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  • 1.
    Hosseini, S.B.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Johansson, S
    Lektronik, Ing.f:a, 424 49 Angered, Sweden .
    Klement, Uta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology.
    Kaminski, J
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology.
    Ryttberg, K.
    AB SKF, 415 50 Gothenburg.
    Cutting temperatures during hard turning: Measurements and effects on white layer formation in AISI 521002014In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 214, no 6, p. 1293-1300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns the temperature evolution during white layer formation induced by hard turning of martensitic and bainitic hardened AISI 52100 steel, as well as the effects of cutting temperatures and surface cooling rates on the microstructure and properties of the induced white layers. The cutting temperatures were measured using a high speed two-colour pyrometer, equipped with an optical fibre allowing for temperature measurements at the cutting edge. Depending on the machining conditions, white layers were shown to have formed both above and well below the parent austenitic transformation temperature, Ac1, of about 750 C. Thus at least two different mechanisms, phase transformation above the Ac1 (thermally) and severe plastic deformation below the Ac1 (mechanically), have been active during white layer formation. In the case of the predominantly thermally induced white layers, the cutting temperatures were above 900 C, while for the predominantly mechanically induced white layers the cutting temperatures were approximately 550 C. The surface cooling rates during hard turning were shown to be as high as 104-105 C/s for cutting speeds between 30 and 260 m/min independent of whether the studied microstructure was martensitic or bainitic. Adding the results from the cutting temperature measurements to previous results on the retained austenite contents and residual stresses of the white layers, it can be summarised that thermally induced white layers contain significantly higher amounts of retained austenite compared to the unaffected material and display high tensile residual stresses. On the contrary, in the case of white layers formed mainly due to severe plastic deformation, no retained austenite could be measured and the surface and subsurface residual stresses were compressive. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  • 2.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Zhou, Dapeng
    Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Austria.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Vassen, Robert
    Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany.
    Tailored microstructures of gadolinium zirconate/YSZ multi-layered thermal barrier coatings produced by suspension plasma spray: Durability and erosion testing2019In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 264, p. 283-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work employed an axial suspension plasma spray (SPS) process to deposit two different gadolinium zirconate (GZ) based triple layered thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The first was a 'layered' TBC (GZ dense/GZ/YSZ) where the base layer was YSZ, intermediate layer was a relatively porous GZ and the top layer was a relatively dense GZ. The second triple layered TBC was a 'composite' TBC (GZ dense/GZ + YSZ/YSZ) comprising of an YSZ base layer, a GZ + YSZ intermediate layer and a dense GZ top layer. The as sprayed TBCs (layered and composite) were characterized using SEM/EDS and XRD. Two different methods (water intrusion and image analysis) were used to measure the porosity content of the as sprayed TBCs. Fracture toughness measurements were made on the intermediate layers (GZ + YSZ layer of the composite TBC and porous GZ layer of the layered TBC respectively) using micro indentation tests. The GZ + YSZ layer in the composite TBC was shown to have a slightly higher fracture toughness than the relatively porous GZ layer in the layered TBC. Erosion performance of the as sprayed TBCs was evaluated at room temperature where the composite TBC showed higher erosion resistance than the layered TBC. However, in the burner rig test conducted at 1400 °C, the layered TBC showed higher thermal cyclic lifetime than the composite TBC. Failure analysis of the thermally cycled and eroded TBCs was performed using SEM and XRD. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 3.
    Panwisawas, Chinnapat
    et al.
    University of Birmingham,School of Metallurgy and Materials, , Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
    Sovani, Yogesh
    University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
    Turner, Richard P.
    University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
    Brooks, Jeffery W.
    University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
    Basoalto, Hector C.
    University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Modelling of thermal fluid dynamics for fusion welding2018In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 252, no February, p. 176-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fluid dynamics approach to modelling of fusion welding in titanium alloys is proposed. The model considers the temporal and spatial evolution of liquid metal/gas interface to capture the transient physical effects during the heat source–material interaction of a fusion welding process. Melting and vaporisation have been considered through simulation of all interfacial phenomena such as surface tension, Marangoni force and recoil pressure. The evolution of the metallic (solid and liquid) and gaseous phases which are induced by the process enables the formation of the keyhole, keyhole dynamics, and the fully developed weld pool geometry. This enables the likelihood of fluid flow-induced porosity to be predicted. These features are all a function of process parameters and formulated as time-dependent phenomena. The proposed modelling framework can be utilised as a simulation tool to further develop understanding of defect formation such as weld-induced porosity for a particular fusion welding application. The modelling results are qualitatively compared with available experimental information.

  • 4.
    Teixeira, Felipe Ribeiro
    et al.
    Federal University of Pará, Department of Mechanical Engineering/PPGEM, 1 Augusto Corrêa St., Guamá, Belém, PA, 66075-110, Brazil.
    Mota, Carlos Alberto Mendes
    Federal University of Pará, Department of Mechanical Engineering/PPGEM, 1 Augusto Corrêa St., Guamá, Belém, PA, 66075-110, Brazil.
    Almeida, Hélio Antônio Lameira
    Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pará, Mechanics, 1155 Alm. Barroso Ave., Marco, Belém, PA, 66093-020, Brazil.
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Federal University of Uberlandia, Laprosolda (Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes), 2121 João Naves de Ávila Ave., Santa Mônica, Uberlandia, MG, 38400-902, Brazil.
    Operational behavior of the switchback GMAW process using a mechanized rig for arc movement2019In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 269, p. 135-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Switchback Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) consists of a forward and backward periodic oscillation of the welding torch in the longitudinal direction of the joint. The present work has two objectives, to evaluate the use of a simple and practical device proposed for the switchback manipulation of the torch and to analyze the effect of the switchback parameters on the operational characteristic of the process. Two series of bead-on-plate depositions were planned, using the GMAW process with or without the switchback technique. To find an operational envelope, two levels of equivalent welding speeds were used for covering ranges of oscillation frequency and amplitude. A Ni superalloy was employed as deposition material, aiming at simulating weld overlays. Wire feeding speed, set voltage and contact tip-to-work distance (CTWD) were kept constant. The proposed device was evaluated and proved to be able to make the overlays with all combinations of planned parameters. It was demonstrated that if the backward length (B) is larger than half of the forward's (F), the torch passes more often over the same point of the deposit, and the oftener the torch passes over the same point, the lower the incidence of intermittent narrowing of the bead. By evaluating the surface aspect of the beads, the greater the F, the higher the likelihood of this irregularity. Penetration is shallower with switchback (reason demonstrated based on the fraction of stroke length that the arc is over the subtract), yet the bead surface presents more ripples. Another incident non-geometric conformity is the "dragon back" aspect of the bead, which is favored by faster equivalent welding speeds and high values of forward and backward speeds. The found operational envelope for the GMAW process with switchback was stablished with low-values of speeds and lengths of forward and backward strokes.

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