned and explicit manner, Bunuel proved, states the author of the paper, that he could participate (both as director and producer) even in the classical feature film cinematic framework. Considering the wide variety of surrealist (and avant-garde) cinema in general and the complexity of the work by Luis Bunuel, the paper tackles Dada elements and different types of surrealism. Finally, the paper examines the traces of surrealism in cinema and animated film in the post-Bunuel period (and undoubtedly under his influence).

  • 8.
    Ajanovic, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Ohrozený megalopolis japaneského ANIME  42011Inngår i: Homo Felix, ISSN 1338-2268, nr 2/2011, s. 67-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Ajanovic, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Ohrozený megalopolis japaneského ANIME 72013Inngår i: Homo Felix. The international journal of animated film,, ISSN 1338-2268, Vol. IV, nr 1, s. 68-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Ajanovic, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Polish Animation Between Two Golden Ages2012Inngår i: Etiuda&Anima, 2012, s. 164-164Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Ajanovic, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Representative doll on a digital scene 31st Animafest: World Festival of Animated Film (2021)2021Inngår i: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. 27, nr 107, s. 19-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Ajanovic, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Tito’s image in the post-Yugoslav essay film2020Inngår i: HRVATSKI FILMSKI LJETOPIS, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. 26, nr 101, s. 5-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Ajanovic, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Ženska crta britanskog animiranog filma/Feminine current of British animation: Bokumentarizam, društveni angažman i feminizam britanske animacije.2011Inngår i: Hrvatski filsmi ljetopis/Croatian Film Chronicle, ISSN 1330-7665, nr 65/66, s. 24-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    In the animated film of the 1970s and later, the modernist poetics of, for example, theZagrebSchoolstarted to feel outdated. This was the reason for the a whole group of new female and male authors to emerge and to tackle pressing social issues, including animated cinema as a new, alternative medium for public debate. Among a number of social issues tackled primarily in British and Canadian films, the field of gender inequality and the position of women in the society came to the foreground. The paper also follows the history of female presence in animated film and the history of female topics' affirmation in this medium, starting with Helen Smith Dayton, Lotte Reiniger and Mary Ellen Bute, to Marjut Rimminen and the influence of the Channel Four production (producer C. Kitson), or rather the authors such asCaroline Leaf, Angela Martin, Candy Guard, Alison Snowden, Karen Watson and Gillian Lacey. Special attention is dedicated to Alison De Vere and Joanna Quinn. Non.British authors are mentioned as well, such as Monique Renault. What is particularly interesting is the influence of British documentary tradition (alo0ng the lines of John Grierson( which blended with animated film and other visual arts traditions. However, in animated films women had to struggle for the right to comedy as an artistic choice as well because the prejudice related to female sense of humor was extremely strong. The author concludes by stating that contemporary animation does not discriminate against women at all.  

                                                                                                 

     

     

  • 14.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    100 years of Swedish Animation2015Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 15.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    A vivid connection: Comics and animation as a context for understanding the work of Nedeljko Dragic i Kresimir Zimonic2011Inngår i: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis/Croatian Film Cronicle, ISSN 1330-7665, nr 68, s. 25-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the most prominent authors of the Zagreb School of Animation were (or still are) equally active in the field of animations as in the field of caricature and comics. The co-dependency of interrelation of these two fields in terms of aesthetics, mindset and semiotics is being examined on the example of Nedeljko Dragic andKresimir Zimonic. The history of comic strips and caricature is brought into relation with animated film and with the emergence of modernist animation in particular. Moreover, a special emphasis is placed on the influence of the incursion of specific aesthetic movements, known as comic book schools, on the Croatian comic scene.   

      

     

     

     

  • 16.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    An Attempt at Reading and Understanding the Animated Film Don Quixote by Vladimir Kristl2015Inngår i: Animation: A World History: Volume II: The Birth of a Style / [ed] Giannalberto Bendazzi, Oxford: Focal Press , 2015, s. 71-75Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett kompletterande kapitel om Zagrebskolan för animerad film.

  • 17.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Animacija i modernizam / Animation and modernism.2013Inngår i: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis/Croatian Film Chronicle, ISSN 1330-7665, nr 75, s. 27-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many important periods of the history of animation arose directly from and are part of the radical modernist wave with the epicentre in the USA that bombarded the world of animation after World War II and the influence of which is still felt today. Explaining the origin of American modernist animation in propaganda and commercial film, as well as in eminent artistic aspirations for artistic freedom, Ajanovic describes the main characteristic and the importance of production of the UPA animation studio, i. e. John Hubley, Stephen Bosustow and other leading figures of animation, placing their work within the production frames of the epoch and stressing their importance. By doing so, he argues in favour of the term modernist animation – a term that is much more precise and useful when analysing the mentioned phenomena – instead of the term reduced or stylized animation.

  • 18.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Animated Documentary – Documentary Animation2019Inngår i: Contemporary Animation JournalArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikels primära ämne är en tämligen okänd filmgenre, den så kallades animerade dokumentär vars utveckling under senare decennier fick ny fart tack vare moderna tekniska möjligheter. Med filmens inträde i den digitala eran blir denna genre allt mer vanligt inom de recenta rörliga bildproduktionerna. Förutom att ringa in grundläggande kännetecken av en specifik filmform grundad på genretraditionen som växt fram kring hybridiseringen mellan olika genrer är artikeln samtidigt ett försök till en samtidshistorisk kontextualisering. För att illustrera hur animerade dokumentärer synliggör några dolda aspekter av våra liv genom att behandla den mänskliga existensen i ett stort socio-politiskt sammanhang analyseras svensk animerad film i form av en specifik fallstudie.

  • 19.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Animator in focus: Caroline Leaf2010Inngår i: Catalogue, 33rd Göteborg International Film Festival, nr 33, s. 14-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 20.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Animerad verklighet2018Inngår i: Tecknaren, ISSN 0347-7673, nr 6, s. 24-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Animerat skådespeleri som berör: Filmaren Chris Landreth sätter fokus på nya vågar ut ur "kusliga dalen"2012Inngår i: Göteborgsposten, ISSN 1103-9345, s. 66-66Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Beyond Self-images: The Context and Development of Animated Documentaries, the Cornerstones of Modern Animation in Sweden.2018Inngår i: Global Animation Theory / [ed] Franziska Bruckner et al., New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018, s. 99-116Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems that the first decades of the new millennium have brought about a small renaissance of documentaries, especially those that combine live action and animated pictures and even those visualiezd totally by employment of various animation techniques. My concern in the following chapter is the conspicuous propensity in Swedish animation towards animated documentary. In my view Sweden is the country that, besides Canada and Great Britain, has developed the most prolific production of films that merge documentary purposes and animated imagery.

    In this chapter I define animated documentary, as I understand it. I will also take a look into the history of Swedish animation and documentary, with an emphasis on the features that might be the base for the development of the animated documentary. The text will also focus on some factors in the production and social background that, at least partly, explain why the animated documentary is such a prominent feature on the Swedish animation scene and, lastly, it will point at some films and filmmakers that eminently represent the genre. 

  • 23.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Bizarre and Depoliticized2014Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 24.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Black Trains through Dark Landscapes2014Inngår i: Catalogue, 37th Göteborg International Film Festival, ISSN 1102-6448, nr 1, s. 19-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Ett gammalt medium för ett nytt lärande2011Inngår i: / [ed] Peter Sigrén, Högskolan i Borås, 2011, Vol. 9, s. 137-150Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    ”F” kao Fellini / ”F” som Fellini2011Inngår i: Sarajevske sveske/Sarajevos Litterära Tidskrift, ISSN 1512-8539, nr 35-36, s. 379-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    En personligt präglat studie i Federico Fellinis liv och arbete.

  • 27.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Film i strip2018Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Filmska Lutka. Estetika, žanrovske konvencije i hibridiziranje u modelskoj animaciji2019Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns varierande definitioner av ordet "docka" som utgår ifrån dockornas ursprung, deras form och funktion, tekniska aspekter etc. Vanligtvis gör man distinktionen mellan olika sorter dockor som exempelvis leksaksdocka (doll), marionett (puppet), handdocka ("glove puppet") och så vidare. I det här arbetet ligger betoningen på den så kallade föreställande dockan som med hjälp av dockteaterns spelteknik, filmisk eller digital animation framställs som en särskild sorts "skådespelare". För att kunna kalla ett föremål för docka måste man alltså urskilja en människa i den även om det handlar om en antropomorf djurdocka eller en på annat sätt stiliserad docka. Både dockteatern och dockfilmen för vuxna är ofta knutna till människans värld och framstår därmed som ett relevant material för att studera förhållanden knutna till livsvillkor i en samtid. Genom undersökningar och analys av de animerade filmernas genrekonventioner, estetik, berättar- och montagestrategier kan man närma sig en förståelse av de historiska, ideologiska, teknologiska, och politiska klimaten och maktförhållandena vid tidpunkten för deras tillblivelse. Den föreställande dockan är i regel en kulturell symbios – resultatet av mellanfolkliga blandningar. Dockfilmens estetik, teknik, motivkretsar, genrekonventioner och hybridiseringar förflyttar sig över tiden och i geografin via internationella kontakter och relationer mellan olika film- och kulturkretsar. Det här arbetet är således en filmvetenskaplig studie i animerad film vars huvudämne är dockfilmen, en filmgenre som framförallt kännetecknas av ett animerat, personifierat och människoliknande föremål som används som rollfigur inom ramen för en bildberättelse. Denna diskussion om dockfilmen är tänkt som en fortsättning till min tidigare forskning. Men detta menar jag framförallt böckerna Animation och realism (utgiven 2004 på engelska och kroatiska) och Den rörliga skämtteckningen (utgiven 2009 på svenska).

  • 29.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Good Soldier Schweik in Civil Suit: Reflections of the Middle European Tradition of Humor in the Animated Films of the Zagreb School2023Inngår i: Asifa Academic Magazine, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 9-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    My ambition here is not to give a firm answer to the eternal question why man laughs. Just like love, humor remains an unsolvable mystery. We do not know why we love someone, just as we do not know what the source of humor is. Man does not know why he loves someone. Man does not know why he laughs at something or someone. And that is a good thing. Life without secrets would be infinitely boring.

    Still, if not humor itself, we can identify what humor carries. Humor, just like art (and art and humor are often united), presents a vision of the world, one view of life.

    This paper is an attempt to analyze humor in Middle European animation illustrated by the example of two characteristic films created within the Zagreb school of animation.

    Already over the first decades of the twentieth century, film animation appeared in almost all middle European countries. Still, the golden age of this medium in this region lasted from the 1950s to the end of 1970s. After World War II, a significant number of animated film studios were founded in the region producing innovative and fresh art of animation often recognized at international film festivals.

    There was no middle European equivalent of Popeye or Superman. Much like in regional literature and visual humor, in animation too there were heroes who were not heroes. Leading characters in middle European animation were often characterized by the “Schweikian” anomaly: little man, who felt like a looser, bearing no illusions towards the presence or the future.

  • 30.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medieproduktion. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    "Jag går efter min näsa"2010Inngår i: Göteborgs-Posten, Vol. 28 januari, s. 131-131Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 31.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Little Man at the Turn of the Worlds: A View of the Origin, History and the Ideological Foundation of the Phenomenon of the Zagreb School of Animated Film2019Inngår i: Propaganda, Ideology, Animation: Twisted Dreams of History / [ed] Olga Bobrowska, Michał Bobrowski, Bogusław Zmudziński, AGH University of Science and Technology Press , 2019, s. 154-174Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Microscopic reading of a story on animation2018Inngår i: HRVATSKI FILMSKI LJETOPIS, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. 24, nr 95, s. 53-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Ohrozený megalopolis japaneského ANIME 52012Inngår i: Homo Felix. The international journal of animated film, ISSN 1338-2268, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 68-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 34.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Penicilin protiv mrznja2014Inngår i: Mediacenter SarajevoArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Medicinen mot hatet

    I texten studeras karikatyr och satirbild som ett oersättligt utryck för yttrandefrihet i den massmediala epoken. Textens utgångspunkt är en paradox att karikatyrkonsten blivit ett hett diskussionsämne på samma tid som denna uttrycksform försvinner från vecko- och dagspress.

    Debatten startades efter publiceringen av det nedvärderande karikatyrframställningar av profeten Muhammed i danska och svenska tidningar som de islamtroende upplevde som förolämpande. I texter kortfattat behandlas liknande historiska exemplen på karikatyrer som uppfattades som nedvärdering och förolämpning riktad mot annan etnisk och religiös tillhörighet. Så till exempel publicerades en rad karikatyrer som hånade mormoner i den amerikanska pressen i början av 1900-talet, under en lång period gestaltades svarta på ett ytterst rasistiskt sätt, det fanns karikatyrer som utryckte antisemitism, rysofobi, sexism och misogyni.

    Parallellt med en propagandistisk och ofta av mediamakten missbrukad karikatyr utvecklades även en annan typ av karikatyr och skämtteckning, en som fungerade som en symbol för odogmatisk världssyn, en form av motstånd mot tyranni och en befrielse från terror och den exploatering som människan utövar mot andra människor.

    Ett behov av satiriska och parodiska karikatyrer finns även i de nutida samhällen, såväl de med en lång demokratisk tradition som de samhällen där demokratiska processer befinner sig i en utvecklingsfas.

    Just för dess aktiva roll inom den demokratiska utvecklingen i ett visst samhälle hävdar texten att karikatyrkonsten måste vara tillbaka i massmedier. Dessutom bör karikatyrkonstens studeras som ett akademiskt ämne i samband med studier i konst, journalistik och kommunikationen. 

  • 35.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Priit Pärn2015Inngår i: Animation: A World History: Volume III: Contemporary Times / [ed] Giannalberto Bendazzi, Oxford: Focal Press , 2015, s. 140-144Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett kompletterande kapitel om animation i Estland

     

  • 36.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Procvat cjelovečernje animacije (Renaissance of full-length animation): Srastanje dokumentarnog i animiranog filma jedan je od najinteresantnijih fenomena u medijskoj industriji našeg doba, osobito stoga što se u toj formi neke važne teme, pogled na stvarnost i historiju tretiraju na sasvim drugačiji način od onog u standardnim medijima.2015Inngår i: Mediacentar, SarajevoArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Linking up documentary and animated film is one of the most interesting phenomena in the media industry of our time especially as animated documentaries treat some important topics, view of reality and history in a different way from that of the standard media. 

  • 37.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    "Psychorealism" vs "The Uncanny Valley": Chris Landreth comes across as a digital animation heir to Norman McLaren2012Inngår i: Catalogue, 35th Göteborg International Film Festival, ISSN 1102-6448, nr 1, s. 25-29Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Roundtable of the Month:The Image of Beyond Oneself:: The Context and Development of Swedish Animation Documentaries2019Inngår i: Contemporary Animation JournalArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikels primära ämne är en tämligen okänd filmgenre, den så kallade animerade dokumentären, vars utveckling under senare decennier fick ny fart tack vare moderna tekniska möjligheter. Med filmens inträde i den digitala eran blir denna genre allt mer vanligt inom de recenta rörliga bildproduktionerna. Förutom att ringa in grundläggande kännetecken av en specifik filmform grundad på genretraditionen som växt fram kring hybridiseringen mellan olika genrer är artikeln samtidigt ett försök till en samtidshistorisk kontextualisering. För att illustrera hur animerade dokumentärer synliggör några dolda aspekter av våra liv genom att behandla den mänskliga existensen i ett stort socio-politiskt sammanhang analyseras svensk animerad film i form av en specifik fallstudie.

  • 39.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Seriously Funny: Animation, The Concealed Avant-Garde2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The progressive migration of the European avant-gardes to America in the late 1930s compelled an adjustment of modern art practice and theory to the new cultural environment and to the needs of the cultural institutions that supported them. This radical redefinition of modern art implied the construction of a modernist canon, one that became hegemonic after WWII with the institutionalization of a discourse of modernism strictly focused on the value of form and an adherence to medium specificity. Associated with cartoons, advertising, and with popular culture in general, animation was dismissed as kitsch.  Moreover, while modernist scholars widely acknowledged film as the modernist medium par excellence, they did not pay much attention to animation, which was relegated to the category of a minor, subsidiary cinematic genre.

    Inherently and unabashedly multidisciplinary (it encompasses and creatively blends painting, drawing, sculpture, film and many other artistic media), animation obdurately defied and still challenges disciplinary regulation. Animation and animation theory, developed in the interstices between modernist fields of practice and theorization such as art history and film studies, offer a unique standpoint from where to analyze modernism in art, the historiography of this discourse, and modernist theory itself.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Sketching Out the ”Proxy Space”2016Inngår i: / [ed] Franziska Bukner, 2016, s. 15-15Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Animation is usually defined as the moving image that
 is not recorded from a real-time movement but the
 movement created artificially. My concern here is the 
visualisation of the space inaccessible for either pho
tographic film image or our sensory apparatus. I see it
 as the crucial attribute of animated image that is equally 
important for understanding of the animation medium
as the movement making. What the philosopher Paul 
Crowther labelled as "proxy space in animated film"
(quoted by Donald Crafton 2013: 147) could in my own
interpretation be distinguished as the creation of the diegetic space that only exists in the viewers' imagination, and only in the moment while they are watching the film. Mise-en-scène in animation is always a symbol for a space, no matter how convincing an illusion of three dimensions is created in some particular film. Actually, many animators who are active in our time exploit the fact that digital animation made a possible perception of space totally inaccessible to the photographic film technique. For instance the penetrating camera (fly-through) dissolves the restrictions associated with the pictorial space so that we can reach what we cannot see beyond the picture's surface. However, in this short presentation I aim to examine that aspect of animation in the realm of traditionally made animated films in order to verify the view on the "proxy space" being always an essential part of the animated image regardless technical or production conditions.In order to explore varied approaches toward the creation of "proxy space" I will look at some canonical films produced during the golden age of Zagreb School of Animation. Those films made by Vladimir Kristl, Dušan Vukotić, Borivoj Dovniković, Vatroslav Mimica and Nedeljko Dragić, provide lot of evidences that prove that animation space stands for an inherent liberation from the limitations of the laws of physics and entering into the world of the fantastic, symbolical and metaphorical. Employing various minimalistic methods the Zagreb animators created a complex multi-dimensional representation of space. By using several film examples I am going to emphasise five different methods in this paper.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Swedish animated film - 100 Years: Animated children's films, commercials, animated documentaries, as well as films influenced by comics made by distinct individualists are the cornerstones this cinematic phenomenon is based on.2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Swedish animated film - 100 Years
  • 42.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    The "Clayman" from Norway and his worlds2011Inngår i: Catalogue, 34th Göteborg International Film Festival, januari - februari 20011, Vol. 34, nr 34, s. 16-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    The Context and Development of Animated Documentaries, the Cornerstones of Modern Animation in Sweden2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems that the first decades of the new millennium has brought a small renaissance of documentaries, especially those that combine live action and animated pictures and even those visualised totally by employment of some animation technique. The main concern in this paper is a conspicuous propensity in Swedish animation toward animated documentary. Arguably, Sweden is the country that, besides Canada and Great Britain, has developed the most prolific production of films that merge documentary purposes and animated imagery. The paper is composed of three parts. In the beginning the paper defines animated documentary. Swedish animation and documentary history is roughed out in the second part putting emphasis on certain features that might be the base for the development of the animated documentary. Finally, the last part focuses first on some factors in its production and social background that, at least partly, explain why the animated documentary is a prominent feature on the Swedish animation scene and, lastly, some films and filmmakers that eminently represent the genre are pointed up.  

  • 44.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    The Feast of Humoristic Drawing2012Inngår i: Catalogue, 40th World Gallery of Cartoons – Skopje 2012, nr 1, s. 2-3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 45.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    The man and the line: Monographyc study of the work of animator, cartoonist and comics author Nedeljko Dragic2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nedeljko Dragic is without doubt one of the most important creators not only in the Zagreb School of animation but of cartoon films in general, if we accept this term as designating a particular subspecies within the medium of the animated image. However, because of several factors, not unimportant among them the author’s personal bohemian and nonchalant attitude to his work, his films and his other works have not to date been adequately studied.

    Dragic’s film animation, and also his comic strips and cartoons, are works of great complexity and stratified symbolism. Instead of treating animated artificial movement as a mimetic reflection of reality, as the great majority of his colleagues worldwide does, Dragic was practically from the beginning of his career interested in the concept of idea in motion, thought brought to life, visual anthropology and, especially topical in our time, documentary animation. For Dragic the viewer is an active consumer, and for him the act of projection is inter-sub- jective communication, an approach that has only become customary in our post- modern time. This, of course, is not the result of coincidence but of the intuition of an author who is turned to the future with all the force of his creative energy.

    This is why I decided on a combined form of monograph and author study, with emphasis on scholarly analysis and contextualisation in film history, not on the kind of text that is usually tailored to suit books of this kind. Therefore, the aim and purpose of this book is to lay an analytical foundation for the definitive contextualisation and evaluation of Nedeljko Dragic’s work in Croatian culture, and the development of the animation medium on the global level.

    I planned the book on several levels, where each chapter takes us one step further towards some aspect of Dragic’s opus, unaffected by time and still as interesting and provocative today at it was about half a century ago, when the majority of his works were created.

    The introductory chapter is a collection of personal notes about meetings with Nedeljko DragiÊ and the birth of the idea about this book, a process that lasted for decades.

    The second chapter focuses on Dragic the cartoonist, because, in my opinion, it was in this activity that all the preconditions developed which crucially determined the aesthetics of his animated films. Dragic the artist grew out of the modern cartoon, a tradition that differed comple- tely from the idea about the cartoon as a comical drawing, a drawn joke. The modern cartoon, whose prominent representative Saul Steinberg greatly influenced the formation of Dragic’s worldview as an author, is in the first place stamped by a wealth of symbolism and a great ran- ge of subjects which include practically all the basic philosophical issues about man and his world. Dragic’s experiences as a cartoonist fundamentally determin- ed him as a cineaste, animator, satirist and creator in general, sensitive to some of the basic moral issues of our time.

    The third chapter deals with the history of the contacts between and intertwining of comics and animation as a context for understanding Dragic’s work. In this chapter analysis focuses on the comic Tupko, which Dragic made for Vecernji list and which functions as a bridge notonly between his cartoons and films, but also serves to bring his entire opus toget- her into a coherent whole.

    The fourth chapter is a presentation of Nedeljko Dragic’s films, based on his personal attitude to each of them and showing characteristic excerpts from their critical reception.

    To completely understand the value of Dragic’s work, it must in my opinion be placed in the context of film history and global modernist processes in the animation medium, in the evolution of which an essential stage belongs to the phenomenon known as the Zagreb School. This is the purpose and ambition of the fifth chapter of the book. Dragic’s films grew out of and belong to the modernist wave that swept through animation from America after the 1940s and 1950s. This period brought a new trend in cartoon films, characterised by a different sensibility both in visual stylisation and approach to animation. This new current, known as limited animation in older film literature, meant a radical move away not only from the so-called Disney model but also from what was, for example, being created by Avery, Jones, Tashlin and other prominent authors in the Warner Bros. studio. Some important circumstances influenc- ed this development of animation, such as the war, change of lifestyle, industrialisation, the appearance of television, which soon became the main distributor of the animated picture, modern design and art in general. All these tendencies, after an initial spur from the United States, found fertile soil in, among other places, the Zagreb Animation Studio, and Nedeljko Dragic was one of the leading promoters and practicians of this trend.

    A precondition for any attempt to interpret Dragic’s work is the establishment of precise analytical instruments on which this analysis can be based. The- refore, the sixth chapter deals with animation semiotics, which has so far hardly ever appeared in its pure form, at least not in texts in languages that I know. I derived here this barely existent scholarly discipline from the relatively well-established film semiotics, because of the kind- red nature of the moving picture in animation and film (photography), whose basic characteristics are highly coincidental. I also see a reason for this approach in the fact that film semiotics often treat animation in a rather confused and contradictory manner. I will build a specific model for interpreting Dragic’s animation in the first place on the basis of the work of Yuri Lotman, an Estonian structuralist semiotician.

    The final chapter of the book is a long and detailed interview with Dragic himself, who comments all the essential issues concerning his work, the Zagreb School and animation in general from his own point of view.

     

  • 46.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    The Puppet-Actor in Virtual Environment: Theatrical puppetry, cinema puppetry, digital puppetry2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    My concern is animated puppetry in the digital era. Actually, this presentation is a brief depiction of a much larger "to-be-a book" project.

    Puppet comes from pupa, Latin for "small creature that portray human".

    The idea about a movable, humanlike object emerged in puppet theatre but blossomed in animated film. By using an inanimate objects as an actor puppet animators create worlds we recognize as a deeper, metaphorical truth of own world. Animators are tasked with creating expressions and emotions for their artificial figures, thus turning them into characters.

    That is why probably no other form of creating moving pictures is lavished with as much time, care and passion as stop-motion. In difference to live-action directors that direct living people, the animation director directs his or her own deepest feelings through the material, which allows practically unlimited space for individualism and creativity. By touching the models the animator leaves traces of his life on them so the feelings and spiritual state emanate from puppet-films as some sort of fantastic reportage about the dreams hidden deep in their creators.A great number of important puppet-animators such as Starewitz, Zeman, Ewald, O?Brien, Moss, Trnka, Pall, Kajer, Kawamoto, Borowczyck, Barta, Shorina, Svankmajer or Burton developed the type of iconoclastic aesthetic of the three-dimensional animation.

    But what happened with the illusion of "living" object in the modern 3D computer animation? Can we consider the three-dimensional figures created with the help of some software application as puppetry?

    I argue that digital puppetry could be seen as a new stage in the development of this form of expression whose basic characteristics largely coincide with cinema puppetry and theatrical puppetry.

    In this presentation I focus on a phenomenon sometimes called "uncanny valley",or rather a reduced emotional response, which I see as one of the main reasons for some doubts and confusion in recent discussions concerning digital animation. Absence of human touch and tactile sensation in digital pictures contributes to a form of dehumanization in 3D CGI animation because of the fact that mathematic accuracy in digitally created characters may not elicit the intended empathetic response in the viewer.

    I present three ways in which the problem is usually addressed by animators: (1) creating puppet characters that are in appearance markedly non-human or non-realistic, based on a tradition inherited from theatrical and cinema puppetry, (2) employing some documentary methods, (3) applying a kind of surreal quality to the performing puppet.

  • 47.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Throbbing Desire: During the 70s and 80s, a feminist animation movement grew forth with the Czech creator Michaela Pavlátová as one of the central figures. This year’s animator in focus is an exuberant fountain of ideas who with humor and rich imagery portrays inequality, masturbation and unhappy marriage.2015Inngår i: Catalogue, 38th Göteborg International Film Festival, Göteborg, 2015, nr 01, s. 23-28Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Download (pdf)
    Throbbing Desire
  • 48.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Titoism and the Idea of “The Third Road” as Ideological Foundation of Zagreb School for Animated Film2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographically, and ideologically, Yugoslavia stood on the border between two confronted blocks during the Cold War, but belonged to neither. The idea of ‘the third road’ was extremely popular; people really saw their country as an alternative to imperialist West and bureaucratic East.

    Yugoslav regime was rarely criticized for lack of democracy; it was more fiercely attacked by the nationalist right wing, which sheds much light on the catastrophe that happened after Tito’s death.

    Yugoslav film makers rarely confronted the system; they were mostly its ardent propagators. The ‘third road’ idea was popular even among the creators of Yugoslav’s best films – members of the Zagreb School of Animated film. Still, satire was an important element of Zagreb films, but the satirical razor was directed towards actual global problems, racism, colonialism, pollution, hunger, poverty, fear of the A-bomb, war, etc. Criticism was present, but it did not include social criticism. Yugoslav system was not only spared of criticism, it was, indirectly but indisputably, celebrated. The idea of a small, spiteful country existing on the borderline between two gigantic and hostile worlds was interwoven in many films made in the Zagreb studio. A small freedom oasis, surrounded by pressures, terror and danger, was an all-present motif in animated anecdotes of the leading school’s masters. A small man abused by his surrounding, who, despite the troubles, kept fighting for his way of life, his independence and neutrality was a common denominator of the authors of the Zagreb school, regardless of their artistic profile and their filmic and visual expression.

    Soon after Tito’s death in 1980, the idea of the ‘third road’ turned out to be completely ‘unrealistic reality’, just like La Grande Illusion. After Gorbachov, perestroika, the fall of the Berlin wall, and the end of the cold war, the idea of the ‘third road’ and a country in between lost its initial meaning. Yugoslavia lost its international position, and moreover, dissolved in a bloody war.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Tragajuci za kompleksnim kadrom: Roy Andersson, sadasnji i buduci klasik2010Inngår i: Sarajevske sveske/Sarajevo Notebok magazine, ISSN 1512-8539, nr 29-30, s. 548-562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Midhat Ajanovic's My Choice paints an idiosyncratic portrait of the most well-known Swedish director, Roy Andersson, and provides a translation of an inspirational program text by this controversial filmmaker.

  • 50.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Tragajuci za vidljivim pojmom / Searching for visible concept: Pokusaj definiranja semiotike animiranog filma na primjeru opusa Nedjeljka Dragica / An attempt to define animated film semiotic on the example on Nedeljko Dragic's work.2012Inngår i: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis / Croatian Film Cronicle, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. Sommar 2012, nr 70, s. 91-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The text looks at semiotics in animation, a branch of semiotic which, as far as the author knows, has practically never appeared in its pure form. Such barely existing scientific discipline is here derived from the comparison with a relatively established film semiotics, considering the similarity between animated and film (photographic) moving images, the basic characteristics of which in most pert overlap. A case study was conducted on the animated films by  Croatian author Nedeljko Dragic, due to their complexity and richness of layers in terms of symbolic charge. Instead of treating the artificial movement in animation as a mimetic reflection of reality, as most of his colleagues do, Dragic takes interest in a moving concept, in a thought brought to life, in visual anthropology amd in animated documentarism, particular topical in our times. For Dragic, a viewer is an active consumer snd he perceives the act of screening as intersubjective communication, an idea that will become popular only in our postmodern times. Of course, this is not a coincidence, this is the intuition of the author who has always looked at the future with the full force of his creative energy.

    Key words: Animated film, semiotic, sign, Nedeljko Dragic, Passing Days, Diary, Tup-Tup        

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