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  • 1.
    Ljung, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Function Based Manning and Aspects of Flexibility2010In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 121-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to examine the concept of flexibility from a shipping perspective. Flexibility is examined in order to develop strategies, theoretical and applicable, in the field of Function Based Manning (FBM), for achieving optimized manning, which is not the same as reduced manning, with a healthy crew. This is a complex concept in many aspects. Based on research on working life and work organizations conducted by social scientists, two aspects of flexibility are examined; functional flexibility including job enrichment and competence training, and working time flexibility. These issues are analyzed from a shipping perspective. The concept is double-edged in the sense that it entails both having flexibility and being flexible. Does flexibility only serve the interests of the employer? Or, do workers also benefit from flexibility? By combining these two aspects of flexibility, a win-win situation benefiting both employers and employees can be achieved. This article highlights and discusses strategies intended to promote the implementation of amodel of optimized manning.

  • 2.
    Ljung, Margareta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Shipping and Marine Technology, .
    Functions, performances and perceptions of work on ships2014In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 231-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for greater efficiency and increased profitability in shipping have increased with hardened competition. In recent years major reductions in manning have been made. When the STCW Convention was revised in 1995, this led to changes in terms of the organization of work on board. By using a functional approach, it became possible to handle current demands that all tasks on board are founded on competency-based skills. This article reports the results from an investigation of work functions performed on board ships. The aim was to investigate how these functions are performed today and how marine officers perceived this. Main questions were as follows: How do officers handle the working situation with a reduced crew? Which job functions do they have and how are these performed? How do officers experience the work situation on board? Field studies, involving participant observation and interviews on various types of vessels were conducted and issues were illuminated and analyzed from a socio-technical perspective. The results revealed some specific areas. Reduced crews highlight the need for the right kind of knowledgeable people. Not everyone can be good at everything, maybe not even within their own profession. The predominating issue is about the increased administrative work and the lack of skills development. A continuous professional development should be part of the work and a planned activity. Vessel crews are trying to create flexible solutions for performing the work on board. They are doing this in various ways, depending on the number of the crew, the leadership and the specific vessel culture.

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