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  • 1.
    Leinweber, Julia
    et al.
    Institute of Midwifery Charité, University Medicine Berlin (DEU).
    Fontein‐Kuipers, Yvonne
    School of Midwifery, Health and Social Work University College Antwerp (BEL); Edinburgh Napier University School of Health and Social Care Edinburgh (GBR).
    Karlsdottir, Sigfridur Inga
    School of Health Sciences University of Akureyri (ISL).
    Ekström‐Bergström, Anette
    Department of Nursing and Reproductive, Perinatal and Sexual Health, School of Health Sciences University of Skövde (SWE).
    Nilsson, Christina
    Munkebäck Antenatal Clinic Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Stramrood, Claire
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology OLVG Hospital Amsterdam (NLD).
    Thomson, Gill
    Maternal and Infant Nutrition & Nurture Unit, School of Community Health & Midwifery University of Central Lancashire Preston (GBR).
    Developing a woman‐centered, inclusive definition of positive childbirth experiences: A discussion paper2022In: Birth, ISSN 0730-7659, E-ISSN 1523-536X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 362-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    A positive childbirth experience promotes women’s health, both during and beyond the perinatal period. Understanding what constitutes a positive childbirth experience is thus critical to providing high- quality maternity care. Currently,  there  is  no  clear,  inclusive, woman-  centered definition  of  a  positive  childbirth experience to guide practice, education, and research.

    Aim:

    To  formulate  an  inclusive  woman-  centered  definition  of  a  positive  child-birth experience.

    Methods:

    A six- step process was undertaken: (a) Key concepts associated with a positive childbirth were derived from a rapid literature review; (b) The key concepts were used by interdisciplinary experts in the author group to create a draft definition;  (c)  The  draft definition  was  presented  to clinicians  and  researchers  during a European research meeting on perinatal mental health; (d) The authors integrated the expert feedback to refine the working definition; (e) A revised definition was shared with women from consumer groups in six countries to confirm its face validity; and (f) A final definition was formulated based on the women’s feedback (n = 42).

    Results:

    The following definition was formulated: “A positive childbirth experience refers to a woman’s experience of interactions and events directly related to childbirth  that  made her  feel  supported,  in  control,  safe,  and  respected;  a  positive  childbirth  can  make women  feel  joy, confident,  and/or  accomplished  and  may  have  short  and/or  long- term  positive  impacts  on  a  woman’s  psychosocial  well- being.”

    Conclusions:

    This  inclusive,  woman-  centered  definition  highlights  the  importance  of  provider interactions  for  facilitating  a  positive  childbirth  experience.  Feeling  supported  and having  a  sense  of  control,  safety,  and  respect  are  central tenets. This definition could help to identify and validate positive childbirth  experience(s),  and  to  inform practice,  education,  research,  advocacy,  and  policy- making.

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  • 2.
    Leinweber, Julia
    et al.
    Institut of Midwifery, Charité—University Medicine Berlin, Berlin (DEU).
    Fontein-Kuipers, Yvonne
    School of Midwifery, Health and Social Work, University College Antwerp, Antwerp (BEL).
    Thomson, Gill
    Maternal and Infant Nutrition & Nurture Unit, School of Community Health & Midwifery, University of Central Lancashire, Preston (GBR).
    Karlsdottir, Sigfridur Inga
    School of Health Sciences, University of Akureyri, Akureyri, (ISL).
    Nilsson, Christina
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University in Borås, Borås (SWE).
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Olza, Ibone
    European Institute of Perinatal Mental Health, Madrid (ESP).
    Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni
    Nursing Department, Faculty of Health Science, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, (CYP).
    Stramrood, Claire
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, OLVG Hospital, Amsterdam (NLD).
    Developing a woman-centered, inclusive definition of traumatic childbirth experiences: A discussion paper.2022In: Birth, ISSN 0730-7659, E-ISSN 1523-536X, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 585-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Many women experience giving birth as traumatic. Although women's subjective experiences of trauma are considered the most important, currently there is no clear inclusive definition of a traumatic birth to help guide practice, education, and research.

    AIM: To formulate a woman-centered, inclusive definition of a traumatic childbirth experience.

    METHODS: After a rapid literature review, a five-step process was undertaken. First, a draft definition was created based on interdisciplinary experts' views. The definition was then discussed and reformulated with input from over 60 multidisciplinary clinicians and researchers during a perinatal mental health and birth trauma research meeting in Europe. A revised definition was then shared with consumer groups in eight countries to confirm its face validity and adjusted based on their feedback.

    RESULTS: The stepwise process confirmed that a woman-centered and inclusive definition was important. The final definition was: "A traumatic childbirth experience refers to a woman's experience of interactions and/or events directly related to childbirth that caused overwhelming distressing emotions and reactions; leading to short and/ or long-term negative impacts on a woman's health and wellbeing."

    CONCLUSIONS: This definition of a traumatic childbirth experience was developed through consultations with experts and consumer groups. The definition acknowledges that low-quality provider interactions and obstetric violence can traumatize individuals during childbirth. The women-centered and inclusive focus could help women to identify and validate their experiences of traumatic birth, offering benefits for practice, education, and research, as well as for policymaking and activism in the fields of perinatal mental health and respectful maternity care.

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    fulltext
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