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  • 1. Bratteby, L E
    et al.
    Sandhagen, B
    Fan, H
    Samuelson, Gösta
    A 7-day activity diary for assessment of daily energy expenditure validated by the doubly labelled water method in adolescents.1997In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 585-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To validate the use of an activity diary and predicted BMR for assessment of daily total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL = TEE/BMR) in adolescents.

    DESIGN: TEE and PAL estimated from activity diary records kept for seven days and BMR predicted from age, gender and body weight were compared with the results of doubly labelled water (DLW) measurements and indirect calorimetry performed during the same time period.

    SETTING: The Unit of paediatric Physiology of the Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Fifty randomly selected 15 y old adolescents (25 boys and 25 girls).

    RESULTS: The mean difference between TEE estimated in all adolescents by the activity diary and by DLW methods was 1.2%. The limits of agreement (mean difference 2 s.d.) were -3.47 and 3.77 MD/d, equivalent to a coefficient of variation of 15%. The mean difference between PAL assessed by activity diary records and by DLW measurements was 0.001, and the limits of agreement between the two methods were 0.54.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results imply that the activity diary method provides a close estimate of TEE and PAL in population groups.

  • 2. Bratteby, L E
    et al.
    Sandhagen, B
    Lötborn, M
    Samuelson, Gösta
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Daily energy expenditure and physical activity assessed by an activity diary in 374 randomly selected 15-year-old adolescents.1997In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 592-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the average daily levels of physical activity, energy expenditure and the time and energy spent a different activities in two cohorts of Swedish adolescents.

    DESIGN: Total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL = TEE/basal metabolic rate (BMR)) were estimated in 374 randomly selected healthy adolescents living with two different regions of Sweden on the basis of a seven-day activity diary (AD) and predicted BMR. A validation of the estimates from the AD with the doubly labelled water (DLW) method in a randomly selected subsample of 50 of these subjects is presented elsewhere.

    SETTING: The Unit of Paediatric of the Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, Uppsala and the Department of Paediatrics, Northern Alvsborg Hospital, Trollhättan, Sweden.

    RESULTS: No significant differences in TEE and PAL were found between the adolescents of the two regions. High levels of TEE (14.2 and 10.9 MJ/d in boys and girls, respectively) and PAL (1.95 and 1.80) were observed. There was a close association between the PAL and the adolescents and their reported time spent sitting. Those with the lowest PAL values spent 3-6 h longer each day sitting compared to those with the highest PAL values. The results also indicate that everyday activities such as walking and bicycling have a crucial impact on the PAL values.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the 15 y old adolescents of the two studied regions of Sweden, high and concordant levels of energy expenditure and physical activity were found.

  • 3.
    Bratteby, L-E
    et al.
    University Hospital, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Sandhagen, B
    Hospital, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Samuelson, Gösta
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Physical activity, energy expenditure and their correlates in two cohorts of Swedish subjects between adolescence and early adulthood2005In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 59, no 11, p. 1324-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity and energy expenditure and to identify their correlates during adolescence and early adulthood. DESIGN: In a cohort study, total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed at 15 and 21 y from a 7-day activity diary and predicted BMR. The influences on TEE and PAL of body size, gender, sexual maturity, physical activity habits, sitting time, region, social conditions, employment, food habits, smoking and alcohol intake were examined in multivariate analyses.Subjects:71 male and 89 female subjects, living in two socioeconomically different regions of Sweden, a university region and an industrial region. SETTING: The university city of Uppsala and the industrial town of Trollhättan. RESULTS: At both 15 and 21 y, PAL and TEE were high, with gender, sitting time and physical activity habits as main correlates. At age 21 y, employment and the mother's educational level also appeared as significant correlates. The relations between the main variables and their correlates were more complex than at age 15 y, and the sitting time was reduced and the activity habits were changed. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction of daily sitting appears to be a major reason why high levels of physical activity and energy expenditure were maintained from 15 to 21 y of age in spite of changed and less frequent activity habits during this interval.

  • 4. Höglund, D
    et al.
    Samuelson, Gösta
    Mark, A
    Food habits in Swedish adolescents in relation to socioeconomic conditions.1998In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 52, no 11, p. 784-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the food habits of Swedish adolescents 14-15 y of age. To analyse the connection between food habits and socioeconomic circumstances and background factors.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey using a Food Frequency Questionnaire including questions on meal patterns.

    SETTING: The city of Göteborg and the County of Alvsborg, Sweden 1996.

    SUBJECTS: Pupils in the 8th grade in all schools in the city of Göteborg and the County of Alvsborg were in February 1996 invited to participate. The study comprised 7605 pupils. The drop-out rate was 14.4% (n = 1280).

    RESULTS: The adolescents had an infrequent consumption of vegetables and fruits and they had a daily consumption of sweets. Cereals, dairy products and snacks: buns, wafers, soft drinks, ice cream and potato crisps were consumed more than once a day. Thirty percent of the girls and 20% of the boys did not eat breakfast every day. The free school lunch was eaten daily by 50% of the boys and 30% of the girls, the remainder ate some type of snack. A negative correlation was found between smoking and the frequency of vegetable consumption. Pupils from areas with high socioeconomic status more often ate breakfast and lunch and the boys more often ate dinner compared to adolescents from areas with low socioeconomic status.

    CONCLUSIONS: An irregular meal pattern as well as snack consumption and smoking were common, especially among girls in areas with low socioeconomic status.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Internal medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Lissner, Lauren
    University of Gothenburg, Public Health Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Samuelson, Gösta
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Specialist Nursing programme.
    Fors, Hans
    Department of Paediatrics, Northern Älvsborg Hospital, Trollhättan.
    Lantz, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital,Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Internal medicine, Gothenburg.
    Näslund, Ingmar
    Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Carlsson, Lena M.
    Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Sjöström, Lars
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, .
    Bosaeus, Ingvar
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Internal medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Body composition through adult life: Swedish reference data on body composition2015In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 837-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Objectives:The prevalence of obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to30 kg/m2, differs between populations; however, there is a need for data on description on body composition in reference populations of different ages and from different countries. The objective of this study was to pool dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition reference data from population-based Swedish cohorts.Subjects/Methods:Four population-based cross-sectional cohort studies including 1424 adult Swedes were divided into five age groups (20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–61 and 75 years of age); BMI 24.6±3.9 kg/m2 were pooled. Body composition was measured with DXA.

    Results:The difference in BMI from the youngest to the oldest age group was 3.2 and 4.3 kg/m2 in men and women, respectively (P<0.001, both sexes), and fat mass (FM) was 9.9 and 9.1% higher in the oldest compared with the youngest men and women (P<0.001, both sexes). Fat-free mass (FFM) remained stable up to 60 years of age in men (P=0.83) and was lower at 75 years of age compared with the younger ages. In women, FFM was lower from age 60. From youngest to oldest age groups, height-adjusted FM differed from 4.6 to 7.8 kg/m2 in men and from 6.8 to 10.8 kg/m2 in women (P<0.001, both sexes).

    Conclusions:Our results provide reference data on body composition in Swedish populations. BMI and FM were higher among older age groups compared with the younger ones. FFM remained stable up to 60 years of age and was lower first among the 75 years of age.

  • 6. Samuelson, Gösta
    Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents over Europe. An overview of current studies in the Nordic countries.2000In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 54, no Suppl 1, p. S21-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To give an overview of the dietary habits among adolescents in the Nordic countries and to present results from studies showing the relationship between dietary habits and other lifestyle factors, nutritional status and socio-economic conditions.

    DESIGN: A number of nutritional studies among adolescents performed during recent decades using recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaire.

    SETTING: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Adolescents aged 13-18 y.

    RESULTS: Food habits are characterized by an irregular meal pattern; many adolescents skip breakfast and also the school lunch, whereas most of them have dinner. However, snacking and light meals are very common, contributing 25-35% of the daily energy intake. Smoking is linked to their dietary habits as well as socio-economic conditions. Dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals are adequate for normal health and growth. Dietary calcium intake is high, whereas the intake of fibre, vitamin D, zinc and selenium and, in girls, iron is below the Nordic recommendations. Relatively low prevalence figures of iron deficiency were found. Many studies show a decrease over time in physical activity. The time spent in sedentary activities, such as television and video watching and computer games has increased during recent decades.

    CONCLUSION: Overweight and obesity are becoming more prevalent in all the Nordic countries, even though the prevalence figures are far below those in the USA. On the other hand, dieting girls are common, which might be a factor behind their irregular meal pattern and food choice. In a perspective, overweight and diseases attributable to obesity will be an immense challenge in the coming decades for both the individuals and the society as well.

  • 7. Samuelson, Gösta
    et al.
    Lenner, R A
    Carlgren, G
    Hardell, L I
    Johansson, B
    Jonsson, G
    Sandström, B
    Food and nutrient intakes in Swedish diabetic children.1989In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 801-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food and energy intakes in diabetic children, 7-9 and 12-14 years of age, were studied by the 7-d record method. The mean duration of diabetes in the younger group was 3.0 years and in the older group 4.2. The children had 3 main meals and 3.4 light meals daily. The median daily number of sandwiches was 7, often offered as snacks. All children used a low-fat margarine, low-fat cheese and low-fat milk. Sweets and diabetic food were seldom used. Of the energy intake protein contributed 18 per cent, fat 32 per cent and carbohydrates 50 per cent, including sucrose 2 per cent. Mean daily intake of fibre was 20 g. Compared to healthy children of the same age and from the same areas of Sweden the diabetics had a more regular meal pattern, their energy intakes did not differ, but the diet of diabetics was lower in fat and sucrose and higher in protein. The mean height, weight and BMI did not differ from healthy children.

  • 8.
    Von Post-Skagegård, M
    et al.
    University of Uppsala, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Unit of Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Samuelson, Gösta
    University West, Department of Nursing.
    Karlström, B
    University of Uppsala, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Unit of Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Mohsen, R
    University of Uppsala, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Unit of Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Berglund, L
    University of Uppsala, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Unit of Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Bratteby, L-E
    University of Uppsala, Department of Medical Sciences, Unit of Clinical Physiology.
    Changes in food habits in healthy Swedish adolescents during the transition from adolescence to adulthood2002In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 532-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change in food habits in Swedish adolescents between 15 and 21 y of age with reference to age, sex, region and socioeconomic background. DESIGN: A longitudinal study from 1993 to 1999. SETTING: Two different regions in Sweden, the university city of Uppsala and the industrial town of Trollhättan. SUBJECTS: On three different occasions, 1993, 1995 and 1999, 208 adolescents, 96 males and 112 females, were studied. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire containing 29 different food groups was used. The questionnaire also contained questions about food habits and amounts of some food items and socioeconomic conditions of the participants and their families. RESULTS: At 17 and 21 y of age, the adolescents consumed significantly more often pasta, vegetables, coffee and tea compared to age 15, while the frequency consumption of fat spread, milk, bread, potatoes, carrots and buns and biscuits decreased. The changes between 15 and 17 were smaller than between age 17 and 21. At age 21, the males decreased their intake of fruit, while the females decreased their intake of meat. No-meat consumers among females increased from 2 to 13%. Higher educational level of the mothers of the adolescents was associated with more frequent consumption of vegetables and pasta between ages 17 and 21. Milk consumption decreased significantly in both sexes. Breakfast habits did not change: 90% had breakfast five times/week or more. CONCLUSIONS: Food habits change significantly during adolescence along with lifestyle changes. Therefore, health promotion during adolescence ought to be more supported by the society.

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