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  • 1.
    Cruz-Crespo, Amado
    et al.
    Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia.
    Gonzalez, Lorenzo Perdomo
    Anim Hlth & Vet Labs Agcy, VLA Lasswade Vet Labs Agcy Lasswade, King Abdulaziz University.
    Rafael, Quintana
    Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas.
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Universidade Federal de Uberlandia University West - Sweden Fed Univ Uberlandia UFU.
    Flux for Hardfacing by Submerged Arc Welding from Ferrochrome-manganese and Slag from the Simultaneous Reduction of Chromite and Pyrolusite2019In: Soldagem & Inspeção, ISSN 0104-9224, E-ISSN 1980-6973, Vol. 24, article id e2424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The obtaining of a flux for hardfacing by Submerged Arc Welding (SAW), using ferrochrome-manganese and slag obtained from the simultaneous carbothermal reduction of chromite and pyrolusite is addressed. The ferrochrome-manganese and the slag were obtained, conceiving that both products satisfy the requirements of the components (alloy system and matrix) of an agglomerated flux for hardfacing. The fusion-reduction process to obtain the alloy and the slag was carried out in a direct current electric arc furnace. The pouring was carried out into water to facilitate the separation and grinding of the cast products. An experimental flux was manufactured, using the obtained alloy and slag. Deposits were obtained by SAW, which were characterized in terms of: chemical composition, microstructure and hardness. It was concluded that the flux obtained from ferrochrome-manganese and slag from the simultaneous carbothermal reduction of chromite and pyrolusite, allows to deposit an appropriate metal for work under abrasion conditions, characterized by significant carbon and chromium contents and a martensitic microstructure predominantly, with hardness of 63 HRc.

  • 2.
    de Souza Amaral, Thiago
    et al.
    CBMM, Araxá, MG, Brasil.
    Carboneri Carboni, Marcelo
    CBMM, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – UFU, Uberlândia, MG, Bras.
    Avaliação da Aplicação de um Atlas de Soldagem de um Aço Bainítico Microligado ao Nióbio: Application Assessment of a Welding Atlas of a Niobium Microalloyed Bainitic Steel2017In: Soldagem & Inspeção, ISSN 0104-9224, E-ISSN 1980-6973, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 163-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Niobium microalloyed steels have shown to be an excellent solution for fabrication of structural beams, employing concepts already developed for the oil and gas industry. However, the definition of the actual welding related needs of this family of bainite steels is not well described in the welding standards mostly used in the structural construction sector. This paper demonstrates the construction and assessment of a Welding Atlas, built from using physical simulations (Gleeble and dilatrometry) and mechanical tests of the simulated specimens. The objective is to have the Atlas as a guiding tool to improve the parametrization for welding this class of steels. The proposal methodology was applied to a HSLA bainitic steel class 65 ksi. It was possible to determine with more accuracy the recommended energy range of the weld, including the need or not of preheating, and show that they were comparable with actual welds. The methodology shows benefits including a safer parametrization and cost savings resulting from unnecessary preheating elimination.

  • 3.
    Ferreira Magalhães, Ana Catarina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    De Backer, Jeroen
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Thermal dissipation effect on temperature-controlled friction stir welding: [Efeito da dissipação térmica inducida durante soldadura por friçcão linear sob controlo de temperatura]2019In: Soldagem & Inspeção, ISSN 0104-9224, E-ISSN 1980-6973, Vol. 24, article id e2428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of complex geometries, the thermal dissipation, induced by geometric features or the surrounding environment, may strongly affect the final weld quality. In order to guarantee a consistent weld quality for different conditions, in-process welding parameter adaptation is needed. This paper studies the effect of thermal dissipation, induced by the backing bar thermal conductivity, on the weld temperature and the temperature controller response to it. A new temperature sensor solution, the Tool-Workpiece Thermocouple (TWT) method, was applied to acquire online temperature measurements during welding. An FSW-robot equipped with temperature control, achieved by rotation speed adaptation, was used. AA7075-T6 lap joints were performed with and without temperature control. The cooling rate during welding was register plus macrographs and tensile tests were assessed. The controller demonstrated a fast response promoting the heat input necessary to maintain the set welding temperature. The results demonstrated that temperature control using the TWT method is suitable to achieve higher joint performance and provides a fast setup of optimal parameters for different environments. © 2019, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Jorge, Vinicius Lemes
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – UFU, Centro para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Processos de Soldagem – Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG, Brasil.
    Alves Santos, Cesar Henrique
    Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – UFU, Centro para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Processos de Soldagem – Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG, Brasil.
    Scotti, Fernando Matos
    Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – UFU, Centro para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Processos de Soldagem – Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG, Brasil.
    Larquer, Thiago Resende
    Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – UFU, Centro para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Processos de Soldagem – Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG, Brasil.
    Mota, Carolina Pimenta
    Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Triângulo Mineiro – IFTM, Patos de Minas, MG, Brasil.
    Reis, Ruham Pablo
    Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – UFU, Centro para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Processos de Soldagem – Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG, Brasil.
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – UFU, Centro para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Processos de Soldagem – Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG, Brasil.
    Development and Evaluation of Wire Feeding Pulsing Techniques for Arc Welding: Desenvolvimento e Avaliação de Técnicas para Pulsação da Alimentação de Arame em Soldagem a Arco2018In: Soldagem & Inspeção, ISSN 0104-9224, E-ISSN 1980-6973, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 326-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying pulsed wire feeding techniques is one of the new approaches for welding, such as for GTAW and GMAW. However, these techniques invariably require specific feeders and/or welding torches, limiting its implementation due to the high costs of the equipment. Thus, the current work aims to introduce and exploratorily evaluate techniques to pulse the wire feeding that works independently from the feeder and/or torch. The first technique is electromechanically driven, and the second one based on electromagnetics. The effects of amplitude and frequency of the pulsed feeding were evaluated in terms of weld bead formation over plates and of the corresponding electric signals. For GTAW, the pulsed wire feeding is capable of modifying the weld bead and make the metal transfer from the wire to the pool more regular. For GMAW, it was found that the pulsing of the wire feeding can interfere with the process, being capable of turning an irregular globular metal transfer into a regular one, while decreasing the mean current and affecting the bead formation. Overall, it is concluded that pulsed wire feeding can affect the processes, even when made independently from the feeder and torch, opening a field for development of derivative welding technologies.

  • 5.
    Mishchenko, Andrii
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – UFU, Grupo Centro para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Processo de Soldagem – Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG, Brasil.
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – UFU, Grupo Centro para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Processo de Soldagem – Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG, Brasil.
    Residual Stresses in Arc Welding: A Holistic Vision2018In: Soldagem & Inspeção, ISSN 0104-9224, E-ISSN 1980-6973, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 93-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several examples in current literature where assumptions regarding residual stresses are made, yet rarely confirmed in practice. To validate this statement, this work presents a critical view on the subject through a bibliographic review. A series of conflicting results were found when researchers attempted, both experimentally and by simulation, to define, quantify, or even qualify, the individual effect of each factor on residual stress generation. It was concluded that the reason for this would be the lack of a holistic view to study the subject. Therefore, a diagram is proposed, which lists and classifies as primary and secondary the governing factors related to the generation of residual stresses, to facilitate the understanding of the effect of each factor. It was also observed a lack of harmonization in publications, both in symbology and in terminology, of the residual stress axes and components. Therefore, a symbology and terminology proposal, with the intention of facilitating the comprehension and transportability of results, is presented. Eventually, from this work is therefore expected a better understanding of the reasons for the literature assumptions to be not always confirmed in practice.

  • 6.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Operator bias in the estimation of arc efficiency in gas tungsten arc welding2015In: Soldagem & Inspeção, ISSN 0104-9224, E-ISSN 1980-6973, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 128-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the operator bias in the measurement process of arc efficiency in stationary direct current electrode negative gas tungsten arc welding is discussed. An experimental study involving 15 operators (enough to reach statistical significance) has been carried out with the purpose to estimate the arc efficiency from a specific procedure for calorimetric experiments. The measurement procedure consists of three manual operations which introduces operator bias in the measurement process. An additional relevant experiment highlights the consequences of estimating the arc voltage by measuring the potential between the terminals of the welding power source instead of measuring the potential between the electrode contact tube and the workpiece. The result of the study is a statistical evaluation of the operator bias influence on the estimate, showing that operator bias is negligible in the estimate considered here. On the contrary the consequences of neglecting welding leads voltage drop results in a significant under estimation of the arc efficiency. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Stenbacka, Nils
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Environment Production Technology West.
    On arc efficiency in gas tungsten arc welding: Sobre eficiência de arco em soldagem GTAW2013In: Soldagem & Inspeção, ISSN 0104-9224, E-ISSN 1980-6973, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 380-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to review the literature on published arc efficiency values for GTAW and, if possible, propose a narrower band. Articles between the years 1955 - 2011 have been found. Published arc efficiency values for GTAW DCEN show to lie on a wide range, between 0.36 to 0.90. Only a few studies covered DCEP - direct current electrode positive and AC current. Specific information about the reproducibility in calorimetric studies as well as in modeling and simulation studies (considering that both random and systematic errors are small) was scarce. An estimate of the average arc efficiency value for GTAW DCEN indicates that it should be about 0.77. It indicates anyway that the GTAW process with DCEN is an efficient welding method. The arc efficiency is reduced when the arc length is increased. On the other hand, there are conflicting results in the literature as to the influence of arc current and travel speed.

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