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  • 1.
    Bäckman, Kjell
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Ant Colony Optimization and Evolutionary Algorithms Applied to Jazz Solo Improvisation2010Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    This paper describes an experiment of using a variant of the TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem) of ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) and automatic fitness in the evolutionary algorithm to create jazz improvisation solos. It is a sub-project of our overall EJI (Evolutionary Jazz Improvisation) project, where we try to explore the inner nature of jazz music and model jazz improvisation solos and jazz harmony in the computer by means of evolutionary algorithms, swarm theory, chaos theory, neural networks, memetics and other kinds of heuristics

  • 2.
    Bäckman, Kjell
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Automatic Fitness in generative jazzimprovisation2008In: Proc. of the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC) 2008, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 2008., Belfast: ICMC , 2008, p. 1--Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work by the author has revealed the need for an automatic fitness function in the evolutionary algorithm for generation of jazz solos. A computer based automatic fitness function enables greater populations and a great number of generations within a manageable time. This paper describes how the automatic fitness function is implemented using score calculation based on specific events recognized in the solo line and alignment to different optimal intensity curves.

  • 3.
    Bäckman, Kjell
    IT-universitetet.
    Automatic jazz harmony evolution2009In: SMC: Proceedings of the 6th Sound and Music Computing Conference 23-25 July 2009 Casa da Música, Porto - Portugal / [ed] Fabien Gouyon, Álvaro Barbosa, Xavier Serra, Porto, 2009, p. 349-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jazz harmony has during jazz history mainly been functionally based on principles of tonality derived from the classical and romantic periods of the 18th and 19th centuries. In the Evolutionary Jazz Harmony project we introduced a functionless harmony system that impacted the musical feeling in jazz compositions to imitate the harmonic feeling in an avant-garde way. The main features of that new harmony system were chords not built on any specific base note and not necessarily connected to the major/minor concept. In this project we introduce an automatic evaluation of the produced harmony sequences that both looks at each individual chord and the chord progression. A population of chord progressions is evaluated and the highest ranked ones will most likely be used for breeding of the offspring. This project is one of the sub-projects of the EJI (Evolutionary Jazz Improvisation) project, where we explore various aspects of jazz music; improvised solo, harmony, tune creation, algorithmic creation of piano, bass and drum accompaniment, communication between instruments etc. The results have been evaluated by a live jazz group consisting of professional jazz musicians.

  • 4.
    Bäckman, Kjell
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Evolutionary Jazz Harmony: A New Jazz Harmony System2008In: BIOINSPIRED OPTIMIZATION METHODS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Bioinspired Optimization Methods and their Applications, BIOMA 2008 / [ed] Bogdan Filipič & Jurij Šilc, Ljubljana: Jožef Stefan Institute , 2008, p. 133-140Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bäckman, Kjell
    IT-universitetet.
    Evolutionary jazz improvisation: A New Jazz Improvisation and Harmony System2009In: Performa '09: Proceedings of the Conference on Performance Studies. / [ed] Helena Marinho, Susana Sardo and Jorge Correia, Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jazz harmony has during the jazz history mainly been functionally based on principles of tonality derived from classical and romantic periods of the 18th and 19th centuries. By means of computer based evolutionary principles we introduce a function-less harmony system that somewhat changes the musical feeling in jazz compositions to more imitate the harmonic feeling of early experiments made in the 1950’s by advanced and new-thinking jazz musicians like Ornette Coleman, Cecil Taylor, Don Cherry and others. Experiments have also been made during the 60’s and 70’s by e.g. Herbie Hancock, Miles Davies and fusion musicians Brecker Brothers. Not to mention all experiments in the classical music domain during the entire 20th century from Schoenberg and onwards. However, from the last quarter of the 20th century a stagnation of the harmonic development in jazz has ensued, and nothing harmonically essential has occurred. The Evolutionary Jazz Improvisation project is an attempt to break the ice and open new dimensions to harmonic thinking. In addition to new types of harmonies, the new harmony system also forms the basis for scale construction to be used by the jazz musician when performing a solo. This new harmony and scale system has proved to be a musically interesting platform at exploration of new harmonic areas. The main features of this system are chords not built on any specific base note, chords that should be regarded as harmonic spectrums, and scales of a new kind based on the harmonic spectrums.

  • 6. Bäckman, Kjell
    et al.
    Dahlstedt, Palle
    GU, IT-universitetet.
    Generative Jazz Improvisation2008In: EvoWorkshops 2008, 2008, p. 371-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a system developed to create computer based jazz improvisation solos. The generation of the improvisation material uses interactive evolution, based on a dual genetic representation: a basic melody line representation, with energy constraints ("rubber band") and a hierarchic structure of operators that processes the various parts of this basic melody. To be able to listen to and evaluate the result in a fair way, the computer generated solos have been imported into a musical environment to form a complete jazz composition. The focus of this paper is on the data representations developed for this specific type of music. This is the first published part of an ongoing research project in generative jazz, based on probabilistic and evolutionary strategies.

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