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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Health Promotion Programme, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Health Promotion Programme, Helsinki, Finland.
    Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale and It's Relation with Quality of Life: A systematic review2007In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 938-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to synthesise findings on the salutogenic concept, sense of coherence (SOC), and its correlation with quality of life (QoL). This study is descriptive and analytic, with a systematic integration of the contemporary knowledge base on the salutogenic research published in 1992–2003. This review includes 458 scientific publications and 13 doctoral theses on salutogenesis. In all, 32 papers had the main objective of investigating the relationship between SOC and QoL. This study is based on scientific publications in eight authorised databases, doctoral theses and available books. The SOC seems to have an impact on the QoL; the stronger the SOC, the better the QoL. Furthermore, longitudinal studies confirm the predictive validity of the SOC for a good QoL. The findings correspond to the core of the Ottawa Charter—that is, the process of enabling people to live a good life. Therefore, a certain possibility to modify and extend the health construct is becoming discernible, implicating a construct including salutogenesis and QoL. The SOC concept is a health resource, influencing QoL.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale and the relation with health: a systematic review2006In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 376-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective

    The aim of this paper is to synthesise empirical findings on the salutogenic concept sense of coherence (SOC) and examine its capacity to explain health and its dimensions.

    Design

    The study is descriptive and analytical with a systematic integration of the contemporary knowledge base on the salutogenic research published 1992–2003. The review includes 458 scientific publications and 13 doctoral theses.

    Setting

    Worldwide, based on postgraduate scientific publications in eight authorised databases, doctoral theses, and available books.

    Main results

    SOC is strongly related to perceived health, especially mental health. The stronger the SOC the better the perceived health in general, at least for those with an initial high SOC. This relation is manifested in study populations regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, nationality, and study design. SOC seems to have a main, moderating or mediating role in the explanation of health. Furthermore, the SOC seems to be able to predict health. SOC is an important contributor for the development and maintenance of people's health but does not alone explain the overall health.

    Conclusion

    SOC seems to be a health promoting resource, which strengthens resilience and develops a positive subjective state of health. Salutogenesis is a valuable approach for health promotion and would be worth to implement in practice much more than to date.

    Keywords: Antonovsky, salutogenesis, sense of coherence, health promotion

    This paper continues to review, analyse, and synthesise the evidence base of research on the sense of coherence (SOC) concept in the light of 25 years of research undertaken by the authors.1,2,3,4 The main purpose is to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the SOC concept from research between 1992–2003. This is a relevant contribution to health promotion and public health research. It is necessary to get deeper knowledge about the interaction between SOC and socioeconomic characteristics like age, sex, social class, and how SOC might be related to physical and mental health. Are there any relations and does the SOC have an impact on health at all?

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Salutogenesis2005In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 440-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The editor of the journal has taken the initiative to develop glossaries on central concepts in health promotion. The aim of this paper is to explain and clarify the key concepts of the salutogenic theory sense of coherence coined by Aaron Antonovsky. The explanations and interpretations are the result of an analysis of the scientific evidence base of the first 25 years of salutogenic research, described and discussed in an ongoing project on a systematic review by the above authors. The contemporary evidence shows the salutogenic approach could have a more central position in public health and health promotion research and practice. Furthermore, it could contribute to the solution of some of the most urgent public health problems of our time such as the question of mental health promotion. Finally, it could create a solid theoretical framework for health promotion.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Validity of Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale: a systematic review2005In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 460-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: The aim of this paper is to systematically review and analyse the validity and reliability of Antonovsky’s life orientation questionnaire/sense of coherence scale (SOC).

    Design: The study is descriptive and analytical with a systematic integration of the contemporary knowledge base on the salutogenic research published 1992–2003. The review includes 458 scientific publications and 13 doctoral theses.

    Setting: Worldwide, based on postgraduate scientific publications in eight authorised databases, doctoral theses, and available books.

    Main results: The SOC questionnaire has been used in at least 33 languages in 32 countries with at least 15 different versions of the questionnaire. In 124 studies using SOC-29 the Cronbach’s α ranges from 0.70 to 0.95. The α values in 127 studies using SOC-13 range from 0.70 to 0.92, and in 60 studies using a modified SOC scale range from 0.35 to 0.91. Test-retest correlation show stability and range from 0.69 to 0.78 (1 year), 0.64 (3 years), 0.42 to 0.45 (4 years), 0.59 to 0.67 (5 years) to 0.54 (10 years). The means of SOC-29 range 100.50 (SD 28.50) to 164.50 (SD 17.10) points and SOC-13 from 35.39 (SD 0.10) to 77.60 (SD 13.80) points. After 10 years SOC seems to be comparatively stable, but not as stable as Antonovsky initially assumed. SOC tends to increase with age. The factorial structure of SOC seems rather to be multidimensional than unidimensional. SOC predicts a positive outcome in a long term perspective, although there are divergent findings reported. The SOC scale seems to be a reliable, valid, and cross culturally applicable instrument measuring how people manage stressful situations and stay well.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Health Promotion Research Programme, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Health Promotion Research Programme, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lilja, John
    Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Åbo Akademin, University, Turku, Finland.
    A sense of coherence and health. The Salutogenesis in a societal context: Åland - a special case?2007In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 684-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Antonovsky's salutogenic concept of a sense of coherence (SOC) has proved most influential in the way that health is now perceived.

    Aim:

    To (1) describe the distribution of SOC among 40–70-year-old Ålanders; (2) examine the distribution of depression in Åland, Finland, and its relationship with SOC; and (3) discuss the findings within a salutogenic framework in a societal context.

    Design:

    A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Antonovsky's SOC Questionnaire (13 items) and the Beck Depression Inventory (13 items) were used. In addition, in a separate questionnaire, sociodemographic information about each participant was sought, together with a question specific to this study and designed to measure self-rated health.

    Setting:

    Åland, an autonomous island province of Finland.

    Results:

    The proportion of respondents reporting good health was high (64%). The overall mean (SD) SOC was 70.7 (11.7) points, whereas for farmers and fishermen it was 73.88 (8.8) and 74.33 (9.2) points, respectively. SOC was significantly and strongly related to the self-rated health score. The higher the SOC, the better was the health of the respondents. Furthermore, the study provided clear evidence of the potential of the SOC concept as a positive mental health indicator.

    Conclusion:

    The SOC seems to be a health-promoting resource that supports the development of a positive subjective state of health.

  • 6.
    Lindström, Bengt
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Professor Aaron Antonovsky (1923-1994) - the father of the Salutogenesis2005In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 511-Article in journal (Other academic)
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