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  • 1.
    Aghaee, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm.
    Jobe, William
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Karunaratne, Thashme
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tedre, Matti
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Interaction Gaps in PhD Education and ICT as a Way Forward: Results from a Study in Sweden2016In: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 360-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many research studies have highlighted the low completion rate and slow progress in PhD education. Universities strive to improve throughput and quality in their PhD education programs. In this study, the perceived problems of PhD education are investigated from PhD students' points of view, and how an Information and Communication Technology Support System (ICTSS) may alleviate these problems. Data were collected through an online open questionnaire sent to the PhD students at the Department of (the institution's name has been removed during the double-blind review) with a 59% response rate. The results revealed a number of problems in the PhD education and highlighted how online technology can support PhD education and facilitate interaction and communication, affect the PhD students' satisfaction, and have positive impacts on PhD students' stress. A system was prototyped, in order to facilitate different types of online interaction through accessing a set of online and structured resources and specific communication channels. Although the number of informants was not large, the result of the study provided some rudimentary ideas that refer to interaction problems and how an online ICTSS may facilitate PhD education by providing distance and collaborative learning, and PhD students' self-managed communication.

  • 2.
    Aghaee, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Karunaratne, Thashmee
    Stockholm University.
    Smedberg, Åsa
    Stockholm University.
    Jobe, William
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Communication and Collaboration Gaps among PhD Students and ICT as a Way Forward: Results from a Study in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low completion rate and slow progress in PhD education have been highlighted in many studies. However, the interaction problems and communication gaps that PhD students encounter make this attempt even more challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate the peer interaction problems and ICT based solutions from PhD students’ perspectives. The data collection method was an online questionnaire and in-depth interviews were used to follow up. The target group for the survey was the PhD students in Computer Science at Stockholm University. The total number of respondents for the survey was 53 PhD students and eleven randomly selected PhD students for the interviews. The results reflected a lack of peer interaction as an important issue in the perspective of the students. Based on this, the study showed several ICT solutions that have the potential to reduce the interaction problems and thereby improve PhD students’ collaborative learning and research quality.

  • 3.
    Algers, Anne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. wedish University of Agricultural Sciences Skara Sweden.
    Lindström, Berner
    University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Work-based learning through negotiated projects: Exploring learning at the boundary2016In: Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning, ISSN 2042-3896, E-ISSN 2042-390X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 2-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    More collaborative and open learning models are suggested as part of the paradigm shift in the way knowledge is produced, distributed and used. This paper aims to explore a work-based learning model, based on systemic negotiations between actors from the three parties: The academy, the industry and the students. The purpose is to investigate how teachers, supervisors and students value negotiated work-based learning as a boundary activity and to enhance the understanding of the learning potential at the boundary.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Activity theory is used as a lens to analyse the results from a survey to the three stakeholder groups and interviews of students. The four learning mechanisms are used to explore learning at the boundary between the two activity systems.

    Findings

    Diversity and mobility in education and work addressed by the notion of boundary crossing are associated with both challenges and a learning potential. There is a constant dynamic between structure and agency, where structure, the negotiated model, influence the individual agency. When gradually removing scaffolding students can as boundary crossers engage behaviourally, emotionally, and cognitively and have agency to handle contradictions at a local level. However, they did not seem to prioritize both systems equally but instead they were gradually socialised into the activity system of the industry.

    Originality/value

    When work-based learning is framed by a negotiated partnership it can manage and customize inherent conflicts of interest and enhance individual learning opportunities at the boundary and can be conceptualized as an open learning practice.

  • 4.
    Ali, Hussein
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Al-Habobi, Ahmed
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svenska molnleverantörers perspektiv på säkerhetsrisker vid användning av molntjänster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of the cloud has contributed to a remarkable change within the IT industry. The outstanding functionality of using the cloud is the possibility to access data from a variety of sources regardless of its geographical location. Today different users around the world utilize the cloud, users from a broad range of businesses and backgrounds. However, there are also downsides to the cloud that might lead to severe negative consequences if not taken into consideration. This study identifies the security risks that could occur by using the cloud. These security risks have been identified and analyzed, in order to minimize them. Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the risks of using the cloud in order to minimize security risks and to achieve an increased security when using the cloud. The research question was answered using a scientific methodology based on the collection of qualitative data. The qualitative data was collected through interviews. More specifically, multiple interviewees from different suppliers in Sweden, all whom contributed with relevant information to this study. The result of this study shows that the amount of security risks is dependent on the supplier providing the cloud and the type of cloud infrastructure. Hence, the risks in the cloud could vary depending on which supplier that offers the service. Today it is almost impossible to eliminate the security risks that the cloud entails. However, this study shows that the potential to minimize these risks are found within the set agreement between supplier and customer, risks that both parties agree on are acceptable to the customer. 

  • 5.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Ashgar, Summara
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Work–integrated informal Learning (WiiL) Adopting Social Networking as Interdisciplinary Learning at Workplace2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integrated Learning usually focuses on student's practical knowledge and learning duringthe education, while a student after completing the institutional period is still a student at workplace ass/he never stops learning. Learning within the organization is not only the formal training and educationof the employees, but also an informal process of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices, and norms, as well as the social ties among the persons.The use of social networking site within the organization enables a new work integrated methodof learning and communication among the colleagues from different disciplines, encouraging both personal and professional informal knowledge sharing inside the organization. Our analysis ofemployee's behavior and acceptance of social networking as an informal way of learning was performed by a descriptive case survey research.The respondents providing the empirical data for survey consisted of 105 out of 180 targeted employees from a private IT organization in Pakistan. The questionnaire results present that the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in the hierarchical levels of the profession within the organization. Their motivation in using social networking includes sharing personal and professional experiences with co-workers and advancing their career.This paper illustrates the power of social networking as a Work Integrated Informal Learning (WIIL) tool that contributes significantly to increase the gain of interdisciplinary knowledge within the organization

  • 6.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Ashgar, Summara
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kim, Sung Won
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Byung-Seo
    Department of Computer & Information Communication Engineering Hongik University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
    Competence development at workplace: a work integrated informal learning (WIIL) approach2016In: Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, ISSN 0973-7006, Vol. 2, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning within the organization is not only linked to the formal training and education of the employees, but also to informal processes of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices and norms, as well as in social ties among individuals in the organization. We analyzed employees' behavior and acceptance of online social networking as an information system (IS) of learning. The analysis is performed by a descriptive case survey within a telecom corporation in Pakistan. The purpose of our study is to bring an informal learning system at workplace. In this study we obtain quantitative data from 105 out of 180 targeted employees. The results show that a majority of the studied employees favor social networking to connect colleagues at different levels and more than half of the respondents share their knowledge and experiences using social sites. Nearly half of the respondents strongly agree that knowledge sharing is an important role of social sites within the organization and many are in favor of social media as an informal learning system. The results also show how the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in hierarchical levels of professions. This paper illustrates the benefits of social networking sites as an informal work integrated learning tool that also serves as an IS model for the organization.

  • 7.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Ashgar, Summara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kim, Sung Won
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Byung-Seo
    Department of Computer & Information Communication Engineering Hongik University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
    Social Networking sites for Interdisciplinary Learning at Workplace: Work integrated informal Learning (WiiL)2016In: International Conference on Advanced Computing, Communication and Information Sciences (ICACCI-2016): Proceedings, Pushpa Publishing House , 2016, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integrated Learning (WIL) studies usually focuses on educational situations when professional organizations are actively involved in learning processes for students in higher education. However, after completing the institutional period entering the professional arena, the professional person is still actually a student at the workplace as s/he never stops learning. Learning within the organization is not only linked to the formal training and education of the employees, but also to informal processes of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices and norms, as well as in social ties among individuals in the organization. Our analysis of employees' behavior and acceptance of online social networking as an information system (IS) of learning is performed by a descriptive case survey within a telecom corporation in Pakistan. Thepurpose of our study is to bring an informal learning system at workplace. In this study we quantitative data isobtained from 105 out of 180 targeted employees. The results show that a majority of the studied employees favors social networking to connect colleagues at different levels and more than half of the respondents share their knowledge and experiences using social sites. Nearly half of the respondents strongly agree that knowledge sharing is an important role of social sites within the organization and many are in favor of social media as an informal learning system. The results also show how the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in hierarchical levels of professions. This paper illustrates the benefits of social networking sites as an informal work integrated learning tool that also serves as an IS model for the organization.

  • 8.
    Ampem, Daniel Kwame Baidoo
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Helping Out Refugees: the Way Forward Stakeholders' Activities for Newcomers in Trollhättan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study used the qualitative research approach to investigate stakeholders' activities, stakeholders' opinions on technology, stakeholders' opinions on newcomers and problems of stakeholders in Trollhättan. Interest was on provided activities of the stakeholders'. With the actor network theory (ANT) framework, the study addressed the problem of newcomers to know about stakeholders' activities in Trollhättan. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted on seven stakeholders in Trollhättan municipality. A private company, Trollhättan Municipality Employment Office, the Red Cross, a university and three non-profit organizations. Data were analyzed based on summative content analyses. The study revealed that stakeholders arrange varied types of initiatives but it was hard for refugees that were placed in Trollhättan, especially newly arrived in Trollhättan to get access to the initiatives. The study concluded that reaching out to newly arrived newcomers is a major problem for stakeholders in Trollhättan.

  • 9.
    Ampem, Daniel Kwame Baidoo
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Reaching Out, Tuning in: On the Problematic Information Structure Hindering Connection between Socially Engaged Organizations and Refugees in the Municipality of Trollhättan2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 21-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent refugee crises have caused newcomers to settle in different municipalities in Sweden. Different municipalities respond differently to the situations that arise from an increased number of refugees waiting for decisions from the Swedish Migration Agency regarding residence permit. Such variation in response also affects how refugees can access relevant information about activities and initiatives available in the designated municipality while waiting. This study investigated how stakeholders' in the municipality of Trollhättan experienced their possibilities to spread information about their activities targeting refugees. A particular interest was on what kind of activities stakeholders provided, problems they face in reaching out to refugees, and opinions on using technology usage for outreach. Seven stakeholders in Trollhättan municipality were included in the study; a private company, the municipal employment office, a university and four nonprofit organizations. Findings suggest that stakeholders did arrange various types of initiatives but it was hard for refugees placed in Trollhättan to get access to these local initiatives. Stakeholders wanted to reach out to as many refugees as possible but they have a hard time doing so. The study concluded that information access of stakeholders activities is a major problem for refugees in Trollhättan. In order to address the dispersed and hard-to-find information from the varied stakeholders, a mobile app was suggested as a solution to the information problem in order to create a digital cental place for stakeholder initiatives and information spread. These initiatives, if known about, could create a more active and varied everyday life for refugees awaiting decisions from the migration board. For stakeholders to reach out with information of planned activities and for refugees to be able to tunein to these possibilities becomes particularly important in municipalities where refugees are dispersed in various kinds of locations, rather than living in largec amps.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Researc Borås, Sweden; University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Borås, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Researc Borås, Sweden; University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Borås, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anna
    Ambulance Department, South Älvsborg's Hospital, Borås, Sweden.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Researc Borås, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Växjö, Sweden.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Researc Borås, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Researc Borås, Sweden; University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Borås, Sweden.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Skaraborg Hospital, Infection Disease Department, Skövde, Sweden.
    The early chain of care in bacteraemia patients: Early suspicion, treatment and survival in prehospital emergency care.2018In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, article id S0735-6757(18)30279-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Bacteraemia is a first stage for patients risking conditions such as septic shock. The primary aim of this study is to describe factors in the early chain of care in bacteraemia, factors associated with increased chance of survival during the subsequent 28days after admission to hospital. Furthermore, the long-term outcome was assessed.

    METHODS: This study has a quantitative design based on data from Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital records.

    RESULTS: In all, 961 patients were included in the study. Of these patients, 13.5% died during the first 28days. The EMS was more frequently used by non-survivors. Among patients who used the EMS, the suspicion of sepsis already on scene was more frequent in survivors. Similarly, EMS personnel noted the ESS code "fever, infection" more frequently for survivors upon arriving on scene. The delay time from call to the EMS and admission to hospital until start of antibiotics was similar in survivors and non-survivors. The five-year mortality rate was 50.8%. Five-year mortality was 62.6% among those who used the EMS and 29.5% among those who did not (p<0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that among patients with bacteraemia who used the EMS, an early suspicion of sepsis or fever/infection was associated with improved early survival whereas the delay time from call to the EMS and admission to hospital until start of treatment with antibiotics was not. 50.8% of all patients were dead after five years.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Lisette
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bengtsson, Christian
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Behovet av ett mobilt informations- och dokumentationsverktyg i hemtjänsten: Personalens perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although the work in home care businesses most often are mobile, the documentation and information management often occurs in information systems through desktop computers. The need for mobile solutions have become more relevant as they may contribute to increased safety, improved quality and time savings. However, research shows that business knowledge is often overlooked in the development of health systems, which contributes to IT support that are not adapted to the business needs. This study aims to increase understanding on how home care staff believes that mobile IT support the care work and organization routines.

    The study was conducted in a home care business through qualitative interviews of six respondents and a thematic analysis model has been used, containing three theoretical areas: Efficiency, Ease of use and Usability, Satisfaction and Motivation. The results show that a mobile IT support would represent a clear advantage in the business and that the existing information system could either be supplemented or replaced. However, the staff still have fears and negative attitudes towards the obstacles and risks of what new technologies can bring to the table.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Marcus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kartläggning och automatisering av den interna varuförsörjningskedjan: en fallstudie på Lindex AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabbt ökande digitaliseringen som sker i dagens samhälle påverkar såväl människor som teknik. Utvecklingen av digitala kanaler låter oss idag kommunicera och handla på helt nya sätt samtidigt som robotar är på väg att bli en del i vardagen. Inom e-handel har utveckling av automatiserade system och robotliknande teknik kommit långt och kan bidra till effektivare processer i företag. Lindex AB är ett av Sveriges största modeföretag och konkurrera ständigt med andra företag på marknaden för att uppfylla kunders behov och krav på service. Något som blivit allt viktigare på detaljhandelsmarknaden är försäljning genom digitala kanaler och e-handel där ordrarna ökar samtidigt som det ställs högre krav på kortare ledtider.

    Lindex har i denna studie en central del där syftet är att undersöka möjligheter och hinder för automatiserade lösningar i lager genom att studera orderhanteringen i Lindex e-handelsmiljö. Studien innefattar en teoridel som introducerar läsaren till automatisering av lagerprocesser där flera exempel på robotlösningar och avancerade lagersystem presenteras. Att ha robotar som transporterar varor till personalen istället för den traditionella versionen där personalen plockar varor från stationära plockplatser är idag en möjlighet. Detta kan innebära effektivare processer och slutligen kortare ledtider till kund.

    Intervjuer och observationer ligger till grund för studiens kvalitativa undersökningsansats som ger följd till ett resultat med mycket bilder. Totalt har sex observationer och tre intervjuer genomförts för att noggrant studera företagets processer. Deltagande observationerna har genomförts där författaren fått möjligheten att följa och studera nyckelprocesserna i Lindex varuflöde på en lagernivå.

    Slutsatsen visar på att det skulle vara svårt att automatisera processer på grund av flera hinder men tyder på att en av processerna som observerats har god möjlighet till automatisering på grund av dess starka koppling till lagersystem.

  • 13.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rangraz, Masood
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stenmark, Dick
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied Information Technology.
    TRANSFORMATION OF COMPETENCE: THE EFFECTS OF DIGITALIZATION ONCOMMUNICATORS' WORK2017In: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS),: ECIS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 195-209Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying human competence in relation with digitalization is currently an under-researched area within information systems scholarship. This paper presents a response to the contemporary calls within the IS field for studying the changes brought on by the advent of digitalization. Based on indepth interviews with professional communicators, we illustrate the effects of digitalization on the formation of work related competences. Employing a new sociotechnical system approach (Neo-STS), we analyze and illustrate the effects of digitalization in multiple ways. First, we propose that any further study of competence cannot be inadvertent to the phenomenon of digitalization. Second, we suggest a new approach for studying competence in relation with digitalization as opposed to studying "digital competence". Third, by applying a Neo-STS perspective, we provide a substantiated explanation of the transformation of competences in the work of communicators.

  • 14.
    Aronsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Drechsel, Nils
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Dags att köra agilt!: vilka är de främsta för-­ och nackdelarna med att använda en agil systemutvecklingsmetod?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med studien och rapporten var att bidra till en ökad förståelse kring agila metoder för att kunna fatta beslut om användande av en agil systemutvecklingsmetod är motiverad. Studien var av kvalitativ karaktär och arbetade utifrån frågeställningen "vilkade främsta för- och nackdelarna med att använda en agil systemutvecklingsmetod?". Med hjälp utav djupintervjuer och litteraturstudier samlades empiri och vetenskaplig teori in.Vilken utvecklingsmetod en organisation använder har visats sig vara avgörande för organisationens produktivitet och kvalitet på dess resultat. Den sekventiella metoden har varit normen för IT-utvecklingsprojekt under en lång tid, vilket är orsaken till att vissaorganisationer fortfarande använder den. Allmänna problemen med den sekventiella metoden är att den har svårt att hantera förändringar, svårt att leverera vad kunden efterfrågar samt att modellen skjuter fram riskfulla och utmanande moment till slutet av projektet. Att istället byta till en agil metod kan vara lösningen på dessa problem då metoden är framtagen för att vara flexibel med nära kundsamarbete för att säkerställa att resultatet som levereras stämmer överens med vad kunden efterfrågade. Slutsatsen av studien har visat sig vara att de främsta fördelarna med en agil metod är: Den levererar vad kunden efterfrågar, kan enkelt hantera kravförändringar, är anpassningsbar samt ger enhögre kvalité på slutprodukten. De främsta nackdelarna studien har visat sig vara: Hantering utav dokumentation, svårt att skala upp till stora organisationer samt att metoden är krävande.

  • 15.
    Arriazú Nolasco, Noelia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vegan lifestile on Facebook: An online ethnography study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been an increase in the number of vegans in the world. The main goal of my research is to understand the vegan struggles in their daily life and study how Facebook might help them solve these difficulties. This master's thesis focuses on the user perspective and how they perceive barriers to follow a vegetarian lifestyle in Spain. The research questions are about finding those barriers and knowing how they could be solved by using Facebook groups. For this purpose, an ethnographic approach has been used.

    The target group of this study are vegans who have gone through the time of change and may have had some problems in making that decision. Fifteen vegans have been interviewed to find challenges that have arisen when they have changed their lifestyles. After that, an online ethnography study has been performed by observing the content of a Facebook group, called "Vegetarianos y Veganos – España", focusing on publications where group members were asking for advice, information or solutions.

    The results indicate that the investigated group of Facebook is essential for the exchange of information, knowledge and experience. The members also contribute to increased knowledge through publications and comments. But most importantly, the members receive solutions to the problems they share with the group.

  • 16.
    Arslan, Metin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Direktmarknadsföring och Cookies: Hur förenklas och förbättras direktmarknadsföring med Cookies2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations are constantly striving after improved products, services and business operations etc. with the help of IT. This means that new approaches in various fieldsemerge. Direct marketing is a phenomenon that has grown significant in recent decades. In Direct marketing is consumer preferences, the results and feedback is vital. A cookie is a text file that is stored on a user's computer to extend the usability for the user. The purpose of this study is to describe how direct marketing can be simplified and improved with Cookies. The study's question is based on the question, how can direct marketing be simplified and improved with the help of Cookies? Based on the study's purpose and question, the analysis consists of these two areas together with the study's results. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach and used an inductive approach. Chain sample principle is a type of convenience sample, which was used during data collection and to increase the study's credibility response validation has been used during the data collection. Empirical material was collected from two respondents who appear anonymously in the results section. These participants are assigned fictitious names, Jakob and Victor. The results are presented on the basis of the information collection process, mapping and analysis process. The text retells in a narrative form and in a woven text to compress the content. The analysis consists of the study's theoretical background and results. With this analysis as a starting point a discussion section is explained in the study. The last chapter in this paper outlines the conclusions from the analysis and discussion.

  • 17.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lessons Learned From A Cross-Sector Development Project: An Integrative Research Approach2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2018, p. 3914-3922Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on the experiences of work-integrated learning from a Swedish-Norwegian cross-sector research project where actors from university, industry, government and volunteer sector collaborate on city center development. The empirical setting of the present study consists of six smaller cities in rural municipalities with limited resources and experiences of collaboration with higher education institutions. The following research question is addressed: How can research and development projects serve as a vehicle for facilitating mutual knowledge exchange between academia and society in cross-sector and rural collaboration contexts? The aim is hence to suggest a tentative collaboration model that identify and integrate knowledge flows between actors involved in cross-sector collaborations in such setting. To gain deep insights in the complex dynamics of project collaboration we applied a mixed methods approach including surveys, structured, in-depth qualitative interviews, observations, workshops and student projects. The data collection was performed during 2016-2017. Findings indicate that trust, continuity, and relationship building are the basis vital for successful creation, development and maintenance of knowledge flows. Furthermore, there is a need to develop an integrative tool box with different methodological tools, work practices and strategies to plan, perform, compile to leverage the knowledge flows and coproduce sustainable results. Our tentative model aims to illustrate conceptualize lessons learned on work-integrated learning and collaboration with academia. We discuss how the model may support co-creative and mutual results over time. 

  • 18.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wilenius, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The Value of Investments in Competence Development and Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing2015In: Proceedings Cross-Cultural Business Conference 2015, Steyr, Austria / [ed] Margarethe Überwimmer, Teresa Gangl, Martina Gaisch, Robert Füreder, David Humbarger, Friedrich Bauinger, Hannes Hofstadler, Jörg Kraigher-Krainer, Christian Stadlmann, Pavel Štrach, Andreas Zehetner (Eds.), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2015, p. 13-27Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Asp Johansson, Vidar
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Väisänen, John
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vårdens behov av modernisering av sina kommunikationssystem: En kvalitativ studie om varför man använder omodern teknik och hur den skulle kunna digitaliseras2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in digitizing health care in Sweden is increasing, however, there are still old technologies that seem impossible to get rid of. The fax machine is used daily in healthcare and is therefore a difficult process to replace. Studies show that it is necessary to replace the fax machine as it is a safety issue. The fax machine fails in patient safety, which is important to maintain in healthcare. The problem arises because the caretaker must print out the patient information and then fax it and it can be faxed wrong, but even if it is correctly faxed, there are several of the staff members that it gets through.

    This study tries to find out how this information could be digitized by reviewing how the fax is used in healthcare organizations. Replacing the fax could lead to more efficient care, reduce duplication and create more secure communication within the healthcare.

    This study has conducted interviews with a qualitative approach with healthcare staff from municipalities around western Götaland in Sweden for a deeper insight into the use of the fax and how it could be replaced. The theory is based on a sociotechnical perspective, taking into consideration both the technology and social aspects of a process change. Using the theory, previous research has been developed that has been the basis for setting up interview questions. Where all parts of the theory were analyzed to provide the best solution for how the faxed information could be digitized.

    The result of the study showed that it was necessary to change both work processes and create new features in the system to communicate between different systems. Alternatively introduce a common system for all healthcare providers. One needs to know exactly how a process is performed in an organization and digitize it one by one to make the fax disappear completely.

  • 20.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Heideggerian Approach to "Educationalness" Aspect of Educational Technologies2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadly speaking, educational technology is primarily viewed as learning tools. But whenever we emphasize on the adjective "educational", we must however be clear about what we mean by the educationalness aspect of these technologies. Therefore, we shall consider that there exist a lot of conceptual problems associated with the particularly such an ambiguous loaded term. As an example, researchers use various keywords/concepts such as 'learning' aimed at saying learners are either learn:'via'; 'through'; and, 'with' educational technologies but not definitely 'by' them. Why? Because in the latter case; using the English proposition 'by' it means we have in somehow accepted these tools are able to teach learners automatically. However, at the end; it's only the learner who learn depending on manyfactors, each determining the ratio of her/his leaning curve. So, knowing which appropriate English proposition to use is of paramount importance. Inspired by Heideggerian approach to the notion of technology, which should concern us today as well, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the"what" aspect of the learners regarding how they maintain their relationships with whatever educational technologies in use. It seems that these Teaching-learning tools such as YouTube has not been used effectively due to mainly the various learners, more or less, unawareness about how to approach the "essence" of these learning tools. To operationalize the Heideggerian approach to learning, his notion of the "essence of technology" will be discussed by using Technology, Pedagogy, and Content (TPAC) framework. Using such a framework will help us to discuss what and how learners manage their knowledge cognitively.

  • 21.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Determinants of Perceived IT Management in Primary School Settings: integrating self-management, shared management, and IT policy into technology acceptance model2015In: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August. / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen (eds.), 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Towards a Framework for Re-conceptualization of Work-integrated Learning: an ontological approach2015In: 19th World Conference Proceedings Refereed Papers, 2015, p. 1-17Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Work-integrated learning (WIL) is very closely connected to the concept of purposefully designed curriculum. The main focus is on conducting a range of rigorous approaches to integrate theory with the practice. The existing view of the WIL emerged out of the theory of employability. WIL has been traditionally viewed as a strategic merely curriculum design rather than adopting a Whole-organization approach to effective leadership theory–practice symbiosis (LTPS), which we advocate. Such an approach is useful in enhancing an awareness to consider concerns and interests of all stakeholders that are involved in the multiple initiatives pursued in higher education institutions. But it requires fundamental rethinking and radical design of WIL-inspired educational processes such as course design. Rethinking implies approaching WIL ontologically. Depending on which extent the concept of WIL has been perceived by universities worldwide, it has been thus viewed and implemented from a diverse spectrum of perspectives. First, we discuss the implications for the existed conceptual differences. Thereafter, and inspired by the main philosophical assumptions underpinning a Whole-organization approach to WIL, we propose and thus thoroughly concretize a framework which we call Work-related Educational Activities (WREA). The model which is the theoretical foundation of WREA consists of a category of several components. After identification of the main components of the model, we adopt an ontological approach to the reconceptualization of WIL. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to demonstrate how University West in Sweden views WIL, which is its newly announced research profile. Secondly, an attempt to re-conceptualize WIL by conducting an ontological approach to WREA.

  • 23.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

  • 24.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Systematic Process for Selecting a Typical Case in School Setting2013In: Proceedings IRIS 36: August 11-14 2013 at Gran, Norway / [ed] Bratteteig, Tone, Aanestad, Margunn & Skorve, Espen, Oslo: University of Oslo , 2013, p. 461-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the rationale behind the concrete steps how we systematically have gone through the case selection process as the first phase of a research project named Consequences of the Digitalization of Schools. The project is a single-case longitudinal (5-year long) study and adopts a so called Whole-School Approach. Previous research has criticized case studies for lack of both systematic approach and transparency in the presentation of the case selection process. The purpose of the presentation of this case selection process is to contribute to enhancing understanding of and broadening knowledge on systematic and transparent case selection techniques. The SIRIS database has been used to select a typical Swedish primary school in the chosen municipality where the project will be conducted. The SIRIS database contains annually statistics from all primary schools in Sweden, and is available online for public use. We demonstrate how and why a particular school representing a so called typical school was selected as our case. 

  • 25.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Managing the Digitalization of Schools: an explorative study of school principals’ and IT-managers’ perceptions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of ICT in school setting is in many ways a complex managerial task that involves several stakeholder groups. Firstly, principals and deans have to relate to the local, regional, national, and international policies and governing systems. Furthermore, the voices of teachers, students and their parents have to be considered and negotiated. In this paper, we explore how school principals’ and municipal IT-managers’ perceive the usefulness and the potential role that ICT play in the school context. In a pilot study of a single school district in a Swedish municipality, we have interviewed representatives from the municipal board of education, the municipal IT-support for schools, and two principals. By using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3) as an analytical lens to understand the two constructs of “Perceived usefulness” and the possible role of ICT, we conclude that the barriers for successful integration of IT into educational practices requires firstly overcoming the lack of coordinated ICT investment strategy and tracking of ICT. This can be done by having a clearly articulated ICT policy distributed to school staff which we argue will positively influence the perceived usefulness as expressed by principals and their governing body. Secondly, inclusion of ICT in all aspects of teachers’ professional school activities will bring change to school activities and processes.

  • 26.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Managing the Digitalization of Schools: an exploratory study of school principals’ and IT managers’ perceptions about ICT adoption and usefulness2014In: Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2014, Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2014, p. 106-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In nowadays increasingly ICT-related investments in an overgrowing competitive school setting, the deployment, maintenance, and particularly the effective use of ICT is in many ways a complex multifaceted managerial task involving several stakeholder groups. In a pilot study of a single school district in a Swedish municipality, we have interviewed representatives from the municipal board of education, the municipal IT-support for schools, and two principals. We have used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3) as our analytical lens to explore how school principals’ and municipal IT-managers’ perceive ICT adoption, usefulness, and the potential role of ICT. We conclude that the barriers for a successful integration of ICT into school-related activities requires a holistic managerial thinking in order to overcome the lack of coordinated ICT investment strategy and tracking of ICT.

  • 27.
    Bakraqi, Valon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Humed Darir, Yasir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Användarvänlig interaktion med mobila enheter: En studie av centrala designprinciper för mobila enheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this study presents the way that technology for mobile units has developed in a quick pace, which has led to an expansion of smartphone usage. While the smartphone usage has expanded, the websites hasn't followed the same development. The problematic discussion in this area deals with the difficulties of adapting interfaces from a stationary computer to the interface of a smartphone.

    Selected mobile sites from different airlines have been investigated, based on how user-friendly they are. The study aims to investigate the problems that can arise when airline sites are not user-friendly, and illustrate how the various design principles are applied in these selected websites. Previous research regarding this topic shows that it's difficult to adapt a website to a smartphone. The same design principles are required as for the ordinary websites, but they need to be performed in a stricter manner. Moreover, earlier research shows that usability is an important aspect in the design of the site for smartphones.

    A qualitative approach was applied in the study, where the approach to collect materials for the study has applied the method think aloud, and interviews have been conducted in order to gain a deeper understanding. The result of this study shows that the investigated mobile websites suffer of severly insufficient usability in regards to the investigated design principles and the principles of usability. It is crucial to apply design principles for good mobile usability to the areas that are important for the interaction between the website and the user. The website and its functions should adapt, depending on the device the user uses to browse the website. The website should not confuse the user and should always give feedback on the whereabouts of the user on the website.

  • 28.
    Balaj, Adenis
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Berg, Ronnie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Konsekvenser vid införandet av automatiserade processer: Utifrån ett verksamhetsperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated the consequences of implementing automated processes from an employee perspective. The study has been limited to Trollhättan Stad and their employees. We have investigated two different processes, which are "Grävningstillstånd" and "Avvikelser". Local activities aim today to conduct e-government, which includes automated processes. Automated processes can result in better work efficiency, but it may also require more technical expertise and skill of the staff. People can be an obstacle in the process, and it may mean that the process will take longer to be carried out. The study was conducted using a qualitative method where data collection occurred through interviews and document study. Six interviewees that all were employees in Trollhättan Stad in various administrations have been interviewed in this study. These interviews have been conducted in a semi-structured way. Search theory has been used through various search engines and databases. Interviewee's real names have been replaced with names of their roles in Trollhättan Stad, thus reducing the risk of information linked to a specific person. The theory chapter describes the first general information on e-government and collected information of the consequences of automated processes. We have determined that automated processes leads to better work efficiency, enables more control of tasks and that more cases are submitted. Automated processes can lead to increased costs, with the purchase of various services and goods at maintaining the system. Although in other areas of the organization it leads to cost savings. In some cases, the new systems require some education of the employees.

  • 29.
    Begicevic, Dias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vi ses på nätet: en studie om ungdomars sätt att umgås via datorn2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When young people today tend to spend part of their leisure time in front of the computer and communicate via various internet-based communication tools may the question be asked if the communication is different from the communication that takes place in reality, and this in turn influences the ability to communicate in an empathic way with their fellow human beings. The question formulation is about if communication via the internet and in real life is different from each other, how young people look at the interaction via the internet-based communication tools, and how this affects them. The method that has been used is qualitative interviews to get as detailed answer as possible by the respondents.The survey results show that young people differ in their way to be, depending on the form of socializing utilized. The selection of social company form are based on mood, the home's rules, weather and season. Internet-based communication tools are used more as a supplement to physical meetings rather than replacing them, in spite of this there is a skepticism from the parents against Internet communication. It can be concluded that the interaction and communication via the internet is not a substitute for physical interaction with other people, but rather serves as a complement to this. An awareness that the communication over the internet can seem harsher exists and it is not used in physical meetings and that communications over the internet seems to be more intense during a short period of adolescence can also conclude that the interaction with other people in real life is not significantly affected.The work does largely agree with what previous research has shown.

  • 30.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Blomgren, Roger
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    En kritisk analys av IT-visioner inom hälsa och kultur2010In: Förvaltning och medborgarskap i förändring: etablerad praxis och kritiska perspektiv / [ed] Lindblad-Gidlund, Katarina, Ekelin, Annelie, Eriksén, Sara, Ranerup, Agneta, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2010, 1, p. 251-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2015In: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 59-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter aims to describe and analyze a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews weremade with twelve managers from ten small enterprises. Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise butalso to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use ofdigital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 32.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Challenging Organizational Issues When Municipal Contact Centers are Implemented in Sweden2013In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 198-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two case studies of the implementation of Contact Centres(CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and discussed from anorganizational perspective. The research method was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. Several challenging organizational issues for management and employees were identified:the implementation strategies varied among the cases and affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation, the mental construct and understanding of the implementation. The financing of the CC and recruitment strategies created problems, but in somewhat different ways and in phases of the process in each case. The potential of using registered information as asource for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized, although somestatistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal andinformal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees inthe CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good,co-operative working climate. There was a need for continuous updating ofskills in both cases, but with slightly different focus, related to theorganization of the work. The organization in response groups required morespecialist competence, compared with the organization without response groups,which required more general competence. Some challenges for the caseadministrators in the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organizationof their work, and to co-operate more with their colleagues both in the backoffice and at the CC. They now had the possibility to plan their administrativework in a better way than before, but some administrators missed the previousspontaneous contacts with citizens. Initially, many case administrators wereafraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negativeattitudes towards CC and hampering the learning process in taking part in theimplementation process.

  • 33.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Municipal Support of Entrepreneurship and Business Development from an e-government Perspective2015In: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Uddevalla: University West , 2015, p. 44-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article will contribute to the debate about regional development in peripheral areas by examining the social capital in 14 villages in a Danish municipality, and particularly the influence of social media on the social capital.Contrary to the current public discourse in Denmark on peripheral communities and how they are falling apart because of demographic changes, economic cut backs, and structural changes, this study did not find one single village, where the social capital seems to be in any imminent danger. The article also proposes a different perspective on the operationalization of social capital. Social capital is typically measured in big international values surveys based on the variables network, trust and reciprocity. However, this study is based on a qualitative research with interviews in 14 villages in a peripheral Danish municipality. This in depth research shows that when examining the social capital of communities, the most valuable parameter is to look at the most typical proxy for network: associations and in particular the character of these associations. They furthermore give an indication of the kind of social capital they are building and maintaining.The study also shows that we might have to extend the notion of network to include that of social media as this type of network gets increasingly more important. However, the study cannot conclude that the communities not using the social media have less social capital then the one who does, nor that they are disconnected from the citizens.

  • 34.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Networking and e-government for local development: experiences gained by entrepreneurs in small enterprises in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 154-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyse experiences gained by entrepreneurs in small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change, focusing on networking and e-government for local development. The study is a further development of a study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In-depth qualitative interviews were made with twelve entrepreneurs from ten small enterprises. Based on a theoretical discussion of networking, e-government and social media marketing, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important in order to develop their enterprises, which also contributed to local development. The importance of initial face-to-face contacts in order to build business relationships in networks was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement, the use of social media marketing was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the entrepreneurs.

  • 35.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers first presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium, 12-14 June, Uddevalla, Sweden. / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2014, p. 165-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyse a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews were made with twelve managers from ten small enterprises.

       Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise but also to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use of digital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 36.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lessons Learned from the Implementation of Contact Centers in Swedish Municipalities2013In: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on e-Government: University of Insubria, Varese, Italy, 13-14 June 2013 / [ed] Elena Ferrari and Walter Castelnovo, Reading, 2013, p. 63-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Two case studies of the implementation of contact centers (CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and analyzed. The purpose of the article is to focus on lessons learned from the perspectives of the management and the employees in the organizations according to the MOA-model. The research method used was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. According to our findings the implementation strategies varied among the two cases. The strategies affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation aspects and understanding of the implementation. The potential of using registered information as a source for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized in the municipal organizations, although some statistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal and informal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees in the CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good, co-operative working climate. Some learning challenges for the handling officers at the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organization. Initially, many handling officers at the back-office were afraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negative attitudes towards CC, and hampering the learning process in taking part in the implementation process. The establishment of a CC is a comprehensive organizational change process affecting the whole municipal administration. A challenge for the municipalities is to formulate relevant strategies and manage the implementation in order to involve all employees.

  • 37.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Municipal Support of Entrepreneurship and Business Development from an e-Government Perspective2013In: Uddevalla Symposium 2013 Innovation, High-Growth Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Revised papers presented at the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 13-15 June, 2013, Kansas City, MO, USA / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2013, 1, p. 177-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyze municipal support of entrepreneurship and business development from an e-government perspective. We analyze two Swedish municipalities and a local tourism company partly owned by the municipalities located in a region undergoing structural change, focusing on efforts of municipalities to develop digital services to support entrepreneurship and business development to promote local and regional development. The research method is based on case study methodology. The case studies are part of the research project “Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” (Marifus) financed by Interregional European Union Regional Development Fund (Interrreg). Based on theoretical discussions of entrepreneurship and e-government theories, the analyses of the two case studies show substantial variations in how they supported entrepreneurship. The findings indicated that e-government services so far have under-used potential for the studied municipalities and the tourism company in order to support efficient communication and information towards the entrepreneurs and businesses aiming at local and regional development.

  • 38.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Towards Inclusive E-Government: The Development of Municipal Contact Centers in Sweden2013In: Developing E-Government Projects: Frameworks and Methodologies / [ed] Zaigham Mahmood, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2013, 1, p. 225-247Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, five case studies of the implementation of contact centers in Swedish municipalities are described and discussed with a focus on inclusive e-government. The research methods used are mainly qualitative interviews with different categories of municipal personnel and also with some citizens. The main conclusions are that the implementation of contact centers contributes to increased accessibility of municipal services, even for those citizens who might have problems using Internet services. The study indicates and development towards increased equal treatment of citizens and a contribution to reducing problems related to the “digital divide.” Municipal services became more adapted to citizens’ needs by using citizen-centric methods and dialogue during the development process and in the daily work of the contact centers. The implementation of municipal contact centers can thus be seen as a step towards inclusive e-government, but there is still a need to go further in this direction.

  • 39.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Value Creation of networks and networking for small enterprises and destination development2014In: The 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: THE values of tourism / [ed] Budeanu, Adriana; Möckel, Marie & Gyimóthy, Szilvia, Köpenhamn, 2014, p. 81-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature recognizes that networks and networking are vital for firm performance and enterprises of all sizes are joining international networks (Lechner & Dowling, 2003; Bernhard & Karlsson, 2014; Cesário & Noronha Vaz, 2014;). Further research claims that networking is an important business activity for entrepreneurs, especially important for small businesses during start-up, which can then contribute to the growth of the business and superior performance. The emerging information society challenges relations not only between public agencies such as municipalities and citizens but also small enterprises in many ways. Earlier research also claims that entrepreneurship is a key issue in destination development.

    This study aims to describe and analyze the value creation of networks for small enterprises and destination development. The enterprises are located in two municipalities in a region undergoing structural change, due to the closure of a big car plant. We will focus on the value creation of different forms of networks and networking such as face-to-face and digital-based networks. Further we focus on value creation related to different actors within the networks, such as the role of entrepreneurs, municipalities, customers and sub-contractors. Theories on entrepreneurship, e-government, social media and network are important for our study.

    The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews, observations and document studies. Twelve interviews were conducted with managers from ten small enterprises (defined as microenterprises according to European Commission (Ekonomifakta, 2014). We contacted the public managers at the business offices in each municipality and they selected a list of companies involved in destination development within their municipality. Two of the ten enterprises were chosen from the list made by the managers. The remaining eight were selected from the list of members of the tourism company’s website. The tourism company is partly owned by the two municipalities and managed by a non-profit association for tourism development. Each interview took about an hour and was recorded before transcribing. All interviews were conducted in autumn 2013 and were made together by the authors. The analysis was made by qualitative content analysis and done in two steps; first separately by each author, after which the analysis was discussed together. This was done in order to increase the validity of the analysis. Regarding some issues respondents have received follow-up questions in order to get further understanding.

    The main findings indicated that networks and municipal support were important for the small enterprises. The municipalities could for example support network building for destination development. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government.

    The respondents stressed the importance of face-to-face contacts for establishing and maintaining their networks. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents on the other hand were very skilled in their use of social media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation. Strategic choices of networks and relevant competence to handle social contacts (both face-to-face and digitally) contributed to the value creation.

    This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects that contribute to value creation for small enterprises and destination development.

  • 40.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Collaboration Model for Work-Integrated Learning in Higher Education 3rd Cycle2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 5509-5515Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities need to constantly accommodate new forms of collaboration with society. Interaction with and impacts on society and practice are of crucial importance. University West (UW) in Sweden has a profile area in work-integrated learning (WIL), which generally aims to address issues on integrating theory and practice in a coherent and sustainable way. In this paper we base our arguments on a research education (3rd cycle) in informatics with specialization in work-integrated learning. The aim with the paper is to evaluate UW’s research education and research environment from a WIL perspective. We will adopt an informing science model in order to conduct a current state analysis, in which we identify and visualize collaboration activities within and between the research education/environment and the UWs key stakeholders; society/practices, research community and PhD students. Concrete implications show how collaboration and informing flows are connected and how they can be improved. General reflections are given on the model as a useful means for quality development and assurance beyond learning outcomes, including aspects of collaboration and interaction that can be regarded as paths of societal and practical impacts.

  • 41.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The Old Town District: Not Just a Scenic Backdrop - Stakeholders' Perspectives in Urban Re-generation2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 111-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from an urban place innovation study with focus on local stakeholders with particular interest in the Old Town District in a Norwegian community. The aim of this paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to integrate stakeholders in urban regeneration. We have conducted qualitative interviews with 21 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, the municipality, elected officials, tourism organization and residents with particular interest in the Old Town District. Additional observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to how such regeneration collaboration might be conducted. The complex nature is characterized by strong cultural heritage and a mix of opinions and visions. We argue that urban regeneration requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of an old town district into something that is more than a scenic backdrop. We discuss several implications as prerequisites for integrated collaborative approaches in place innovation (urban regeneration).

  • 42.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    An eye for an I: a framework with focus on the integration of work and learning in higher education2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education plays a new role in the society and the highly specialized labor market, and higher education institutes are expected to interact with and contribute to the surrounding society. University West in Sweden is since 2002 commissioned by the government to develop the pedagogical strategy called work-integrated learning (WIL) and WIL is the “trade mark” for the University. This means that pedagogical methods are based on WIL and that the faculty is working on further refinement and development in order to maximize the pedagogical gain offered by using the synergy between theory and practice.

    Work-integrated-learning activities are often implemented in a course as methods aligned to the learning outcomes regarding knowledge in the specific subject. However, another perspective is that the capacity to reflect and understand the integration of theory and practice could actually be a learning outcome in itself. From this perspective, it is vital to theoretically frame and formulate stringent learnings outcomes. To have a clear framework for this is important for curriculum design, course delivery and assessment, as well.

    In a self-evaluation conducted at the University, including focus groups with, both undergraduate and post graduate students, teachers, researchers and managers, a call for a framework has been expressed.

    In this conceptual paper, we propose a framework to support, design, delivery and assessment of work-integrated-learning progression, i.e. understanding of the integration between theory and practice. This framework is inspired by theories regarding constructive alignment [3], the SOLO taxonomy, agentic learning, SAMR-model and the RAT-model. RAT means Replacement, Amplifying and Replacement [4] while SAMR is the acronym for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification and Redefinition [5]. Our WIL-4U has also been inspired by SOLO taxonomy [6]

    In short, the framework for progression includes a progression from being descriptive regarding the observed practice, skills for comparing and evaluating practices, to be agentic in how theory and practice could be used in synergy for evolving, new theory and development of practice. Thereby, putting on eye on the “i” in WiL.

    Ultimately such a framework could support the progression of “WiL-understanding” through an educational program, and that students after graduation have developed readiness for “life-long-learning” and could be agentic at workplaces in the sense that practice and theory are used in synergy.

  • 43.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Work-integrated-learning: So what?: A framework for describing the level of integration between work and learning2017In: ICERI2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 443-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge society of today is characterized by a continuously ongoing technological development and digitalization that steadily calls for new competencies and transforms existing professions. For being able to provide up-to-date competence in a fast-changing labor market there is, perhaps more than ever, a need for extensive cooperation between Universities and surrounding society. A number of different models supporting the civic university has been established, e.g. “entrepreneurial university”, the triple-helix model and the increasingly popular adoption of “work-integrated learning” (WIL). 

    Work-integrated learning offer students authentic learning experiences and create synergy between theory and practice, e.g. by cooperative educational programs, internship, sandwich programs and case based teaching. Beyond the pedagogical benefits with experiential learning, WIL also supports the transfer between higher education and work, i.e. increases readiness, employability and also encourage a more agentic engagement. Furthermore, research results show that WIL-students have career benefits regarding salary in early career and job advancement. Even though, WIL and similar strategies for combining theory and practice seems to have promising pedagogical and career advantages, the theoretical underpinning is still underdeveloped. For instance, the methodology for how learning is promoted and which role external partners could play is vague. 

    At University West with more than 25 years’ experience of WIL a holistic approach to WIL have been adopted and WIL permeates all the Universities activities: education, research and extensive collaboration with the surrounding society. Over the years our efforts have been formalized and a taxonomy for will-activities have been developed. In sum, we know that WIL have promising potential, and we know what to do. But, in a recently performed study at this University, based on focus groups interviews and consolidation of our experiences we identified that even if the question “what?” is responded to, there is an important sub-question to be addressed, namely: “so what?”. When adopting different WIL activities, both small and large scale activities, e.g. a guest lecture or an internship, it is reasonable to reflect on whether these activities are used in an optimal way? What kind of impact does the WIL-activity imply? What could be achieved by successful integration between theory and practice? Could it be visualized?

    Inspired by models used for integrating technique in education (RAT, SAMR and TPCK-models), we have developed a framework for the progression of work-integrated learning in education. The framework is in a sense a model for “Wil-value”. This framework could be used on different levels and in different context: in a single course, educational program, in research projects, cooperation with surrounding society, mentorship and on partner workplaces.

  • 44.
    Bernheim, Bo-Göran
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ett förslag till en metod för konceptuell modellering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vetenskapliga teorier och begreppsmodeller kan ses som representationer av kunskap om något fenomen. Teorier är alltid abstraktioner av ett fenomen, med syfte att; beskriva, förklara, förutse eller styra detta fenomen.

    I ett nummer av MIS Quarterly (2003 27(3) pp iii-xii), argumenterar Ron Weber (2003) för att forskare inom IS-domänen bör sträva efter bättre precision när man presenterar och diskuterar forskning och teorier.

    I den här uppsatsen analyseras Ron Webers artikel för att ta fram en konceptuell modell, en begreppsmodell, för vetenskapliga teorier.

    Syftet är att skapa en modell för vetenskapliga teorier som kan leda till bättre formalisering och tydliggörande av vetenskapliga teorier.

    Dessutom skapas en enhetlig och konsistent terminologi avseende de element (relationer mellan olika entiteter, dessas egenskaper, tillstånd och relaterade händelser) som kan ses som den minsta gemensamma nämnaren för att beskriva alla existerande fenomen. En instansiering av denna modell skulle kunna tjänstgöra som ett generiskt arkiv 1 för kunskap.

  • 45.
    Bittar, Sadik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Collaborative Learning in a Learning Management System: A Qualitative Case Study of Work-Integrated E-Learning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increase in importance of a collaborative learning approach in the era of web 2.0 and the emergence of the social web, designing a convenient and adaptable LMS that can support this approach is becoming more challenging. This thesis has been conducted as a qualitative case study. The case study is represented by the "ProdEx" project in the Production Technology Center (PTC) at University West. This project focuses on collaboration and sharing knowledge between academia and industry, by offering Work Integrated e-Learning courses at university level to manufacturing industry companies. Within this environment, the aim of my study was to examine collaborative learning phenomena within an e-WIL environment. The research question of the study was: How does tailored LMS affect collaborative learning in an e-WIL course?

    To answer this research question, I used interviews as the main research method to collect the empirical data. Thus, I conducted seven interviews with different stakeholders in the project, including the project coordinator, a professor who teaches advanced level courses, and one participant of the professor's courses. Moreover, I used an open-ended questionnaire to collect data from the former participants who couldn't attend face-to-face meetings. All the interviews have been transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method.

    During the course of the research, a need to design a prototype artifact, i.e. a WordPress-LMS, arose. The purpose was to put the new collaborative features and the professor's requirements to the test in one of his e-WIL courses, "FEM1". I used the participatory design method to design the prototype with the professor, mainly because he is the primary user of the platform and has particular requirements of the system supporting his e-WIL courses.

    The requirements are derived from his highly pedagogical and technological course demands.The theoretical framework of this study contains a sociocultural theory used to conceptualize the research. The literature of sociocultural theory and the studied phenomena, together with the empirical results, enabled me to answer the research question and draw the following conclusion, namely that the designed LMS can influence the collaborative learning phenomena by enabling collaborative features in the LMS and sustaining the practice community built through it, while t at the same time, enabling the implementation of e-WIL courses, expanding the audience of participants and maintaining the learning relationship with the e-WIL courses. The designed LMS achieves the above through the features implemented in it. These features have been designed, built and customized to adapt the particular situation of the professor, and to suit his high pedagogical and technological course demands.

  • 46.
    Bramfors, Emanuel P
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Distansmöten i verksamheten: En fallstudie av distansmöten i Fyrbodals kommunalförbund2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is to investigate what experiences and views officials and management, within a public organization such as Fyrbodals Kommunalförbund, have regarding distance meetings. Another purpose of the study is to account for what factors the respondents consider important in order to improve the quality and efficiency of distance meetings. In this essay meeting culture, meeting tools and meeting management within Fyrbodals kommunalförbund are focused. I choose to do the research in this particular organization due to earlier experiences in it, which have motivated me to study it further.

    Case study, with the emphasis of qualitative studies, has been used as research method. I have had a qualitative approach in my essay, with aspects such as usability regarding technique and individuals' experiences and views of distance meetings as a main focus. The different methods used in this case study were semi structured interviews, studies of documents and literary studies. By partly using a few selected parameters of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, (UTAUT), usability regarding technique could be analyzed in an efficient manner. UTAUT is a theory based on eight other models for user acceptance of new technique. In my interviews, I was able to identify several issues, within the frame of usability. By using UTAUT, patterns and formations could be discerned. The results of the study show that distance meetings overall is something positive, due to the fact that they do not include travelling, can save money and because the distance meetings are efficient. The most important findings that affect efficiency as well as quality when using distance meetings were a clear, predetermined structure of the meeting using a trained chairman to lead them, and repetitive training of the communication tools.

  • 47.
    Brandes, Erika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Det mobila arbetslivet: Beredskapsanalys och planering inför organisatorisk förändring2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined how mobile work processes can be integrated into organizations from a business-oriented perspective, and among organizations there’s a lack of long-term strategies, and understanding, for internal business mobility.

    This study examines how an organization can prepare itself for change towards a mobile work life. In order to do this a literature review and case study involving document studies and interviews at an organization with specifically developed methodologies were conducted.

    The results showed that the state of maturity is still relatively low, and there is a need to focus on developing a more thorough understanding of mobility, where challenges involve handling attitudes, organizational culture and leadership. Mobility-related needs involve task-oriented and social aspects, where different technological solutions were suggested to maintain the connections between individuals and the organization.

    There is also a need for more longitudinal studies due to the results showing how the significant changes occur over a longer period of time. An important part of the development of knowledge concerning mobility also involves learning from others’ examples, where this study is a contribution.

  • 48.
    Bäckman, Kjell
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Automatic fitness in generative jazz soloimprovisation2012In: EIMAS 2012 Conference Proceedings, Juiz de Fora, Brazil, 2012, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work by the author has revealed the need for an automatic fitness function in the evolutionary algorithm

    for generation of jazz solos. A computer based automatic fitness function enables greater populations and a great

    number of generations within a manageable time. This paper describes how the automatic fitness function is

    implemented using score calculation based on specific events recognized in the solo line The evaluation function

    is based on the author’s solo analysis of 73 great masters’ solo characteristics and their techniques used for buildup

    of jazz solos.

  • 49.
    Bäckman, Kjell
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Evolutionary Jazz Improvisation: Jazz Harmony and Solo Improvisation Created by Means of Evolutionary Algorithms with Automatic Fitness2013In: Sport and Art, ISSN 2331-6233, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the Evolutionary Jazz Improvisation (EJI) system for creation of jazz harmony and jazz solo improvisations based on evolutionary algorithms with automatic evaluation. The evaluation function is implemented using score calculation based on specific events recognized in the chord progression and solo line, and alignment to different optimal intensity increase and relaxation curves. The evaluation function is based on the author’s solo analysis of 73 great masters’ solo characteristics and their techniques used for build-up of jazz solos. The results have been evaluated by our live jazz group and used in jam sessions, some of which have been recorded and made available for listening at the links given later.

  • 50.
    Bäckström, Albin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Larsson, Anton
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Föräldrars upplevelser med webbsidan neonatalvard.se: En webbsida för prematurer och deras familjer under tiden de är i behov av vård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the parents’ experiences with the webpage neontalavard.se. It also aims to contribute with any suggestions for improvement to the webpage that arises during the study. The study applied method combination and triangulation to build up the results. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. The quantitative data was collected from a survey and the qualitative was from interviews. An analysis model was created. The analysis model (UTAM) is a further development of TAM.  The results of the surveys and the interviews conducted are presented in the same section. It is done to put words on the numbers by weaving the questionnaire and quotes from the interviews. It results in a greater understanding why someone felt like they did. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the analysis model, UTAM, indicating that the idea is good and the need for a webpage as this is great. But the parents feel that the health care staff are not sufficiently committed to experience the benefit of the webpage. This study shows that the parents’ want better and greater commitment from the health care staff. They also thought it was a good idea and they felt the need for the webpage was great but that is wasn’t necessary this webpage that was the solution. 

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