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  • 1.
    Adebahr, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Andersson, Victor
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Övervakning: Var går gränsen?: En studie av lastbilschaufförer som arbetar i Bohuslän och hur de ser på IT som hjälpmedel och övervakning på jobbet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays companies and organizations are implementing IT-systems that enable surveillances, particularly within the transport business. The implementation within the surveillances systems enables a better security and a more efficient workflow. The systems make it possible for companies to see fuel consumption, the position off the truck and also to plan the most efficient routes. The truck drivers have learned to accept that they are being watched through the companies surveillance systems just because it leads to a more efficient route-planning. The drivers understand why they’re being monitored and they feel safe. Since IT-systems came into the transport business drivers are able to see the fuel consumption and by seeing that they can drive more ecological and save money for their company. The truck driver that works in Bohuslän is well aware that these services are crucial for the companies, by having these systems the companies can compete with the foreign hauliers that takes the same job for a much smaller fee. But where is the limit for acceptable surveillance? We answered the issue by doing interviews in two rounds, first with ten truck drivers then with six. We also did a literature study. The drivers where all driving for companies in Bohuslän. The drivers we interviewed had different experience within the business, some drivers worked at big companies and some drivers worked at smaller companies. By sorting the drivers out we were able to sort out our answers and see if there were a difference in the way the drivers were thinking. We wanted to get knowledge of how different business surveilled their employees and how the employees reacted. So we performed a literature study where we read different case studies from the home care, the sales industry and the elementary school. We compared the result from our study with the result from our interviews. We managed to see that truck drivers generally had more loyal thoughts to their company. The drivers that were interviewed where well aware of the hard competition within the industry. As long as surveillance makes the company more efficient and the surveillance don’t violate their private integrity it´s okay to use it.Keywords: Surveillance, loyal workers, IT-system, competition

  • 2.
    Aghaee, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm.
    Jobe, William
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Karunaratne, Thashme
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tedre, Matti
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Interaction Gaps in PhD Education and ICT as a Way Forward: Results from a Study in Sweden2016In: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 360-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many research studies have highlighted the low completion rate and slow progress in PhD education. Universities strive to improve throughput and quality in their PhD education programs. In this study, the perceived problems of PhD education are investigated from PhD students' points of view, and how an Information and Communication Technology Support System (ICTSS) may alleviate these problems. Data were collected through an online open questionnaire sent to the PhD students at the Department of (the institution's name has been removed during the double-blind review) with a 59% response rate. The results revealed a number of problems in the PhD education and highlighted how online technology can support PhD education and facilitate interaction and communication, affect the PhD students' satisfaction, and have positive impacts on PhD students' stress. A system was prototyped, in order to facilitate different types of online interaction through accessing a set of online and structured resources and specific communication channels. Although the number of informants was not large, the result of the study provided some rudimentary ideas that refer to interaction problems and how an online ICTSS may facilitate PhD education by providing distance and collaborative learning, and PhD students' self-managed communication.

  • 3.
    Ali Hassen, Yasin
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Role of ICT for the growth of small enterprises in Ethiopia2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small enterprises strive to survive and grow in the business they are involved. They makeefforts to utilize different resources and technologies available to this end as long as it isaffordable and productive. Information Communication Technology or ICT and e-commerceare among those technologies that take the front line. This study asks the question ‘howmuch are Ethiopian small enterprises responsive to ICT and the internet and how much ofthe benefits have they utilized for their growth?’ It takes five small enterprises involved inimport and export business to perform case study research on the issue and examines theirutilization level of the technology. The findings show that small enterprises in the countryare on a very low level of utilizing ICT and e-commerce due to several reasons among whichare scarcity in infrastructure development and expertise in the area coupled with barriersfrom government policy and bank regulations.

  • 4.
    Ali, Hussein
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Al-Habobi, Ahmed
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svenska molnleverantörers perspektiv på säkerhetsrisker vid användning av molntjänster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of the cloud has contributed to a remarkable change within the IT industry. The outstanding functionality of using the cloud is the possibility to access data from a variety of sources regardless of its geographical location. Today different users around the world utilize the cloud, users from a broad range of businesses and backgrounds. However, there are also downsides to the cloud that might lead to severe negative consequences if not taken into consideration. This study identifies the security risks that could occur by using the cloud. These security risks have been identified and analyzed, in order to minimize them. Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the risks of using the cloud in order to minimize security risks and to achieve an increased security when using the cloud. The research question was answered using a scientific methodology based on the collection of qualitative data. The qualitative data was collected through interviews. More specifically, multiple interviewees from different suppliers in Sweden, all whom contributed with relevant information to this study. The result of this study shows that the amount of security risks is dependent on the supplier providing the cloud and the type of cloud infrastructure. Hence, the risks in the cloud could vary depending on which supplier that offers the service. Today it is almost impossible to eliminate the security risks that the cloud entails. However, this study shows that the potential to minimize these risks are found within the set agreement between supplier and customer, risks that both parties agree on are acceptable to the customer. 

  • 5.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Ashgar, Summara
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kim, Sung Won
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Byung-Seo
    Department of Computer & Information Communication Engineering Hongik University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
    Competence development at workplace: a work integrated informal learning (WIIL) approach2016In: Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, ISSN 0973-7006, Vol. 2, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning within the organization is not only linked to the formal training and education of the employees, but also to informal processes of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices and norms, as well as in social ties among individuals in the organization. We analyzed employees' behavior and acceptance of online social networking as an information system (IS) of learning. The analysis is performed by a descriptive case survey within a telecom corporation in Pakistan. The purpose of our study is to bring an informal learning system at workplace. In this study we obtain quantitative data from 105 out of 180 targeted employees. The results show that a majority of the studied employees favor social networking to connect colleagues at different levels and more than half of the respondents share their knowledge and experiences using social sites. Nearly half of the respondents strongly agree that knowledge sharing is an important role of social sites within the organization and many are in favor of social media as an informal learning system. The results also show how the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in hierarchical levels of professions. This paper illustrates the benefits of social networking sites as an informal work integrated learning tool that also serves as an IS model for the organization.

  • 6.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Ashgar, Summara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kim, Sung Won
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Byung-Seo
    Department of Computer & Information Communication Engineering Hongik University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
    Social Networking sites for Interdisciplinary Learning at Workplace: Work integrated informal Learning (WiiL)2016In: International Conference on Advanced Computing, Communication and Information Sciences (ICACCI-2016): Proceedings, Pushpa Publishing House , 2016, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integrated Learning (WIL) studies usually focuses on educational situations when professional organizations are actively involved in learning processes for students in higher education. However, after completing the institutional period entering the professional arena, the professional person is still actually a student at the workplace as s/he never stops learning. Learning within the organization is not only linked to the formal training and education of the employees, but also to informal processes of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices and norms, as well as in social ties among individuals in the organization. Our analysis of employees' behavior and acceptance of online social networking as an information system (IS) of learning is performed by a descriptive case survey within a telecom corporation in Pakistan. Thepurpose of our study is to bring an informal learning system at workplace. In this study we quantitative data isobtained from 105 out of 180 targeted employees. The results show that a majority of the studied employees favors social networking to connect colleagues at different levels and more than half of the respondents share their knowledge and experiences using social sites. Nearly half of the respondents strongly agree that knowledge sharing is an important role of social sites within the organization and many are in favor of social media as an informal learning system. The results also show how the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in hierarchical levels of professions. This paper illustrates the benefits of social networking sites as an informal work integrated learning tool that also serves as an IS model for the organization.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Marcus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kartläggning och automatisering av den interna varuförsörjningskedjan: en fallstudie på Lindex AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabbt ökande digitaliseringen som sker i dagens samhälle påverkar såväl människor som teknik. Utvecklingen av digitala kanaler låter oss idag kommunicera och handla på helt nya sätt samtidigt som robotar är på väg att bli en del i vardagen. Inom e-handel har utveckling av automatiserade system och robotliknande teknik kommit långt och kan bidra till effektivare processer i företag. Lindex AB är ett av Sveriges största modeföretag och konkurrera ständigt med andra företag på marknaden för att uppfylla kunders behov och krav på service. Något som blivit allt viktigare på detaljhandelsmarknaden är försäljning genom digitala kanaler och e-handel där ordrarna ökar samtidigt som det ställs högre krav på kortare ledtider.

    Lindex har i denna studie en central del där syftet är att undersöka möjligheter och hinder för automatiserade lösningar i lager genom att studera orderhanteringen i Lindex e-handelsmiljö. Studien innefattar en teoridel som introducerar läsaren till automatisering av lagerprocesser där flera exempel på robotlösningar och avancerade lagersystem presenteras. Att ha robotar som transporterar varor till personalen istället för den traditionella versionen där personalen plockar varor från stationära plockplatser är idag en möjlighet. Detta kan innebära effektivare processer och slutligen kortare ledtider till kund.

    Intervjuer och observationer ligger till grund för studiens kvalitativa undersökningsansats som ger följd till ett resultat med mycket bilder. Totalt har sex observationer och tre intervjuer genomförts för att noggrant studera företagets processer. Deltagande observationerna har genomförts där författaren fått möjligheten att följa och studera nyckelprocesserna i Lindex varuflöde på en lagernivå.

    Slutsatsen visar på att det skulle vara svårt att automatisera processer på grund av flera hinder men tyder på att en av processerna som observerats har god möjlighet till automatisering på grund av dess starka koppling till lagersystem.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Ulf
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Informatics and Media production2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Can Measurements of Online Behavior Predict Course Performance?2016In: Proceedings of the 7th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC 2016 and the 7th International Multi-Conference onSociety and Information Technologies: ICSIT 2016: Volume II (Post-Conference Edition), 2016, p. 4-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a pilot study on the relationship between performance in online classes and behavior in online discussion forums. Measuring student activity on the discussion forum, the collected data is then analyzed and mapped to the performance of the students on the course. The student activity was dividedinto a number of parameters, and during the study these parameters were compared to the performance of the students.The significance of each parameter was also analyzed through a Kruskall-Wallis-test Overall there was a strong tendency thatstudents with more activity and engagement received higher grades. This is in the future useful for developing some kind of monitoring to identify and support students on the verge of failing the course.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    How well can completion of online courses be predicted using binary logistic regression?2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses binary logistic regression to create models for predicting course performance. The data used is the data-trail left by students activities on a discussion forum while attending an online course. The purpose of the study is to evalute how well models based on binary logistic regression can be used to predict course completion.Three sets of data was used for this. One set collected at the end of the course, one collected after 75% of the course and one set collected after half the course. The result of the study says that it's possible to design models with an accuracy of between 70% and 80% using these methods, regardless of what time is used.

  • 11.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rangraz, Masood
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stenmark, Dick
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied Information Technology.
    TRANSFORMATION OF COMPETENCE: THE EFFECTS OF DIGITALIZATION ONCOMMUNICATORS' WORK2017In: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS),: ECIS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 195-209Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying human competence in relation with digitalization is currently an under-researched area within information systems scholarship. This paper presents a response to the contemporary calls within the IS field for studying the changes brought on by the advent of digitalization. Based on indepth interviews with professional communicators, we illustrate the effects of digitalization on the formation of work related competences. Employing a new sociotechnical system approach (Neo-STS), we analyze and illustrate the effects of digitalization in multiple ways. First, we propose that any further study of competence cannot be inadvertent to the phenomenon of digitalization. Second, we suggest a new approach for studying competence in relation with digitalization as opposed to studying "digital competence". Third, by applying a Neo-STS perspective, we provide a substantiated explanation of the transformation of competences in the work of communicators.

  • 12.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wilenius, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The Value of Investments in Competence Development and Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing2015In: Proceedings Cross-Cultural Business Conference 2015, Steyr, Austria / [ed] Margarethe Überwimmer, Teresa Gangl, Martina Gaisch, Robert Füreder, David Humbarger, Friedrich Bauinger, Hannes Hofstadler, Jörg Kraigher-Krainer, Christian Stadlmann, Pavel Štrach, Andreas Zehetner (Eds.), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2015, p. 13-27Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Asp Johansson, Vidar
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Väisänen, John
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vårdens behov av modernisering av sina kommunikationssystem: En kvalitativ studie om varför man använder omodern teknik och hur den skulle kunna digitaliseras2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in digitizing health care in Sweden is increasing, however, there are still old technologies that seem impossible to get rid of. The fax machine is used daily in healthcare and is therefore a difficult process to replace. Studies show that it is necessary to replace the fax machine as it is a safety issue. The fax machine fails in patient safety, which is important to maintain in healthcare. The problem arises because the caretaker must print out the patient information and then fax it and it can be faxed wrong, but even if it is correctly faxed, there are several of the staff members that it gets through.

    This study tries to find out how this information could be digitized by reviewing how the fax is used in healthcare organizations. Replacing the fax could lead to more efficient care, reduce duplication and create more secure communication within the healthcare.

    This study has conducted interviews with a qualitative approach with healthcare staff from municipalities around western Götaland in Sweden for a deeper insight into the use of the fax and how it could be replaced. The theory is based on a sociotechnical perspective, taking into consideration both the technology and social aspects of a process change. Using the theory, previous research has been developed that has been the basis for setting up interview questions. Where all parts of the theory were analyzed to provide the best solution for how the faxed information could be digitized.

    The result of the study showed that it was necessary to change both work processes and create new features in the system to communicate between different systems. Alternatively introduce a common system for all healthcare providers. One needs to know exactly how a process is performed in an organization and digitize it one by one to make the fax disappear completely.

  • 14.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Needs and Challenges with Respect to Establishing a Collaboratory within Library and Information Science: Practitioners' Perspectives2009In: Change Challenges Leadership: Library in the Academic Community / [ed] M-L. Huotari and A. Lehto (eds.), Tampere: Tampere University , 2009, p. 62-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Heideggerian Approach to "Educationalness" Aspect of Educational Technologies2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadly speaking, educational technology is primarily viewed as learning tools. But whenever we emphasize on the adjective "educational", we must however be clear about what we mean by the educationalness aspect of these technologies. Therefore, we shall consider that there exist a lot of conceptual problems associated with the particularly such an ambiguous loaded term. As an example, researchers use various keywords/concepts such as 'learning' aimed at saying learners are either learn:'via'; 'through'; and, 'with' educational technologies but not definitely 'by' them. Why? Because in the latter case; using the English proposition 'by' it means we have in somehow accepted these tools are able to teach learners automatically. However, at the end; it's only the learner who learn depending on manyfactors, each determining the ratio of her/his leaning curve. So, knowing which appropriate English proposition to use is of paramount importance. Inspired by Heideggerian approach to the notion of technology, which should concern us today as well, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the"what" aspect of the learners regarding how they maintain their relationships with whatever educational technologies in use. It seems that these Teaching-learning tools such as YouTube has not been used effectively due to mainly the various learners, more or less, unawareness about how to approach the "essence" of these learning tools. To operationalize the Heideggerian approach to learning, his notion of the "essence of technology" will be discussed by using Technology, Pedagogy, and Content (TPAC) framework. Using such a framework will help us to discuss what and how learners manage their knowledge cognitively.

  • 16.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Determinants of Perceived IT Management in Primary School Settings: integrating self-management, shared management, and IT policy into technology acceptance model2015In: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August. / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen (eds.), 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Towards a Framework for Re-conceptualization of Work-integrated Learning: an ontological approach2015In: 19th World Conference Proceedings Refereed Papers, 2015, p. 1-17Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Work-integrated learning (WIL) is very closely connected to the concept of purposefully designed curriculum. The main focus is on conducting a range of rigorous approaches to integrate theory with the practice. The existing view of the WIL emerged out of the theory of employability. WIL has been traditionally viewed as a strategic merely curriculum design rather than adopting a Whole-organization approach to effective leadership theory–practice symbiosis (LTPS), which we advocate. Such an approach is useful in enhancing an awareness to consider concerns and interests of all stakeholders that are involved in the multiple initiatives pursued in higher education institutions. But it requires fundamental rethinking and radical design of WIL-inspired educational processes such as course design. Rethinking implies approaching WIL ontologically. Depending on which extent the concept of WIL has been perceived by universities worldwide, it has been thus viewed and implemented from a diverse spectrum of perspectives. First, we discuss the implications for the existed conceptual differences. Thereafter, and inspired by the main philosophical assumptions underpinning a Whole-organization approach to WIL, we propose and thus thoroughly concretize a framework which we call Work-related Educational Activities (WREA). The model which is the theoretical foundation of WREA consists of a category of several components. After identification of the main components of the model, we adopt an ontological approach to the reconceptualization of WIL. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to demonstrate how University West in Sweden views WIL, which is its newly announced research profile. Secondly, an attempt to re-conceptualize WIL by conducting an ontological approach to WREA.

  • 18.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

  • 19.
    Backlund, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wingård, Robin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Den datorgenererade matbilden: En undersökning av graden av aptitlighet hos datorgenererade matbilder gjorda i reklamsyfte2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For several years, the recreation of photorealistic images has had a major role within the use of 3D-CGI for visualisation and advertisement. The recreation of something that can be called photorealistic without the use of a camera provides several advantages over photography. Because of this - several companies has begun using CGI as an alternative method within advertisement. There's still however, areas where the use of CGI remains limited - either because of the complexity and thus the expense, or because of how we as human perceive something that is done with CGI. We focused this study on the use of CGI food images used for advertisement. The reason for this is that we interact and consume food everyday, which can mean that our perception of something that we see as a consumable item may be drastically different from other products created with CGI.

    To test the perception of CGI images of food, we created a survey which purpose was to compare images of food utilizing CGI with photographic counterparts to judge the experienced appeal felt towards each image by a group of participants. This was done by having participants rate the images with a score of appeal as well as give written feedback of their thoughts about specific images and their general opinion of the use of CGI for advertisement purposes. Our survey showed a slight preference towards the CGI rendered images compared to the photographs that we used. There were however, several participants who disliked the "plastic" and unrealistic look of the CGI images that severely lowered the amount of appeal that was experienced. We hypothesize that the reason for the preference for CGI images in this study was because the use of CGI can make an image have an unrealistic perfection to it that can provoke a stronger appeal than how the look of the product would do in actuality. The type of product that the image represents may also play an important factor. This study focuses on chocolate bars, and thus the results may vary greatly if the study was conducted with the use of other food products, such as meat, fruit or vegetables.

  • 20.
    Bergstedt, Tobias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sociala mediers påverkan på vår kreativitet: En studie i hur referensmaterial från sociala medier påverkar vår kreativa förmåga2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay was made to investigate the effects on creativity of students and professionals in the creative field caused by the use of reference materials from social media. It was performed by using an Aesthetics and Media class from De la Gardie High School to carry out an experiment where participants in two test groups were given the task of individually creating an image of a dragon. With the help of a preliminary investigation survey and an evaluation survey an interesting conclusion could be drawn.

    The result of the survey was that we were not significantly affected by the inspiration and reference material from social media. There was a clear difference between the results from the two groups, but this could be explained by the preliminary survey. From this survey it was obvious that the participants in Group 2 considered themselves to be more creative than the participants in group 1 did. Assuming that the participants had appreciated their ability correctly, it means that after correction based on this difference, the difference between using and not using social media for references is almost non-existent.

  • 21.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    E-government and E-governance - Swedish Case Studies with Focus on the Local level2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of e-government and e-governance are used interchangeably in most research and there is no single definition of these terms. The objective of this licentiate thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of these concepts through empirical studies in a Swedish context. Further, it aims to analyse whether – and if so in what way – the implementation of local contact centres (CC) affect conditions for local planning. This is reported in three articles. In this thesis e-government is defined to as the use of tools and systems by governmental bodies made possible by ICT that affect the organization of public administration. E-governance is defined as the ICT-based networks of services and administration in New Public Management settings including both public and private actors. Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group studies, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly built on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice. Based on a theoretical discussion of New Public Management in the digital era, findings show that there is a difference between the concepts of e-government and e-governance from the perspective of e-administration and e-services and that the terms should not be used interchangeably. The study indicates that there are examples of implementation that are referred to the e-governance setting. Further the study indicates that local municipal contact centres may be referred to not only as an implementation of e-government but as a combination of e-governance and e-government. The findings indicate that there is a potential for positive impact on the conditions for local planning through the implementation of municipal contact centres.

  • 22.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    E-government and E-governance: local implementation of E-government policies in Sweden2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is recognized in international research that the public sector has been transformed into a networked, open and more flexible, informal and interactive governance structure. This is described as a transition from "government to governance". Sweden is one of the international leaders with regards to e-government development. The objective of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of how e-government policies are implemented in an e-governance context, through empirical case studies in Sweden. The focus is on the local level. The overall research question is: How is e-government policy put into practice when focusing on the local level? This is reported in four articles.Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group interviews, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly based on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice.The analysis arrives at three overarching conclusions: (1) In practice, when e-government policy is implemented and translated at the local level, it tends to happen in an e-governance setting conducted by policy entrepreneurs or promoted by entrepreneurial behaviour in public administration. E-government policies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economic structures. (2) Implementation of e-government and e-governance initiatives requires trust in the service provision among public administrators as well as among citizens. Efficiency and citizen-centred approaches in the redesign of information relationships between public administration and citizens to create some sort of added value are crucial. (3) The thesis indicates that there are two main implications of municipal contact centres (CCs): they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide "holistic" services to the individual citizen. However, although the use of ICT is essential for the organisational transformation, the results indicate that the organisational settings and internal anchoring are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of local e-government and e-governance initiatives in the form of contact centres. One example for potential added value is the source of information of citizens' issues through the implementation of municipal contact centres, which may have a positive impact on the conditions for local planning.

  • 23.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Local e-Government in Sweden: Municipal Contact Center implementation with focus on Citizens and Public Administrators2014In: The Journal of Community Informatics, ISSN 1712-4441, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to analyze the implementation of municipal contact centers (CCs) - an e-government initiative on the local level - from the perspectives of citizens and public administrators. This article is based on case studies from four Swedish municipalities. The results indicate that the CCs: contribute to increased access to municipal service, localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide a "holistic" approach to the individual citizen in her local context. However, the quality of the service also depends on the organizations of the work within the back-office of the municipality. All issues from the citizens were registered which contribute to increased knowledge about the citizens needs and perceptions regarding municipality services and planning in urban issues.

  • 24.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 9-22 August 2010, Jönköping, Sweden2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology consists of  twenty-five revised papers, first presented at the thirteenth Uddevalla Symposium, August, 19-22, 2010[1], at Jönköping University, Sweden. The overall theme was Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship – Economic, Social and Academic Aspects”. This year’s Uddevalla Symposium was organized as a Special Session within the 50th Anniversary ERSA congress 2010. Session organizers were Professor Kingsley E. Haynes, Dean, School of Public Policy, George Mason University & Professor Roger R. Stough, Vice President for Research and Economic Development, George Mason University, USA. A broad range of topics were listed among the themes for Special Sessions within this ERSA congress. One of them (and the largest) was the 13th Uddevalla Symposium to which forty papers were submitted. This session had an interdisciplinary character and provided an opportunity for researchers to discuss their ongoing research that was relevant to clarifying the role of innovation and multidimensional entrepreneurship in the growth and development of regional economies and regional economic systems. The papers were subdivided into nine different subthemes: Multidimensional Entrepreneurship, Regional Innovation Systems, Economic Development, Social Capital, Entrepreneurial Behavior, Rural Development, Industries, Firm Performance & Clusters, and Cities (for a detailed program; see the website: www.symposium.hv.se)

    1Uddevalla Symposium is an international scientific symposium established in 1998 in Uddevalla, Sweden. The primary objective is to foster research collaboration and bring together leading-edge views between experts, researchers and insightful practitioners from various fields of regional science, international business, economics, entrepreneurship and small business economics as well as from regional economics, regional planning, economic geography/economic history/political science and sociology in order to increase our knowledge as regards research questions related to “Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions".

  • 25.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This proceedings consists of  thirty-nine revised papers, first presented at the fourteenth Uddevalla Symposium & the Third International Symposium of Entrepreneurship of E-Lab at University of Bergamo, June, 16-18, 2011 , held at University of Bergamo, Italy. The overall theme was “Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions”. The symposium was hosted by the E-Lab, University of Bergamo, Italy. The purpose of the symposium was to contribute to an increased understanding of the role of entrepreneurial knowledge and technology for the transformation of regions by means of the entry, growth and exit of firms.      Except for the overall theme there were twelve special sub-themes, chaired by invited scholars from the Uddevalla Symposium Network: “Work-integrated learning in transforming regions” “Entrepreneurship, family business and innovation”, “Slow city movement and sustainable local development”, “Shrinking urban regions”, “Entrepreneurship, networking and regional development”, “Resilience capacity of firms and new forms of innovation”, “Cluster development and regional transformation in an economic perspective”, “Entrepreneurship policy in comparative perspective”, “Learning and knowledge transfer processes in small firms’ clusters”, “The spatial agglomeration of business services”, “Entrepreneurship, creativity and the brain”, and “Productivity and financing of regional infrastructure.      Ten keynote-speakers gave presentations during these three days; Prof. Shaker A. Zahra, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, USA. Assoc. Prof.  Charlotta Mellander, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden, Prof. David Audretsch, Indiana University, USA, Assoc. Prof. Johan Klaesson Jönköping International Business School & CenSE, Sweden, Prof. Andrés Rodriguez-Pose, London School of Economics, UK, Prof. Hans Westlund, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm & Jönköping International Business School, Sweden,  Prof. Maryann P. Feldman, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA,  Prof. Giovanna Dossena, University of Bergamo, Italy,  Prof. Hans Lööf, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden,  and Prof. Zoltan J. Acz, George Mason University, USA.      To stimulate high quality papers a Best Paper Award as well as a Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was announced and financially supported by the municipality of Uddevalla, Sweden. The winners of the Best Paper were Johan Klaesson & Sofia Wixe, Jönköping International Business School and CEnSE (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics), Jönköping, Sweden. The winner of the Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was Mattias Örnerheim, Linköping University, Sweden.         Organizers of this 14th Uddevalla Symposium were the University West, Sweden and the E-Lab at University of Bergamo, in co-operation with Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and George Mason University, School of Public Policy, USA. The symposium was also financial supported by the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovations Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.         This symposium would not have been possible without a lot of work and support also from certain individuals. The editor expresses sincere gratitude to all participants, participating organizations, not at least the local organizers at the University of Bergamo, and especially to Dr. Christina Bettinelli.          Also I thank all members of the Uddevalla Symposium Organising Committee and all colleagues at University West. A special thank goes to Rebecca Olsson, University West not at least for editorial help.

    Trollhättan, Sweden in December 2011 Department for Economics & IT, University West

    Iréne BernhardEditor   

  • 26.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Challenging Organizational Issues When Municipal Contact Centers are Implemented in Sweden2013In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 198-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two case studies of the implementation of Contact Centres(CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and discussed from anorganizational perspective. The research method was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. Several challenging organizational issues for management and employees were identified:the implementation strategies varied among the cases and affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation, the mental construct and understanding of the implementation. The financing of the CC and recruitment strategies created problems, but in somewhat different ways and in phases of the process in each case. The potential of using registered information as asource for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized, although somestatistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal andinformal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees inthe CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good,co-operative working climate. There was a need for continuous updating ofskills in both cases, but with slightly different focus, related to theorganization of the work. The organization in response groups required morespecialist competence, compared with the organization without response groups,which required more general competence. Some challenges for the caseadministrators in the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organizationof their work, and to co-operate more with their colleagues both in the backoffice and at the CC. They now had the possibility to plan their administrativework in a better way than before, but some administrators missed the previousspontaneous contacts with citizens. Initially, many case administrators wereafraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negativeattitudes towards CC and hampering the learning process in taking part in theimplementation process.

  • 27.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Towards Inclusive E-Government: The Development of Municipal Contact Centers in Sweden2013In: Developing E-Government Projects: Frameworks and Methodologies / [ed] Zaigham Mahmood, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2013, 1, p. 225-247Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, five case studies of the implementation of contact centers in Swedish municipalities are described and discussed with a focus on inclusive e-government. The research methods used are mainly qualitative interviews with different categories of municipal personnel and also with some citizens. The main conclusions are that the implementation of contact centers contributes to increased accessibility of municipal services, even for those citizens who might have problems using Internet services. The study indicates and development towards increased equal treatment of citizens and a contribution to reducing problems related to the “digital divide.” Municipal services became more adapted to citizens’ needs by using citizen-centric methods and dialogue during the development process and in the daily work of the contact centers. The implementation of municipal contact centers can thus be seen as a step towards inclusive e-government, but there is still a need to go further in this direction.

  • 28.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Value Creation of networks and networking for small enterprises and destination development2014In: The 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: THE values of tourism / [ed] Budeanu, Adriana; Möckel, Marie & Gyimóthy, Szilvia, Köpenhamn, 2014, p. 81-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature recognizes that networks and networking are vital for firm performance and enterprises of all sizes are joining international networks (Lechner & Dowling, 2003; Bernhard & Karlsson, 2014; Cesário & Noronha Vaz, 2014;). Further research claims that networking is an important business activity for entrepreneurs, especially important for small businesses during start-up, which can then contribute to the growth of the business and superior performance. The emerging information society challenges relations not only between public agencies such as municipalities and citizens but also small enterprises in many ways. Earlier research also claims that entrepreneurship is a key issue in destination development.

    This study aims to describe and analyze the value creation of networks for small enterprises and destination development. The enterprises are located in two municipalities in a region undergoing structural change, due to the closure of a big car plant. We will focus on the value creation of different forms of networks and networking such as face-to-face and digital-based networks. Further we focus on value creation related to different actors within the networks, such as the role of entrepreneurs, municipalities, customers and sub-contractors. Theories on entrepreneurship, e-government, social media and network are important for our study.

    The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews, observations and document studies. Twelve interviews were conducted with managers from ten small enterprises (defined as microenterprises according to European Commission (Ekonomifakta, 2014). We contacted the public managers at the business offices in each municipality and they selected a list of companies involved in destination development within their municipality. Two of the ten enterprises were chosen from the list made by the managers. The remaining eight were selected from the list of members of the tourism company’s website. The tourism company is partly owned by the two municipalities and managed by a non-profit association for tourism development. Each interview took about an hour and was recorded before transcribing. All interviews were conducted in autumn 2013 and were made together by the authors. The analysis was made by qualitative content analysis and done in two steps; first separately by each author, after which the analysis was discussed together. This was done in order to increase the validity of the analysis. Regarding some issues respondents have received follow-up questions in order to get further understanding.

    The main findings indicated that networks and municipal support were important for the small enterprises. The municipalities could for example support network building for destination development. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government.

    The respondents stressed the importance of face-to-face contacts for establishing and maintaining their networks. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents on the other hand were very skilled in their use of social media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation. Strategic choices of networks and relevant competence to handle social contacts (both face-to-face and digitally) contributed to the value creation.

    This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects that contribute to value creation for small enterprises and destination development.

  • 29.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University.
    Editorial2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 269-274Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2292-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 31.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Trust in Safe Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 19-22 August, 2010, Jönköping, Sweden / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, 1, p. 107-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Such relations taking place on the Internet or in other specific systems are called public e-services, which is a basic component of e-government.  E-services as such are innovations – even if the service as such has been there before – it is a new way producing and organizing the service. For successful implementation of innovations in public contexts the innovations has to be considered as legitimate by all involved actors.

       On a European and national level there are some policies and emerging standardization regarding public e-services. Thus policies are translated both to other levels of governments in the multi-level governance chain and secondly from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration rely on a double steering approach, with strong constitutional regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced out into regional local public agencies. Instead European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context and the implications from them rely on the local uptake in the specific setting and the competences of the professionals in the local public administration. 

       Since this is a new emerging field of innovative practice our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation opens for inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight both translations over levels in multi-level settings and constructions of meanings of safety. The conclusion is that the translation over levels from policies to praxis appears to be more critical than the technological translation. In short: the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 32.
    Bernhard, Irène
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Role of Local Destination Management Organizations for Destination Development focusing on E-government and Networks. Case studies from Scandinavia2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 123-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on destination development from the perspective of the field of tourism, explored by a descriptive study comparing three local Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) focusing on e-government and networks. Local DMOs are often founded by local municipalities and enterprises in conjunction to promote the tourism industry. This study includes three cases in Scandinavia, having inland water areas in common, situated in regions that are undergoing structural change. The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews and document studies. This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects regarding the use of e-government and networks that contribute to destination development in an Scandinavian context.

  • 33.
    Bernhard, Irène
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Role of Local E-government for Satisfied Citizens: Towards Sustainable Development?2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 141-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to study the role of local e-government regarding citizens view of municipality service, information and accessibility to municipality service. The main hypothesis was that municipalities with high degree of pro-activity regarding e-government are municipalities with high degree of satisfied citizens. Satisfaction among citizens was studied by using a national survey which is performed twice ever year. The survey normally includes roughly 130 municipalities out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden. The number of randomly selected individuals per municipality is usually 600 in smaller municipalities and 1200 in larger municipalities. In this study we focus on the following dimensions: Overall satisfaction, Satisfaction with response and accessibility and Satisfaction with influence and confidence.The results implies that e-government and satisfied citizens are correlated. The correlations between the e-variables: e-proactivity, e-strategy, e-information/transparency, e-interaction were all significantly correlated to the satisfaction indices. The correlations were generally of medium strength, i.e. around 0.2-0.4. There were no significant correlations between in real life interactions, strategy for democracy and the satisfaction indices.

  • 34.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Evaluation of Customer Centre and e-Services in a Swedish Municipality with Focus on the Citizens' Perspective2009In: 3rd European Conference on Management and Evaluation / [ed] Jan Ljungberg and Kerstin Grundén, Reading: Academic Publishing Limited , 2009, p. 34-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication and quality of service to the citizens are considered to be of utmost importance in today’s society. Even though the Swedish municipalities have a high level of self-regulation and freedom to organize communication and dialogue with their citizens in their own way, the Swedish government has expressed their demands of increased expectations by citing the potential of e-governance and high quality of service in order to increase the efficiency of the service to the citizens. To implement customer centres is one way to meet these demands. This paper offers a critical evaluation of consequences for Swedish citizens regarding the quality of service from the citizens’ perspective in a municipality where a new customer centre and e-services have been developed and established. The main research method is qualitative based upon analysis from interviews with different personnel categories of employees within the municipality. The results are also based on analysis of customer investigations. The results show that this implementation and developing of e-services are mostly positive for the quality of service to the citizens but there are also some weak aspects found.

  • 35.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Degree of Digitalization and Citizen Satisfaction: A Study of the Role of Local e-Government in Sweden2018In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, no 59, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between degree of e-government in Swedish municipalities and perceived satisfaction among citizens generally. This is a large-scale quantitative study based on validand reliable Swedish national surveys. Based on these surveys, a new comprehensive index for measuring "degree of digitalization" was constructed. Citizen satisfaction was measured using established indices covering three dimensions:satisfaction with living in the municipality, satisfaction with performance of government activities (delivered services), and satisfaction with transparency and influence. The results show that there is a relationship between the degree of digitalization in a municipality and the perceived satisfaction among its citizens. The degree of digitalization is related to all three dimensions of citizen satisfaction. Additionally, this study indicates that the strength of this relationship is in parity with or even stronger than the relationship between citizen satisfaction and other crucial factors such as educational level and median income

  • 36.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pineda, Maria Victoria
    De La Salle University.
    What Drives a Great Learning Experience for Millennial Learners: Swedish and Filipino Observations2012In: PELS Online Journal, ISSN 2094-781X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millennial learners are individuals born after 1985 with very wide exposure to various types of media enhanced by technology. They are persons who had listened to music while in the womb of their mothers and had watched television starting at age 0. Most of them would have had a music player or a game pad or a mobile phone at age 8. (Deterle, Dede and Schrier, 2008) These millenial learners grew up with constant web connectivity at their fingertips to assist them in their homeworks.The present pedagogies our academic institutions employ to support the learning style of the web generation of students may not be as suitable. Social constructivism, transformative learning or problem-based learning, while prevalent in the Asian context, may be more perfect for cognitively dynamic students. Our students nowadays are more adept to constructing knowledge, content (Attwell, 2007) and even more independent in their learning priorities. This study attempts to understand the new learning practices among our students. This study attempts to find out how college students define what a good learning experience is. It is also the intention of the study to explore new educational practices and hopefully drive ways of designing and developing the future of learning activities. The study was conceived in May 2011 and was planned to collect data in the form of short videos in a span of six months, from June to December. There will be two sets of samples, one from the students of De La Salle University of the Philippines (DLSU) and the other from the students of University West (UW) in Sweden.The experiment asked for a two minute video that will be created and expressed by an individual or group of students. This meant planning and organization to compose the thoughts, the message and the content of the video. Since this contains the expression of the students themselves, the self-expression equates to a great degree of authenticity. This paper will impart the results of this experiment, the Great Learning Experience. There weretwenty videos from DLSU and fifteen videos from UW. This paper will tell the methods used in the different classes and the findings. Comparison of the UW and DLSU videos is not includedin the paper.

  • 37.
    Bernheim, Bo-Göran
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ett förslag till en metod för konceptuell modellering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vetenskapliga teorier och begreppsmodeller kan ses som representationer av kunskap om något fenomen. Teorier är alltid abstraktioner av ett fenomen, med syfte att; beskriva, förklara, förutse eller styra detta fenomen.

    I ett nummer av MIS Quarterly (2003 27(3) pp iii-xii), argumenterar Ron Weber (2003) för att forskare inom IS-domänen bör sträva efter bättre precision när man presenterar och diskuterar forskning och teorier.

    I den här uppsatsen analyseras Ron Webers artikel för att ta fram en konceptuell modell, en begreppsmodell, för vetenskapliga teorier.

    Syftet är att skapa en modell för vetenskapliga teorier som kan leda till bättre formalisering och tydliggörande av vetenskapliga teorier.

    Dessutom skapas en enhetlig och konsistent terminologi avseende de element (relationer mellan olika entiteter, dessas egenskaper, tillstånd och relaterade händelser) som kan ses som den minsta gemensamma nämnaren för att beskriva alla existerande fenomen. En instansiering av denna modell skulle kunna tjänstgöra som ett generiskt arkiv 1 för kunskap.

  • 38.
    Brandes, Erika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Det mobila arbetslivet: Beredskapsanalys och planering inför organisatorisk förändring2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined how mobile work processes can be integrated into organizations from a business-oriented perspective, and among organizations there’s a lack of long-term strategies, and understanding, for internal business mobility.

    This study examines how an organization can prepare itself for change towards a mobile work life. In order to do this a literature review and case study involving document studies and interviews at an organization with specifically developed methodologies were conducted.

    The results showed that the state of maturity is still relatively low, and there is a need to focus on developing a more thorough understanding of mobility, where challenges involve handling attitudes, organizational culture and leadership. Mobility-related needs involve task-oriented and social aspects, where different technological solutions were suggested to maintain the connections between individuals and the organization.

    There is also a need for more longitudinal studies due to the results showing how the significant changes occur over a longer period of time. An important part of the development of knowledge concerning mobility also involves learning from others’ examples, where this study is a contribution.

  • 39.
    Broeren, Jurgen
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, Britt
    NU-sjukvården, Uddevalla kommun.
    Ljungberg, Christer
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Rydmark, Martin
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Götebrog Universitet.
    Stroke rehabilitation using m-Health Care and 3D virtual environments: work in progress2010In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies / [ed] Sharkey, Paul & Sánchez, Jaime, 2010, p. 115-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     We have now started testing a telehealth system for stroke rehabilitation in a rural area in Sweden (NU- Hospital Group Area). For collection of assessments and audiovisual communication, the telehealth system has bidirectional contact with the home-based units. To date, three stroke subjects’ participated; they were instructed to play 3D computer games with the hemiplegic upper extremity. The intervention led to clinical changes for all subjects. The analysis of the audiovisual communication revealed that the both stroke subjects and therapists were not yet effective in regulating their turn taking process. The data suggests the feasibility of a distance based approach using 3D virtual environments for upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke.

  • 40.
    Bäckström, Albin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Larsson, Anton
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Föräldrars upplevelser med webbsidan neonatalvard.se: En webbsida för prematurer och deras familjer under tiden de är i behov av vård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the parents’ experiences with the webpage neontalavard.se. It also aims to contribute with any suggestions for improvement to the webpage that arises during the study. The study applied method combination and triangulation to build up the results. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. The quantitative data was collected from a survey and the qualitative was from interviews. An analysis model was created. The analysis model (UTAM) is a further development of TAM.  The results of the surveys and the interviews conducted are presented in the same section. It is done to put words on the numbers by weaving the questionnaire and quotes from the interviews. It results in a greater understanding why someone felt like they did. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the analysis model, UTAM, indicating that the idea is good and the need for a webpage as this is great. But the parents feel that the health care staff are not sufficiently committed to experience the benefit of the webpage. This study shows that the parents’ want better and greater commitment from the health care staff. They also thought it was a good idea and they felt the need for the webpage was great but that is wasn’t necessary this webpage that was the solution. 

  • 41.
    Carlén, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    University of Skövde.
    Understanding athlete's online participation: a ticket to qualitative research of online arenas in sport2017In: Digital qualitative research in sport and physical activity / [ed] Bundon, Andrea, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 59-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42. Christie, Michael
    et al.
    Ferdos, Fariba
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers tekniska högskola Centrum för kunskapsbildning och kommunikation (CKK).
    Axelsson, A
    Online collaborative learning: a case study2005In: Proceedings of the ALE conference, Amsterdam, Nederlands, 6-11 June 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Christie, Michael
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ferdos, Fariba
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The Task Takes Over: Assuming Too Much in Online Collaborative Learning2005In: Research and Practice of Active Learning in Engineering Education / [ed] E. de-Graaf, G. Saunders-Smith and M. Nieweg (eds.), Amsterdam: Pallas Amsterdam University Press , 2005, p. 12-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Cukur, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Adoption of ERP system for operations management in SMEs2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast development of the IT in the society of today has led to that more SMEs rely on ERP systems. Especially, IT has facilitated the management of the flow of goods within and between organizations and have made lead times more effective and also have increased the overview of the flow of goods. This will help SMEs obtain a competitive advantage. The aim of this paper is analyze the factors influencing SMEs adoption of ERP systems. A qualitative case study is conducted within a company which both is engaged in manufacturing and project work. The company runs service projects for its customers and at the same time they produce articles both for sale and for use within the service projects. An ERP system can also serve as an overall system for the administration, the production and inventory management in the company. However, there are important factors to take into account in the adoption phase, related to the technological infrastructure, the organizational challenges as well as environmental relations in order to decide on an implementation on an ERP system. It is of a critical importance that the SME really change their routines in order to follow the processes implemented in the ERP system. Otherwise, the company runs the risk to be stuck in its previous and ineffective inventory management processes, regardless of investments in the ERP system and the technological infrastructure.

  • 45.
    Danielsson, John
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lokomotion i ett gyllene snitt: En observationsstudie av naturtrogna och uttryckslösa kroppsrörelser med en metod designad för naturalistisk karaktärsanimation.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In aspiration to achieve naturalistic character animation, some difficulty does show up, both in 3D-CGI, 2D-CGI as in traditional handmade animation. The reason why difficulty appears in the task of achieving naturalism is for instance because of the simulated natural laws in the digital world which cannot affect the characters cinematic movement. The result of illustrating the natural law manually by hand can affect the illusion of the movement as not naturalistic or inconsistent, which can result in that the spatial adaptation to space is not perceived as naturalistic. It is most often up to the animator to make a believable illusion of the natural laws. This study examines a deeper understanding of the human way to behave and to adapt to the physical reality and through that, apply this movement on character animation.

    The purpose of a deeper understanding of movement's phenomena is to find a clearer method dedicated to naturalistic movement that can be adapted to all forms of character animation, regardless of the character anatomy. Unfortunately, it would not be possible to study all aspects of the physically adaptive behaviors as to the size of the topic. This study will therefore orbit the human locomotion, also known as walking. Focus will therefore be on the bottom part of the body, from the pelvis down to the ankles. There are scientists that do argue about a connection between the golden ratio and the human locomotion. This study is an attempt to apply the golden ratio on 3D-characters.

    This study has been devoted to a different approach in the character animation, where its starting point will be mathematical equations. For this study, it has meant an application of the golden section in a temporary form, that is in motion.

    The result is therefore a mathematically based method dedicated to imitating naturalistic movement in terms of time, that is to say human locomotion. The method has been proved to be useful even in the imitation of characters movements that do not possess human proportions.

  • 46.
    Davoud, Ivan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Khadem Haghighi, Sam
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Att bättra på användarupplevelse: En fallstudie på Högskolan Västs nylanserade webbplats användbarhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are today few websites that can fully meet a user's requirement. A reason for this could be because you either do not know your target audience enough or that you try to make your business cost-effective. University West has recently relaunched their website. The response from the target audience, the university students, was negative, but unclear. This study has researched how the existing students are experiencing the new website from a usability perspective. To collect empirical data, a questionnaire was sent out to the students. 230 students responded and answered the questionnaire. The results were later categorized in categories that should be improved, from the students view of point. The empirical data was then transformed into usability requirements which in turn was applied into a prototype. The approach of this study did conclude on a few usability aspects that needs to be re-worked to satisfy the users. Among other things navigation, efficiency and appearance.

  • 47.
    De Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering. Institutionen för data- och informationsteknik, Datorteknik (Chalmers.
    A Slowdown Prediction Method to Improve Memory Aware Scheduling2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific and technological advances in the area of integrated circuits have allowed the performance of microprocessors to grow exponentially since the late 1960's. However, the imbalance between processor and memory bus capacity has increased in recent years. The increasing on-chip-parallelism of multi-core processors has turned the memory subsystem into a key factor for achieving high performance. When two or more processes share the memory subsystem their execution times typically increase, even at relatively low levels of memory traffic. Current research shows that a throughput increase of up to 40% is possible if the job-scheduler can minimizes the slowdown caused by memory contention in industrial multi-core systems such as high performance clusters, datacenters or clouds. In order to optimize the throughput the job-scheduler has to know how much slower the process will execute when co-scheduled on the same server as other processes. Consequently, unless the slowdown is known, or can be fairly well estimated, the scheduling becomes pure guesswork and the performance suffers. The central question addressed in this thesis is how the slowdown caused by memory traffic interference between processes executing on the same server can be predicted and to what extent. This thesis presents and evaluates a new slowdown prediction method which estimates how much longer a program will execute when co-scheduled on the same multi-core server as another program. The method measures how external memory traffic affects a program by generating different levels of synthetic memory traffic while observing the change in execution time. Based on the observations it makes a first order prediction of how much slowdown the program will experience when exposed to external memory traffic. Experimental results show that the method's predictions correlate well with the real measured slowdowns. Furthermore, it is shown that scheduling based on the new slowdown prediction method yields a higher throughput than three other techniques suggested for avoiding co-scheduling slowdowns caused by memory contention. Finally, a novel scheme is suggested to avoid some of the worst co-schedules, thus increasing the system throughput.

  • 48.
    De Castro Emerick, Agatha
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Utveckling av e-tjänster med hjälp av processbaserad verksamhetsutveckling ur medarbetarnas perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government requires municipalities to provide their services via new channels. These requirements come from an EU directive. What is expected from municipalities is that they provide their services electronically, so called e-services. The municipalities have different ways of developing e-services. The city of Trollhättan uses processes to develop eservices, through process-based business development. This means that employees in addition to dealing with a new information system also sometimes need to participate in an organizational change. Literature studies show that research about municipal e-services has grown while researchers have spent less time researching on how e-services affects the public administration work. There is a growing interest in how the change affects the individual employee's daily work. The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge about the experiences of the employees involved, partly by the way in which different e-services are created, and how these affects and changes the working situation of the employees. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, a qualitative approach was chosen. The survey is based on four deep interviews with employees from the city of Trollhättan. E-service development through a process-based business development is perceived as complex, instructive and constructive. It leads to a transition from an individual perception to a holistic view of the organization, which means greater understanding of the employee's own work in conjunction with the goals of the organization. The effects that have been found with the introduction of e-services are a more efficient way of working that leads to easier handling of incoming cases and better control over them; Time saving where manual work is replaced by direct communication computer to computer and an increased workload when e-services are not the primary application method.

  • 49.
    Dervisevic, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Oskarsson, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Seshat: A sync system for Audiobooks and eBooks2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this degree project we present a way to construct a synchronization system that is able to create a timings file, which is the file the system uses to know how to sync the eBook and audiobook, using speech recognition and estimation algorithms. This file is then used by the system to let the user select a sentence and have the audiobook start reading from that sentence, or vice versa. This system can create these files with a mean offset from a manu-ally timed file which is within our expectations for the system.

    We use estimation algorithms to fill in the blanks where the speech recognition falls short. Speech recognition accuracy is typically between 40-60%, sometimes dipping lower, so there are blanks to fill in. Using basic algebraic principles of calculating velocity we can ex-trapolate the speed of a reader, using the duration of the audiobook as the time and the amount of characters written as the distance. For increased accuracy we derive this value on a per-chapter basis.

    Using this method we are able to create accurate files, which the user can use to freely sync any location in the book. Our system is designed to work for any book in the world that does not have an audiobook which cuts off between sentences in the audio files.

    We manually create timings files for four different books with widely varying publishing dates, author styles, reader style and gender to create as wide and representative a testing pool as possible for the project

  • 50.
    Eborn, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Jönsson, Nklas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Välfärdstjänster med stöd av IT: Införandet av IT-stöd gällande vård och omsorgs verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare technology is a constant recurrent topic that concerns big parts of society, not least the health sector. The topic aims at enhancing the independence, safety and activity of people in need of care and their relatives through technology. As medical research is constantly moving forward and the world population is getting bigger and lives longer, the pressure on activities and in the healthcare is increasing as a sanction. One of the pieces that requires more and more resources is the elderly care. They have a challenge to keep up with the increasing amount of people who want and need their services. In parallel, the technical solutions to make the healthcare more efficient is presented. Society is becoming increasingly digital and new technical IT solutions are presented to facilitate the way in which businesses operate.

    The purpose of this report is to handle the question of how the work changes municipal activities when IT is introduced in the daily healthcare activities. Vänersborg municipality in western Sweden has been studied using the introduction of a technical platform as a first step in the process of introducing IT support in elderly care. The technical platform is an independent platform that is not dependent on a specific supplier, which gives a free choice to adapt the platform to the business. By applying the platform, which in this study is termed an independent service platform, free communication with other IT solutions can be made possible.

    The following study is based on a qualitative approach which aims to interpret and understand the data collected through empirical studies. In order to design the theoretical frame of reference for the study, an extensive literature review has been conducted to gather knowledge relevant to the subject before the interviews were conducted. The analysis of the collected data shows that Vänersborg's municipality can extract benefits by implementing an independent service platform in the business to change the way in which IT support is introduced.

    The conclusion of the study shows that there is a strong and clear vision of the municipality of Vänersborg to improve the efficiency of care by introducing an independent service platform. The working environment thus becomes easier with smaller external IT solutions that benefit from future procurement, which is the main goal of the welfare technology.

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