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  • 1.
    Adebahr, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och informatik, Avd för informatik.
    Andersson, Victor
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och informatik, Avd för informatik.
    Övervakning: Var går gränsen?: En studie av lastbilschaufförer som arbetar i Bohuslän och hur de ser på IT som hjälpmedel och övervakning på jobbet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag implementeras övervakningstjänster allt mer i olika verksamheter, särskilt inom transportbranschen. Implementeringen av övervakningstjänster möjliggör en bättre säkerhet och effektivare arbetsgång i form av att man som företag kan se bränsleförbrukning, lastbilars position och planera rutter utifrån leveransplats. Vi ville få kunskap om hur man övervakar anställda inom andra branscher och hur de anställda reagerar på övervakningen och utförde därför en bakgrundsundersökning där vi läste olika fallstudier från bland annat hemtjänsten, försäljningsbranschen och grundskolan. Vår frågeställning blev var går gränsen för acceptabel övervakning? Vi besvarade den genom att utföra intervjuer i två omgångar med tio respektive sex chaufförer som körde för företag i Bohuslän samt via en bakgrundsundersökning. Några chaufförer hade kort arbetserfarenhet och några längre, några chaufförer arbetade för större företag och några för mindre. På så sätt kunde vi se om deras svar skiljde sig utifrån antal år i branschen och eller storlek på företag. Resultatet av intervjuerna jämfördes därefter med bakgrundsundersökningen och resultatet vi kom fram till var att lastbilschaufförer numera accepterar att de blir övervakade via positioneringstjänster för att det leder till en effektivare ruttplanering. Chaufförerna anser även att det är bra att deras chefer kan se hur de kör. Genom att kunna se över sin förbrukning och hur man kör så möjliggörs en körstil som innebär mindre drivmedelsutgifter för företaget. Chaufförerna som arbetar i Bohuslän är också väl medvetna att tjänsterna krävs för att kunna konkurrera med utländska åkerier som kör för en billigare kostnad.Chaufförerna tyckte också att så länge övervakning var av relevant karaktär som driver företaget i rätt riktning anses det vara i sin ordning. Med relevant karaktär menade chaufförerna att företaget övervakar hur deras arbete flyter på och hur man kan effektivisera företaget utan att kränka deras personliga integritet. Efter vi jämfört våra intervjusvar med den bakgrundsundersökning vi utfört så kom vi fram till att. Lastbilschaufförer generellt sett har mer lojala åsikter för sitt företag än övriga yrken som vi haft med i vår undersökning.Nyckelord: Övervakning, lojala arbetare, IT-system, konkurrens

  • 2.
    Aghaee, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm.
    Jobe, William
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Karunaratne, Thashme
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tedre, Matti
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Interaction Gaps in PhD Education and ICT as a Way Forward: Results from a Study in Sweden2016Inngår i: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 360-383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many research studies have highlighted the low completion rate and slow progress in PhD education. Universities strive to improve throughput and quality in their PhD education programs. In this study, the perceived problems of PhD education are investigated from PhD students' points of view, and how an Information and Communication Technology Support System (ICTSS) may alleviate these problems. Data were collected through an online open questionnaire sent to the PhD students at the Department of (the institution's name has been removed during the double-blind review) with a 59% response rate. The results revealed a number of problems in the PhD education and highlighted how online technology can support PhD education and facilitate interaction and communication, affect the PhD students' satisfaction, and have positive impacts on PhD students' stress. A system was prototyped, in order to facilitate different types of online interaction through accessing a set of online and structured resources and specific communication channels. Although the number of informants was not large, the result of the study provided some rudimentary ideas that refer to interaction problems and how an online ICTSS may facilitate PhD education by providing distance and collaborative learning, and PhD students' self-managed communication.

  • 3.
    Ali Hassen, Yasin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och informatik, Avd för informatik.
    Role of ICT for the growth of small enterprises in Ethiopia2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Small enterprises strive to survive and grow in the business they are involved. They makeefforts to utilize different resources and technologies available to this end as long as it isaffordable and productive. Information Communication Technology or ICT and e-commerceare among those technologies that take the front line. This study asks the question ‘howmuch are Ethiopian small enterprises responsive to ICT and the internet and how much ofthe benefits have they utilized for their growth?’ It takes five small enterprises involved inimport and export business to perform case study research on the issue and examines theirutilization level of the technology. The findings show that small enterprises in the countryare on a very low level of utilizing ICT and e-commerce due to several reasons among whichare scarcity in infrastructure development and expertise in the area coupled with barriersfrom government policy and bank regulations.

  • 4.
    Ali, Hussein
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Al-Habobi, Ahmed
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Svenska molnleverantörers perspektiv på säkerhetsrisker vid användning av molntjänster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På senare tid har införandet av så det kallade molnet och molntjänster bidragit till en märkbar utveckling inom IT-branschen. Det som utmärker molntjänster är främst möjligheten att ha tillgång till data från olika enheter oavsett geografisk lokalisering. Idag används molntjänster av flera användare runt om i hela världen. Dock finns det en hel del risker med dessa tjänster, som kan få förödande konsekvenser. I denna studie identifieras säkerhetsrisker som uppstår vid utnyttjande av molntjänster. Dessa säkerhetsrisker undersöks mer djupgående i syfte att minimera riskerna för att uppnå en ökad säkerhet vid bruk av molntjänster. Syftet besvarades genom att använda en vetenskaplig metod där insamlandet av kvalitativ data är i fokus. Den kvalitativa undersökningen baserades på data från intervjuer med respondenter från olika molnleverantörer i Sverige. Resultatet visar att graden av säkerhetsrisker, så som dataförlust och försök av dataintrång av exempelvis DDOS-attacker, är beroende av molnleverantör och typ av molntjänst. Detta innebär att antal risker i en molntjänst varierar beroende på vilken leverantör som erbjuder tjänsten. Det är i dagsläget näst intill omöjligt att utesluta de säkerhetsrisker molnet medför. Dock påvisar denna studie att potentialen för att minimera dessa säkerhetsrisker ligger i utformandet av avtalet mellan molnleverantör och kund och att båda parter identifierar och kommer överens om vilka säkerhetsrisker som är acceptabla för kunden.   

  • 5.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Ashgar, Summara
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Spante, Maria
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Kim, Sung Won
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Byung-Seo
    Department of Computer & Information Communication Engineering Hongik University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
    Competence development at workplace: a work integrated informal learning (WIIL) approach2016Inngår i: Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, ISSN 0973-7006, Vol. 2, s. 35-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning within the organization is not only linked to the formal training and education of the employees, but also to informal processes of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices and norms, as well as in social ties among individuals in the organization. We analyzed employees' behavior and acceptance of online social networking as an information system (IS) of learning. The analysis is performed by a descriptive case survey within a telecom corporation in Pakistan. The purpose of our study is to bring an informal learning system at workplace. In this study we obtain quantitative data from 105 out of 180 targeted employees. The results show that a majority of the studied employees favor social networking to connect colleagues at different levels and more than half of the respondents share their knowledge and experiences using social sites. Nearly half of the respondents strongly agree that knowledge sharing is an important role of social sites within the organization and many are in favor of social media as an informal learning system. The results also show how the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in hierarchical levels of professions. This paper illustrates the benefits of social networking sites as an informal work integrated learning tool that also serves as an IS model for the organization.

  • 6.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Ashgar, Summara
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Spante, Maria
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Kim, Sung Won
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Byung-Seo
    Department of Computer & Information Communication Engineering Hongik University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
    Social Networking sites for Interdisciplinary Learning at Workplace: Work integrated informal Learning (WiiL)2016Inngår i: International Conference on Advanced Computing, Communication and Information Sciences (ICACCI-2016): Proceedings, Pushpa Publishing House , 2016, s. 9-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integrated Learning (WIL) studies usually focuses on educational situations when professional organizations are actively involved in learning processes for students in higher education. However, after completing the institutional period entering the professional arena, the professional person is still actually a student at the workplace as s/he never stops learning. Learning within the organization is not only linked to the formal training and education of the employees, but also to informal processes of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices and norms, as well as in social ties among individuals in the organization. Our analysis of employees' behavior and acceptance of online social networking as an information system (IS) of learning is performed by a descriptive case survey within a telecom corporation in Pakistan. Thepurpose of our study is to bring an informal learning system at workplace. In this study we quantitative data isobtained from 105 out of 180 targeted employees. The results show that a majority of the studied employees favors social networking to connect colleagues at different levels and more than half of the respondents share their knowledge and experiences using social sites. Nearly half of the respondents strongly agree that knowledge sharing is an important role of social sites within the organization and many are in favor of social media as an informal learning system. The results also show how the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in hierarchical levels of professions. This paper illustrates the benefits of social networking sites as an informal work integrated learning tool that also serves as an IS model for the organization.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Marcus
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Kartläggning och automatisering av den interna varuförsörjningskedjan: en fallstudie på Lindex AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabbt ökande digitaliseringen som sker i dagens samhälle påverkar såväl människor som teknik. Utvecklingen av digitala kanaler låter oss idag kommunicera och handla på helt nya sätt samtidigt som robotar är på väg att bli en del i vardagen. Inom e-handel har utveckling av automatiserade system och robotliknande teknik kommit långt och kan bidra till effektivare processer i företag. Lindex AB är ett av Sveriges största modeföretag och konkurrera ständigt med andra företag på marknaden för att uppfylla kunders behov och krav på service. Något som blivit allt viktigare på detaljhandelsmarknaden är försäljning genom digitala kanaler och e-handel där ordrarna ökar samtidigt som det ställs högre krav på kortare ledtider.

    Lindex har i denna studie en central del där syftet är att undersöka möjligheter och hinder för automatiserade lösningar i lager genom att studera orderhanteringen i Lindex e-handelsmiljö. Studien innefattar en teoridel som introducerar läsaren till automatisering av lagerprocesser där flera exempel på robotlösningar och avancerade lagersystem presenteras. Att ha robotar som transporterar varor till personalen istället för den traditionella versionen där personalen plockar varor från stationära plockplatser är idag en möjlighet. Detta kan innebära effektivare processer och slutligen kortare ledtider till kund.

    Intervjuer och observationer ligger till grund för studiens kvalitativa undersökningsansats som ger följd till ett resultat med mycket bilder. Totalt har sex observationer och tre intervjuer genomförts för att noggrant studera företagets processer. Deltagande observationerna har genomförts där författaren fått möjligheten att följa och studera nyckelprocesserna i Lindex varuflöde på en lagernivå.

    Slutsatsen visar på att det skulle vara svårt att automatisera processer på grund av flera hinder men tyder på att en av processerna som observerats har god möjlighet till automatisering på grund av dess starka koppling till lagersystem.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Gothenburg university.
    Cederlund, Katarina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Lyngfelt, Anna
    Gothenburg university.
    Sofkova Hashemi, Sylvana
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Crossing borders by the use of digital tools in classrooms representing different socioeconomic backgrounds2015Inngår i: NERASymposium: “Situating literacies in educational settings”, 4-6 March 2015, Gothenburg, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Informatics and Media production2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 10.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Can Measurements of Online Behavior Predict Course Performance?2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC 2016 and the 7th International Multi-Conference onSociety and Information Technologies: ICSIT 2016: Volume II (Post-Conference Edition), 2016, s. 4-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a pilot study on the relationship between performance in online classes and behavior in online discussion forums. Measuring student activity on the discussion forum, the collected data is then analyzed and mapped to the performance of the students on the course. The student activity was dividedinto a number of parameters, and during the study these parameters were compared to the performance of the students.The significance of each parameter was also analyzed through a Kruskall-Wallis-test Overall there was a strong tendency thatstudents with more activity and engagement received higher grades. This is in the future useful for developing some kind of monitoring to identify and support students on the verge of failing the course.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    How well can completion of online courses be predicted using binary logistic regression?2016Inngår i: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, s. 1-12Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses binary logistic regression to create models for predicting course performance. The data used is the data-trail left by students activities on a discussion forum while attending an online course. The purpose of the study is to evalute how well models based on binary logistic regression can be used to predict course completion.Three sets of data was used for this. One set collected at the end of the course, one collected after 75% of the course and one set collected after half the course. The result of the study says that it's possible to design models with an accuracy of between 70% and 80% using these methods, regardless of what time is used.

  • 12.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Rangraz, Masood
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Stenmark, Dick
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied Information Technology.
    TRANSFORMATION OF COMPETENCE: THE EFFECTS OF DIGITALIZATION ONCOMMUNICATORS' WORK2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS),: ECIS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, s. 195-209Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying human competence in relation with digitalization is currently an under-researched area within information systems scholarship. This paper presents a response to the contemporary calls within the IS field for studying the changes brought on by the advent of digitalization. Based on indepth interviews with professional communicators, we illustrate the effects of digitalization on the formation of work related competences. Employing a new sociotechnical system approach (Neo-STS), we analyze and illustrate the effects of digitalization in multiple ways. First, we propose that any further study of competence cannot be inadvertent to the phenomenon of digitalization. Second, we suggest a new approach for studying competence in relation with digitalization as opposed to studying "digital competence". Third, by applying a Neo-STS perspective, we provide a substantiated explanation of the transformation of competences in the work of communicators.

  • 13.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Wilenius, Frida
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Svensson, Ann
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    The Value of Investments in Competence Development and Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing2015Inngår i: Proceedings Cross-Cultural Business Conference 2015, Steyr, Austria / [ed] Margarethe Überwimmer, Teresa Gangl, Martina Gaisch, Robert Füreder, David Humbarger, Friedrich Bauinger, Hannes Hofstadler, Jörg Kraigher-Krainer, Christian Stadlmann, Pavel Štrach, Andreas Zehetner (Eds.), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2015, s. 13-27Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Asp Johansson, Vidar
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Väisänen, John
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Vårdens behov av modernisering av sina kommunikationssystem: En kvalitativ studie om varför man använder omodern teknik och hur den skulle kunna digitaliseras2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för att digitalisera vården i Sverige ökar, dock finns det fortfarande äldre tekniker som verkar omöjliga att få bort. Faxmaskinen används dagligen inom vården och är därmed en svår process att ersätta. Studier visar att faxen behövs att ersätta då den har flera säkerhetsbrister. Faxen brister i patientsäkerhet vilket är viktigt att uppehålla inom vården. Problematiken uppstår eftersom vårdare måste skriva ut patientinformationen för att sedan faxa den vidare och då kan det faxas fel, även om faxen kommer rätt passerar den mellan flera händer.

    Den här studien försöker ta reda på hur denna information skulle kunna digitaliseras genom att se över hur faxen verkligen används i vårdorganisationerna. Ersättning av faxen skulle kunna leda till att effektivisera vården, minska dubbelarbete och skapa en säkrare kommunikation inom vården.

    Denna studie har med en kvalitativ ansats genomfört intervjuer med personal inom vård och omsorg ifrån kommuner runt om Västra Götaland i Sverige för att få en djupare inblick i användning av faxen och hur den skulle kunna ersättas. Teorin är grundad efter ett sociotekniskt perspektiv där man tar hänsyn för både det tekniska och sociala i en processändring. Med hjälp av teorin har tidigare forskning tagits fram som har varit grunden för att sätta upp intervjufrågorna. Där alla delar i teorin analyserats för att ge bästa lösningen för hur den faxade informationen skulle kunna digitaliserats.

    Resultatet av studien visade att det behövs att ändra både arbetsprocesser och skapa nya funktioner i systemet för att kunna kommunicera mellan olika system. Alternativt införa ett gemensamt system för alla vårdgivare. Man behöver alltså veta exakt hur en process utförs i en organisation och digitalisera den en efter en för att få faxen att försvinna helt.

  • 15.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Needs and Challenges with Respect to Establishing a Collaboratory within Library and Information Science: Practitioners' Perspectives2009Inngår i: Change Challenges Leadership: Library in the Academic Community / [ed] M-L. Huotari and A. Lehto (eds.), Tampere: Tampere University , 2009, s. 62-80Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    A Heideggerian Approach to "Educationalness" Aspect of Educational Technologies2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadly speaking, educational technology is primarily viewed as learning tools. But whenever we emphasize on the adjective "educational", we must however be clear about what we mean by the educationalness aspect of these technologies. Therefore, we shall consider that there exist a lot of conceptual problems associated with the particularly such an ambiguous loaded term. As an example, researchers use various keywords/concepts such as 'learning' aimed at saying learners are either learn:'via'; 'through'; and, 'with' educational technologies but not definitely 'by' them. Why? Because in the latter case; using the English proposition 'by' it means we have in somehow accepted these tools are able to teach learners automatically. However, at the end; it's only the learner who learn depending on manyfactors, each determining the ratio of her/his leaning curve. So, knowing which appropriate English proposition to use is of paramount importance. Inspired by Heideggerian approach to the notion of technology, which should concern us today as well, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the"what" aspect of the learners regarding how they maintain their relationships with whatever educational technologies in use. It seems that these Teaching-learning tools such as YouTube has not been used effectively due to mainly the various learners, more or less, unawareness about how to approach the "essence" of these learning tools. To operationalize the Heideggerian approach to learning, his notion of the "essence of technology" will be discussed by using Technology, Pedagogy, and Content (TPAC) framework. Using such a framework will help us to discuss what and how learners manage their knowledge cognitively.

  • 17.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Determinants of Perceived IT Management in Primary School Settings: integrating self-management, shared management, and IT policy into technology acceptance model2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August. / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen (eds.), 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Flensburg, Per
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Towards a Framework for Re-conceptualization of Work-integrated Learning: an ontological approach2015Inngår i: 19th World Conference Proceedings Refereed Papers, 2015, s. 1-17Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Work-integrated learning (WIL) is very closely connected to the concept of purposefully designed curriculum. The main focus is on conducting a range of rigorous approaches to integrate theory with the practice. The existing view of the WIL emerged out of the theory of employability. WIL has been traditionally viewed as a strategic merely curriculum design rather than adopting a Whole-organization approach to effective leadership theory–practice symbiosis (LTPS), which we advocate. Such an approach is useful in enhancing an awareness to consider concerns and interests of all stakeholders that are involved in the multiple initiatives pursued in higher education institutions. But it requires fundamental rethinking and radical design of WIL-inspired educational processes such as course design. Rethinking implies approaching WIL ontologically. Depending on which extent the concept of WIL has been perceived by universities worldwide, it has been thus viewed and implemented from a diverse spectrum of perspectives. First, we discuss the implications for the existed conceptual differences. Thereafter, and inspired by the main philosophical assumptions underpinning a Whole-organization approach to WIL, we propose and thus thoroughly concretize a framework which we call Work-related Educational Activities (WREA). The model which is the theoretical foundation of WREA consists of a category of several components. After identification of the main components of the model, we adopt an ontological approach to the reconceptualization of WIL. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to demonstrate how University West in Sweden views WIL, which is its newly announced research profile. Secondly, an attempt to re-conceptualize WIL by conducting an ontological approach to WREA.

  • 19.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Högberg, Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Norström, Livia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Pareto, Lena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Willermark, Sara
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016Inngår i: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, s. 1-11Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

  • 20.
    Backlund, Stefan
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wingård, Robin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Den datorgenererade matbilden: En undersökning av graden av aptitlighet hos datorgenererade matbilder gjorda i reklamsyfte2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera år har återskapandet av fotorealistiska bilder spelat en viktig roll när det gäller användningen av 3D-CGI för visualisering och marknadsföring. Återskapandet av något som kan kallas fotorealistiskt utan att ha använt en kamera medför många fördelar och möjligheter som fotografering har svårt att uppnå. På grund av detta har flera företag börjat använda CGI som en alternativ metod för marknadsföring istället för fotografi. Det finns dock fortfarande områden där användningen av CGI är begränsad, antingen på grund av hög komplexitet vilket innebär höga kostnader. För denna studie fokuserar vi på användningen och upplevelsen av CGI-bilder av mat som används i reklam. Anledningen till detta är på grund av vår dagliga interaktion och konsumtion av mat, vilket kan medföra att vår perception av något som just mat, drastiskt kan skilja sig från vår perception av andra produkter som är skapade med hjälp av CGI.

    För att testa vår perception av CGI-bilder av mat formulerade vi en enkätundersökning vars syfte var att jämföra CGI-bilder med dess fotografiska motsvarighet för att döma den aptitlighet som deltagarna känner inför varje bild. Detta genomfördes genom att deltagarna betygsatte olika bilder med ett aptitlighetsvärde samt kommenterade om hur de kände inför specifika bilder och även deras generella åsikter om användningen av CGI för marknadsföring. Vår undersökning visade en ringa preferens mot CGI-bilderna jämfört med de fotografierna som vi använt. Det fanns dock flera deltagare som ogillade det "plastiga" och orealistiska utseendet av CGI-bilderna vilket ledde till mycket lägre aptitlighet. Vi hypotiserar att anledningen till en preferens för CGI-bilderna i denna studie är för att CGI-bilder kan ha en orealistisk perfektion som kan framhäva mer aptitlighet än vad produkten utseende skulle göra i verkligheten. Vilken typ av produkt som bilderna representerar kan också spela en stor del i vårt resultat. I denna studie använde vi bilder på chokladbitar, resultatet kan därför starkt vara kopplat till val av bilder och om studien skulle använt bilder av andra matkategorier, t.ex. kött, frukt eller grönsaker, skulle resultatet kunna se annorlunda ut.

  • 21.
    Bayar, Aylin
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Bergman, Tilde
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Att förändra utan att förstöra: En intervjuundersökning om hur externa byråer arbetar med rebranding2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are required to have the ability to be attractive because of today's intense market. They have to constantly make sure that their visual elements and graphic profile are related to the current market conditions. Furthermore the market are placing higher demands on how companies expose their brands and quite often the companies have to do a rebrand to keep their brand relevant. To do this, companies often have to hire an external party, such as an external advertising- or media agency.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what causes a rebranding and how the external agencys are working with the process. The study also examines which factors the agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity and whether it's important to preserve certain core elements from the previous visual identity. This is investigated based on following questions: "What are the reasons to why a company chooses to do a rebrand?", "What do external agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity?" and "Is it important to maintain graphic elements from the previous visual identity?".

    To answer the questions, the researchers have applied a qualitative study where semi-structured interviews have been implemented. Theory is based on secondary sources and previous research that deals with the area of rebranding, visual identity and the different elements of identity.

    The reasons to rebranding can be different. The study also shows that some companies have a visual identity that does not interact with their products or services, which is the reason to rebranding. In summary, the external agencies take into account many of the aspects surrounding the design that are brought up by previous research, but the study also adds new perspectives.

  • 22.
    Bengtegård, Dante
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Mo, Johan
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Fotogrammetri och 3D-artisten: En studie om fotogrammetrin inom spelindustrin och dess effekt på branschens artister2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, modelling for 3D games have strived to achieve photographic realism. The road there have historically gone through well-established traditional 3D-methods like box modelling and digital sculpting. However, in 2014 a big paradigm shift starts to happen, in 2014 photogrammetry arrives to the game industry in force. Since then the technology of photogrammetry has exploded within the game development industry and the field is now rapidly going through an arms race to not get left behind in the evolution of workflows for developing photo realistic 3D games. The purpose of this study was to understand how the implementation of this technology affects the 3D artists in the game industry. To study this, which has not been treated in previous scientific literature, we have conducted a survey study and a series of interviews. From our results we can see that the respondents, for the most part, have a positive attitude towards the change. This technology means for them a faster workflow and a shortcut towards photorealism. On top of this we cannot see a strong indication that this technology diminishes the artists creativity or causes something that can be called disruptive.

  • 23.
    Bergquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Knowledge Management Group, Viktoria Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jan
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för informatik och matematik (HTU).
    Practising peer review in organizations: a qualifier for knowledge dissemination and legitimization2001Inngår i: JIT. Journal of information technology (Print), ISSN 0268-3962, E-ISSN 1466-4437, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 99-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A key issue in many organizations is how to disseminate information in an effective way and, more importantly, how to make use of this information in order to create new knowledge. One way of addressing this problem is to focus on how information is socially transformed into knowledge. This includes how knowledge is handled in practice and how the knowledge produced is qualified as being something worth knowing and acting upon. Two well-established practices for doing this are the refereeing system and the peer review process. These are used in scientific communities as a means of validating and legitimating knowledge, for example by reviewing journal papers before publishing or project proposals before granting funds, etc. This paper argues that peer review is a useful concept when looking at knowledge creation and legitimization in organizations. The social meaning of peer review is to legitimize new knowledge by organizationally sanctioning it and thereby creating a platform for collective sense making. This paper uses an example from a field study in a pharmaceutical company in order to illustrate this argument. The study took place in a quality support department where the quality of health care products and processes was assessed. The organization had a need for fast and reliable updating of information that could influence how the production process of pharmaceuticals should be carried out. In order to cope with these problems the department established an 'evaluation loop', which shared several characteristics with the peer review process.

  • 24.
    Bergstedt, Tobias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Sociala mediers påverkan på vår kreativitet: En studie i hur referensmaterial från sociala medier påverkar vår kreativa förmåga2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay was made to investigate the effects on creativity of students and professionals in the creative field caused by the use of reference materials from social media. It was performed by using an Aesthetics and Media class from De la Gardie High School to carry out an experiment where participants in two test groups were given the task of individually creating an image of a dragon. With the help of a preliminary investigation survey and an evaluation survey an interesting conclusion could be drawn.

    The result of the survey was that we were not significantly affected by the inspiration and reference material from social media. There was a clear difference between the results from the two groups, but this could be explained by the preliminary survey. From this survey it was obvious that the participants in Group 2 considered themselves to be more creative than the participants in group 1 did. Assuming that the participants had appreciated their ability correctly, it means that after correction based on this difference, the difference between using and not using social media for references is almost non-existent.

  • 25.
    Bernhard, Irene
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    E-government and E-governance - Swedish Case Studies with Focus on the Local level2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of e-government and e-governance are used interchangeably in most research and there is no single definition of these terms. The objective of this licentiate thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of these concepts through empirical studies in a Swedish context. Further, it aims to analyse whether – and if so in what way – the implementation of local contact centres (CC) affect conditions for local planning. This is reported in three articles. In this thesis e-government is defined to as the use of tools and systems by governmental bodies made possible by ICT that affect the organization of public administration. E-governance is defined as the ICT-based networks of services and administration in New Public Management settings including both public and private actors. Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group studies, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly built on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice. Based on a theoretical discussion of New Public Management in the digital era, findings show that there is a difference between the concepts of e-government and e-governance from the perspective of e-administration and e-services and that the terms should not be used interchangeably. The study indicates that there are examples of implementation that are referred to the e-governance setting. Further the study indicates that local municipal contact centres may be referred to not only as an implementation of e-government but as a combination of e-governance and e-government. The findings indicate that there is a potential for positive impact on the conditions for local planning through the implementation of municipal contact centres.

  • 26.
    Bernhard, Irene
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    E-government and E-governance: local implementation of E-government policies in Sweden2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is recognized in international research that the public sector has been transformed into a networked, open and more flexible, informal and interactive governance structure. This is described as a transition from "government to governance". Sweden is one of the international leaders with regards to e-government development. The objective of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of how e-government policies are implemented in an e-governance context, through empirical case studies in Sweden. The focus is on the local level. The overall research question is: How is e-government policy put into practice when focusing on the local level? This is reported in four articles.Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group interviews, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly based on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice.The analysis arrives at three overarching conclusions: (1) In practice, when e-government policy is implemented and translated at the local level, it tends to happen in an e-governance setting conducted by policy entrepreneurs or promoted by entrepreneurial behaviour in public administration. E-government policies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economic structures. (2) Implementation of e-government and e-governance initiatives requires trust in the service provision among public administrators as well as among citizens. Efficiency and citizen-centred approaches in the redesign of information relationships between public administration and citizens to create some sort of added value are crucial. (3) The thesis indicates that there are two main implications of municipal contact centres (CCs): they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide "holistic" services to the individual citizen. However, although the use of ICT is essential for the organisational transformation, the results indicate that the organisational settings and internal anchoring are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of local e-government and e-governance initiatives in the form of contact centres. One example for potential added value is the source of information of citizens' issues through the implementation of municipal contact centres, which may have a positive impact on the conditions for local planning.

  • 27.
    Bernhard, Irene
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Local e-Government in Sweden: Municipal Contact Center implementation with focus on Citizens and Public Administrators2014Inngår i: Journal of Community Informatics, ISSN 1712-4441, E-ISSN 1712-4441, Vol. 10, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to analyze the implementation of municipal contact centers (CCs) - an e-government initiative on the local level - from the perspectives of citizens and public administrators. This article is based on case studies from four Swedish municipalities. The results indicate that the CCs: contribute to increased access to municipal service, localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide a "holistic" approach to the individual citizen in her local context. However, the quality of the service also depends on the organizations of the work within the back-office of the municipality. All issues from the citizens were registered which contribute to increased knowledge about the citizens needs and perceptions regarding municipality services and planning in urban issues.

  • 28.
    Bernhard, Irene
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 9-22 August 2010, Jönköping, Sweden2011Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology consists of  twenty-five revised papers, first presented at the thirteenth Uddevalla Symposium, August, 19-22, 2010[1], at Jönköping University, Sweden. The overall theme was Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship – Economic, Social and Academic Aspects”. This year’s Uddevalla Symposium was organized as a Special Session within the 50th Anniversary ERSA congress 2010. Session organizers were Professor Kingsley E. Haynes, Dean, School of Public Policy, George Mason University & Professor Roger R. Stough, Vice President for Research and Economic Development, George Mason University, USA. A broad range of topics were listed among the themes for Special Sessions within this ERSA congress. One of them (and the largest) was the 13th Uddevalla Symposium to which forty papers were submitted. This session had an interdisciplinary character and provided an opportunity for researchers to discuss their ongoing research that was relevant to clarifying the role of innovation and multidimensional entrepreneurship in the growth and development of regional economies and regional economic systems. The papers were subdivided into nine different subthemes: Multidimensional Entrepreneurship, Regional Innovation Systems, Economic Development, Social Capital, Entrepreneurial Behavior, Rural Development, Industries, Firm Performance & Clusters, and Cities (for a detailed program; see the website: www.symposium.hv.se)

    1Uddevalla Symposium is an international scientific symposium established in 1998 in Uddevalla, Sweden. The primary objective is to foster research collaboration and bring together leading-edge views between experts, researchers and insightful practitioners from various fields of regional science, international business, economics, entrepreneurship and small business economics as well as from regional economics, regional planning, economic geography/economic history/political science and sociology in order to increase our knowledge as regards research questions related to “Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions".

  • 29.
    Bernhard, Irene
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy2011Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This proceedings consists of  thirty-nine revised papers, first presented at the fourteenth Uddevalla Symposium & the Third International Symposium of Entrepreneurship of E-Lab at University of Bergamo, June, 16-18, 2011 , held at University of Bergamo, Italy. The overall theme was “Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions”. The symposium was hosted by the E-Lab, University of Bergamo, Italy. The purpose of the symposium was to contribute to an increased understanding of the role of entrepreneurial knowledge and technology for the transformation of regions by means of the entry, growth and exit of firms.      Except for the overall theme there were twelve special sub-themes, chaired by invited scholars from the Uddevalla Symposium Network: “Work-integrated learning in transforming regions” “Entrepreneurship, family business and innovation”, “Slow city movement and sustainable local development”, “Shrinking urban regions”, “Entrepreneurship, networking and regional development”, “Resilience capacity of firms and new forms of innovation”, “Cluster development and regional transformation in an economic perspective”, “Entrepreneurship policy in comparative perspective”, “Learning and knowledge transfer processes in small firms’ clusters”, “The spatial agglomeration of business services”, “Entrepreneurship, creativity and the brain”, and “Productivity and financing of regional infrastructure.      Ten keynote-speakers gave presentations during these three days; Prof. Shaker A. Zahra, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, USA. Assoc. Prof.  Charlotta Mellander, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden, Prof. David Audretsch, Indiana University, USA, Assoc. Prof. Johan Klaesson Jönköping International Business School & CenSE, Sweden, Prof. Andrés Rodriguez-Pose, London School of Economics, UK, Prof. Hans Westlund, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm & Jönköping International Business School, Sweden,  Prof. Maryann P. Feldman, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA,  Prof. Giovanna Dossena, University of Bergamo, Italy,  Prof. Hans Lööf, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden,  and Prof. Zoltan J. Acz, George Mason University, USA.      To stimulate high quality papers a Best Paper Award as well as a Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was announced and financially supported by the municipality of Uddevalla, Sweden. The winners of the Best Paper were Johan Klaesson & Sofia Wixe, Jönköping International Business School and CEnSE (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics), Jönköping, Sweden. The winner of the Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was Mattias Örnerheim, Linköping University, Sweden.         Organizers of this 14th Uddevalla Symposium were the University West, Sweden and the E-Lab at University of Bergamo, in co-operation with Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and George Mason University, School of Public Policy, USA. The symposium was also financial supported by the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovations Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.         This symposium would not have been possible without a lot of work and support also from certain individuals. The editor expresses sincere gratitude to all participants, participating organizations, not at least the local organizers at the University of Bergamo, and especially to Dr. Christina Bettinelli.          Also I thank all members of the Uddevalla Symposium Organising Committee and all colleagues at University West. A special thank goes to Rebecca Olsson, University West not at least for editorial help.

    Trollhättan, Sweden in December 2011 Department for Economics & IT, University West

    Iréne BernhardEditor   

  • 30.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Challenging Organizational Issues When Municipal Contact Centers are Implemented in Sweden2013Inngår i: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 198-209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two case studies of the implementation of Contact Centres(CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and discussed from anorganizational perspective. The research method was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. Several challenging organizational issues for management and employees were identified:the implementation strategies varied among the cases and affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation, the mental construct and understanding of the implementation. The financing of the CC and recruitment strategies created problems, but in somewhat different ways and in phases of the process in each case. The potential of using registered information as asource for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized, although somestatistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal andinformal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees inthe CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good,co-operative working climate. There was a need for continuous updating ofskills in both cases, but with slightly different focus, related to theorganization of the work. The organization in response groups required morespecialist competence, compared with the organization without response groups,which required more general competence. Some challenges for the caseadministrators in the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organizationof their work, and to co-operate more with their colleagues both in the backoffice and at the CC. They now had the possibility to plan their administrativework in a better way than before, but some administrators missed the previousspontaneous contacts with citizens. Initially, many case administrators wereafraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negativeattitudes towards CC and hampering the learning process in taking part in theimplementation process.

  • 31.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2014Inngår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers first presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium, 12-14 June, Uddevalla, Sweden. / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2014, s. 165-183Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyse a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews were made with twelve managers from ten small enterprises.

       Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise but also to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use of digital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 32.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Lessons Learned from the Implementation of Contact Centers in Swedish Municipalities2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on e-Government: University of Insubria, Varese, Italy, 13-14 June 2013 / [ed] Elena Ferrari and Walter Castelnovo, Reading, 2013, s. 63-71Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Two case studies of the implementation of contact centers (CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and analyzed. The purpose of the article is to focus on lessons learned from the perspectives of the management and the employees in the organizations according to the MOA-model. The research method used was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. According to our findings the implementation strategies varied among the two cases. The strategies affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation aspects and understanding of the implementation. The potential of using registered information as a source for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized in the municipal organizations, although some statistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal and informal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees in the CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good, co-operative working climate. Some learning challenges for the handling officers at the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organization. Initially, many handling officers at the back-office were afraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negative attitudes towards CC, and hampering the learning process in taking part in the implementation process. The establishment of a CC is a comprehensive organizational change process affecting the whole municipal administration. A challenge for the municipalities is to formulate relevant strategies and manage the implementation in order to involve all employees.

  • 33.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Towards Inclusive E-Government: The Development of Municipal Contact Centers in Sweden2013Inngår i: Developing E-Government Projects: Frameworks and Methodologies / [ed] Zaigham Mahmood, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2013, 1, s. 225-247Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, five case studies of the implementation of contact centers in Swedish municipalities are described and discussed with a focus on inclusive e-government. The research methods used are mainly qualitative interviews with different categories of municipal personnel and also with some citizens. The main conclusions are that the implementation of contact centers contributes to increased accessibility of municipal services, even for those citizens who might have problems using Internet services. The study indicates and development towards increased equal treatment of citizens and a contribution to reducing problems related to the “digital divide.” Municipal services became more adapted to citizens’ needs by using citizen-centric methods and dialogue during the development process and in the daily work of the contact centers. The implementation of municipal contact centers can thus be seen as a step towards inclusive e-government, but there is still a need to go further in this direction.

  • 34.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Value Creation of networks and networking for small enterprises and destination development2014Inngår i: The 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: THE values of tourism / [ed] Budeanu, Adriana; Möckel, Marie & Gyimóthy, Szilvia, Köpenhamn, 2014, s. 81-82Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature recognizes that networks and networking are vital for firm performance and enterprises of all sizes are joining international networks (Lechner & Dowling, 2003; Bernhard & Karlsson, 2014; Cesário & Noronha Vaz, 2014;). Further research claims that networking is an important business activity for entrepreneurs, especially important for small businesses during start-up, which can then contribute to the growth of the business and superior performance. The emerging information society challenges relations not only between public agencies such as municipalities and citizens but also small enterprises in many ways. Earlier research also claims that entrepreneurship is a key issue in destination development.

    This study aims to describe and analyze the value creation of networks for small enterprises and destination development. The enterprises are located in two municipalities in a region undergoing structural change, due to the closure of a big car plant. We will focus on the value creation of different forms of networks and networking such as face-to-face and digital-based networks. Further we focus on value creation related to different actors within the networks, such as the role of entrepreneurs, municipalities, customers and sub-contractors. Theories on entrepreneurship, e-government, social media and network are important for our study.

    The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews, observations and document studies. Twelve interviews were conducted with managers from ten small enterprises (defined as microenterprises according to European Commission (Ekonomifakta, 2014). We contacted the public managers at the business offices in each municipality and they selected a list of companies involved in destination development within their municipality. Two of the ten enterprises were chosen from the list made by the managers. The remaining eight were selected from the list of members of the tourism company’s website. The tourism company is partly owned by the two municipalities and managed by a non-profit association for tourism development. Each interview took about an hour and was recorded before transcribing. All interviews were conducted in autumn 2013 and were made together by the authors. The analysis was made by qualitative content analysis and done in two steps; first separately by each author, after which the analysis was discussed together. This was done in order to increase the validity of the analysis. Regarding some issues respondents have received follow-up questions in order to get further understanding.

    The main findings indicated that networks and municipal support were important for the small enterprises. The municipalities could for example support network building for destination development. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government.

    The respondents stressed the importance of face-to-face contacts for establishing and maintaining their networks. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents on the other hand were very skilled in their use of social media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation. Strategic choices of networks and relevant competence to handle social contacts (both face-to-face and digitally) contributed to the value creation.

    This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects that contribute to value creation for small enterprises and destination development.

  • 35.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University.
    Editorial2014Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 269-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centers: A Slower Approach towards Sustainable Local Development2011Inngår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June 2011, Bergamo, Italy / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2011, 1, s. 111-125Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The constitutional local autonomy of Swedish municipalities aims to relate democracy and public administration to local distinctiveness. It relies on the idea of subsidiarity and rests on the idea of a local common and the citizen’s own inter-pretation of common problems and activities. This gives a unique opportunity to develop Swedish municipalities as slow cities. In Sweden there are some local food initiatives focusing on local and traditional production, hospitality and delivering. However, to live slow is also about how, where and when everyday life take place. This in spite of that all municipalities have explicit sustainability policies. A reason for this could be the dominating discourse of welfare efficiency, production and growth.

       One of the most recent approach to keep up the image as well as the practice of Sweden as a sustainable but still efficient, fast and well-organized state is e-government. The high Internet penetration among Swedes opens for as well as asks for improved and developed governmental services on-line. In Sweden, a recent governmental action plan stresses the importance of using information and communication technologies (ICT) in order to effectively develop the Swedish public administration with the aim to ”make it as simple as possible for as many as possible” leading to improved accessibility for all citizens. This has led to that public municipal contact centers have been established. Contacts centers are both physical and on-line. E-government could be considered as fast government, but in this paper we will try to turn that obvious first impression up-side down. We will conceptual argue that municipal contact centers are a tool towards improved sustainability, localism and slowing up administration.

       Thus there are two main implications of contact centers, they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice. This strives to provide a ‘holistic’ approach of the individual in relation to the governmental administration. The conclusions of the paper are a double modeling. Firstly, we point out the implications of time-geographical modeling of slow processes. Secondly, we place e-government and contact centers in this model. Policy implications relate both to the conceptualization of slow processes and the potential to further develop municipal contact centers.

  • 37.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015Inngår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, nr 11, s. 2292-2309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 38.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Policy entrepreneurs in networks: implementation of two Swedish municipal contact centres from an actor perspective2014Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 288-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to elaborate on the meanings of policy entrepreneursand through the conceptualisation analysing implementation of local municipalcontact centres – a Swedish local e-governmental initiative. The paper buildson qualitative case studies including interviews, observations and documentanalysis, all analysed through the perspective of policy entrepreneurs. Localpolicies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economicstructures. The networked governance structure demands entrepreneurial actorsto combine resources and interests into a change. Here we identified boththeoretically and practical, two types of such entrepreneurial actors. The issueentrepreneur focuses on the issue as such and focuses on the solution to a singleproblem. The political entrepreneur, on the other hand, focuses on core valuesand long term structural changes. The emerging networked governancestructure asks for improved knowledge on policy entrepreneurship both foranalytical and practical improvements. The findings may provide usefulinformation for municipal e-government planning specifically when planningfor implementing contact centres. The study enriches the existing literature onpolicy entrepreneurs in networks expanding the roles to include also local e-government contexts.

  • 39.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, politik och ekonomi.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Public E-servive as an Innovative Organisational Setting for Entrepreneurial Behavior2009Inngår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2009 The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Revised papers presented at the 12th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June 2009, Bari, Italy / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2009, 1, s. 205-222Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public e-services are technical innovations leading to organisational changes. The basic pre-conditions of e-services in the public sector differ in several perspectives from the private sector and e-commerce. For example when the “customers” are citizens instead of consumers the distribution of, access to and use of the services are different. Thus there are demands for developing general models and approaches to analyse as well as promote public e-services. Governmental e-services bring out innovative organisational changes based on how the public sector can meet the e-society and bridge over formerly unseen divides. However, such changes demand an innovative behaviour among actors in usually strictly and formally defined roles. 

        The conceptual model developed in this paper will discuss the differences of e-services, e-administration and e-democracy. Following on to this model an illustrative case of a public e-service on the Internet is presented analysed through the model. The e-service extending the geographical reach of public organisations is the Common application system for upper secondary school, in the regions of West Sweden and Östergötland in Sweden.

  • 40.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Regional e-governance: Promoting Entrepreneurial Behavior in Public Administration2014Inngår i: Agglomeration, clusters and entrepreneurship: Studies in Regional Economic Development. / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 1, s. 199-220Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public e-services are technical innovations which enable organizational changes. The basic pre-conditions for e-services in the public sector differ in several respects from e-commerce in the private sector. When the “customers” are citizens, the distribution of, access to and use of the services are not based on an open market distribution. Public e-services bring about innovative organizational changes for the new e-society and bridge formerly unseen digital divides. However, such changes demand an innovative behaviour among people in professional roles which are usually strictly and formally defined. 

        The conceptual model developed in this paper will discuss the differences of e-services, e-administration and e-democracy. Following this model, an illustrative case of a public e-service on the Internet will be presented and analyzed. The e-service extending the geographical reach of public organizations is the Common application system for upper secondary school in the regions of West Sweden and Östergötland in Sweden. The professionals in public administration acted as entrepreneurs and improved the intended benefits of the e-service. We therefore see a demand for developing general models to analyze as well as for promoting public e-services.

  • 41.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Trust in Safe Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2011Inngår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 19-22 August, 2010, Jönköping, Sweden / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, 1, s. 107-124Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Such relations taking place on the Internet or in other specific systems are called public e-services, which is a basic component of e-government.  E-services as such are innovations – even if the service as such has been there before – it is a new way producing and organizing the service. For successful implementation of innovations in public contexts the innovations has to be considered as legitimate by all involved actors.

       On a European and national level there are some policies and emerging standardization regarding public e-services. Thus policies are translated both to other levels of governments in the multi-level governance chain and secondly from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration rely on a double steering approach, with strong constitutional regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced out into regional local public agencies. Instead European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context and the implications from them rely on the local uptake in the specific setting and the competences of the professionals in the local public administration. 

       Since this is a new emerging field of innovative practice our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation opens for inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight both translations over levels in multi-level settings and constructions of meanings of safety. The conclusion is that the translation over levels from policies to praxis appears to be more critical than the technological translation. In short: the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 42.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Trust in Secure Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2012Inngår i: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, s. 241-262Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Providing e-services on the Internet and using other forms of information and communication technologies are basic components of e-government. E-services as such are innovations – even if the service itself existed before – as they are a new way of producing and organizing the service. For secure use and successful implementation of innovations in public contexts, the innovation must be considered legitimate and related to policies.

       The European Union and all other levels of government form policies, which are translated among the various levels to manage the useful, secure praxis of e-services. Translation in organisational terms takes place across governmental levels in the multi-level governance chain and secondarily from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration relies on a dual steering approach, with strong, constitutionally mandated regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced onto regional and local public agencies. Instead, European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context, and their implications rely on local uptake in the specific setting and on the competencies of the professionals in local public administration. 

       Since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice, our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation allows inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight translations both across levels in multi-level settings and as constructions of meanings of security. The conclusion is that the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 43.
    Bernhard, Irène
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    The Role of Local Destination Management Organizations for Destination Development focusing on E-government and Networks. Case studies from Scandinavia2015Inngår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, s. 123-139Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on destination development from the perspective of the field of tourism, explored by a descriptive study comparing three local Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) focusing on e-government and networks. Local DMOs are often founded by local municipalities and enterprises in conjunction to promote the tourism industry. This study includes three cases in Scandinavia, having inland water areas in common, situated in regions that are undergoing structural change. The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews and document studies. This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects regarding the use of e-government and networks that contribute to destination development in an Scandinavian context.

  • 44.
    Bernhard, Irène
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    The Role of Local E-government for Satisfied Citizens: Towards Sustainable Development?2015Inngår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, s. 141-153Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to study the role of local e-government regarding citizens view of municipality service, information and accessibility to municipality service. The main hypothesis was that municipalities with high degree of pro-activity regarding e-government are municipalities with high degree of satisfied citizens. Satisfaction among citizens was studied by using a national survey which is performed twice ever year. The survey normally includes roughly 130 municipalities out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden. The number of randomly selected individuals per municipality is usually 600 in smaller municipalities and 1200 in larger municipalities. In this study we focus on the following dimensions: Overall satisfaction, Satisfaction with response and accessibility and Satisfaction with influence and confidence.The results implies that e-government and satisfied citizens are correlated. The correlations between the e-variables: e-proactivity, e-strategy, e-information/transparency, e-interaction were all significantly correlated to the satisfaction indices. The correlations were generally of medium strength, i.e. around 0.2-0.4. There were no significant correlations between in real life interactions, strategy for democracy and the satisfaction indices.

  • 45.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, politik och ekonomi.
    Evaluation of Customer Centre and e-Services in a Swedish Municipality with Focus on the Citizens' Perspective2009Inngår i: 3rd European Conference on Management and Evaluation / [ed] Jan Ljungberg and Kerstin Grundén, Reading: Academic Publishing Limited , 2009, s. 34-41Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication and quality of service to the citizens are considered to be of utmost importance in today’s society. Even though the Swedish municipalities have a high level of self-regulation and freedom to organize communication and dialogue with their citizens in their own way, the Swedish government has expressed their demands of increased expectations by citing the potential of e-governance and high quality of service in order to increase the efficiency of the service to the citizens. To implement customer centres is one way to meet these demands. This paper offers a critical evaluation of consequences for Swedish citizens regarding the quality of service from the citizens’ perspective in a municipality where a new customer centre and e-services have been developed and established. The main research method is qualitative based upon analysis from interviews with different personnel categories of employees within the municipality. The results are also based on analysis of customer investigations. The results show that this implementation and developing of e-services are mostly positive for the quality of service to the citizens but there are also some weak aspects found.

  • 46.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Gustafsson, Mariana
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sefyrin, Johanna
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    A digital society for all?: Meanings, practices and policies for digital diversity2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2019, 2019, s. 3067-3076Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of digital divides has been on the agenda in research and policy making for at least the last 20 years. But it is still, a challenge to grasp this concept that is so elusive and transforming. Inclusion, access and equality are still key values for democratic governance and must be addressed in particular when forming and contributing to a digital government. This paper seeks to intervene in current debates on digital divides and digital inclusion by analyzing two cases of responses among street-level public administration in relation to e-government services in Sweden. The case studies are strategically chosen and conducted in national agencies and in local public libraries. Three lines of contributions are discussed, firstly thei mportance to care for equality secondly the need to seethe non-users, and thirdly to discuss the potential of putting focus on digital diversity.

  • 47.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Norström, Livia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Degree of Digitalization and Citizen Satisfaction: A Study of the Role of Local e-Government in Sweden2018Inngår i: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, s. 59-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between degree of e-government in Swedish municipalities and perceived satisfaction among citizens generally. This is a large-scale quantitative study based on validand reliable Swedish national surveys. Based on these surveys, a new comprehensive index for measuring "degree of digitalization" was constructed. Citizen satisfaction was measured using established indices covering three dimensions:satisfaction with living in the municipality, satisfaction with performance of government activities (delivered services), and satisfaction with transparency and influence. The results show that there is a relationship between the degree of digitalization in a municipality and the perceived satisfaction among its citizens. The degree of digitalization is related to all three dimensions of citizen satisfaction. Additionally, this study indicates that the strength of this relationship is in parity with or even stronger than the relationship between citizen satisfaction and other crucial factors such as educational level and median income

  • 48.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Pineda, Maria Victoria
    De La Salle University.
    What Drives a Great Learning Experience for Millennial Learners: Swedish and Filipino Observations2012Inngår i: PeLS Online Journal, ISSN 2094-781X, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 3-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Millennial learners are individuals born after 1985 with very wide exposure to various types of media enhanced by technology. They are persons who had listened to music while in the womb of their mothers and had watched television starting at age 0. Most of them would have had a music player or a game pad or a mobile phone at age 8. (Deterle, Dede and Schrier, 2008) These millenial learners grew up with constant web connectivity at their fingertips to assist them in their homeworks.The present pedagogies our academic institutions employ to support the learning style of the web generation of students may not be as suitable. Social constructivism, transformative learning or problem-based learning, while prevalent in the Asian context, may be more perfect for cognitively dynamic students. Our students nowadays are more adept to constructing knowledge, content (Attwell, 2007) and even more independent in their learning priorities. This study attempts to understand the new learning practices among our students. This study attempts to find out how college students define what a good learning experience is. It is also the intention of the study to explore new educational practices and hopefully drive ways of designing and developing the future of learning activities. The study was conceived in May 2011 and was planned to collect data in the form of short videos in a span of six months, from June to December. There will be two sets of samples, one from the students of De La Salle University of the Philippines (DLSU) and the other from the students of University West (UW) in Sweden.The experiment asked for a two minute video that will be created and expressed by an individual or group of students. This meant planning and organization to compose the thoughts, the message and the content of the video. Since this contains the expression of the students themselves, the self-expression equates to a great degree of authenticity. This paper will impart the results of this experiment, the Great Learning Experience. There weretwenty videos from DLSU and fifteen videos from UW. This paper will tell the methods used in the different classes and the findings. Comparison of the UW and DLSU videos is not includedin the paper.

  • 49. Bernheim, B-G.
    et al.
    Hattinger, Monika
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för informatik och matematik (HTU).
    Sharing Thoughts and Associations: Towards a Neural Metaphor Supporting Boundary Objects in Community Networks,2003Inngår i: IRIS 26, 2003Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Bernheim, Bo-Göran
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Ett förslag till en metod för konceptuell modellering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Vetenskapliga teorier och begreppsmodeller kan ses som representationer av kunskap om något fenomen. Teorier är alltid abstraktioner av ett fenomen, med syfte att; beskriva, förklara, förutse eller styra detta fenomen.

    I ett nummer av MIS Quarterly (2003 27(3) pp iii-xii), argumenterar Ron Weber (2003) för att forskare inom IS-domänen bör sträva efter bättre precision när man presenterar och diskuterar forskning och teorier.

    I den här uppsatsen analyseras Ron Webers artikel för att ta fram en konceptuell modell, en begreppsmodell, för vetenskapliga teorier.

    Syftet är att skapa en modell för vetenskapliga teorier som kan leda till bättre formalisering och tydliggörande av vetenskapliga teorier.

    Dessutom skapas en enhetlig och konsistent terminologi avseende de element (relationer mellan olika entiteter, dessas egenskaper, tillstånd och relaterade händelser) som kan ses som den minsta gemensamma nämnaren för att beskriva alla existerande fenomen. En instansiering av denna modell skulle kunna tjänstgöra som ett generiskt arkiv 1 för kunskap.

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