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  • 1.
    Adolphs, Svenja
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Clark, Leigh
    University College Dublin, School of Information and Communication Studies, Dublin, Ireland.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Glover, Tony
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Muir, Christine
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Sánchez-Lozano, Enrique
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Valstar, Michel
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Digital innovations in L2 motivation: Harnessing the power of the Ideal L2 Self2018In: System (Linköping), ISSN 0346-251X, E-ISSN 1879-3282, Vol. 78, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustained motivation is crucial to learning a second language (L2), and one way to support this can be through the mental visualisation of ideal L2 selves (Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014). This paper reports on an exploratory study which investigated the possibility of using technology to create representations of language learners' ideal L2 selves digitally. Nine Chinese learners of L2 English were invited to three semi-structured interviews to discuss their ideal L2 selves and their future language goals, as well as their opinions on several different technological approaches to representing their ideal L2 selves. Three approaches were shown to participants: (a) 2D and 3D animations, (b) Facial Overlay, and (c) Facial Mask. Within these, several iterations were also included (e.g. with/without background or context). Results indicate that 3D animation currently offers the best approach in terms of realism and animation of facial features, and improvements to Facial Overlay could lead to beneficial results in the future. Approaches using the 2D animations and the Facial Mask approach appeared to have little future potential. The descriptive details of learners' ideal L2 selves also provide preliminary directions for the development of content that might be included in future technology-based interventions.

  • 2.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Jyväskylä universitet.
    Barns uppfattningar om språk: en studie av samtal om språk med barn på en finskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Sverige och en svenskspråkig daghemsavdelning i Finland2017In: Nordand 13: Abstrakt, 2017, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande studie om barns uppfattningar om språk utgör en del av ett större forskningsprojekt (Child2ling 2013–2017) som studerar uppfattningar om tvåspråkighet kring barn. Projektet Child2ling är finansierat av Finlands akademi och har Jyväskylä universitet som huvudman. Följande studie syftar till att jämföra små barn i Finland och Sveriges (3–5 år) egna uppfattningar om språk. Forskningsfrågorna är sålunda:• Vilka uppfattningar om språk, språkbruk och flerspråkighet uttrycker tvåspråkiga barn (3–5 år) på en finskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Sverige sinsemellan och i interaktion med forskaren?• Vilka uppfattningar om språk, språkbruk och flerspråkighet uttrycker tvåspråkiga barn (3–5 år) på en svenskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Finland sinsemellan och i interaktion med forskaren?Studiens fältarbete skedde i två olika steg. Det första steget var etnografiskt och det andra steget bestod av olika "lek-metoder" som syftade till att stimulera samtalsämnet "språk" mellan mig och barnen. De etnografiska observationerna och fältanteckningarna analyserades med diskursanalytiskt anslag genom begreppen interaktiv agens (Nijnatten 2013) och historisk kropp (Scollon och Scollon 2004). Inspelningarna och transkriptionerna av samtalen har analyserats med samtalsanalytiska verktyg (Lindström 2014). Detaljanalyser av interaktionen möjliggjorde en högre grad av validering än vad som är möjligt via analys av observationer och fältanteckningar.Det preliminära resultatet visar ingen skillnad mellan barnens uppfattningar om språk mellan de olika länderna. De kontextuella aspekter som aktualiseras i samtal och utsagor är knutna till samtalet som sådant och till barnens närmiljö. Den främsta uppfattningen som barnen uttrycker är att språkkunskap är likställd med annan kunskap.

  • 3.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Children's beliefs about bilingualism and language use as expressed in child-adult conversations2017In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communication, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 401-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe young children's beliefs about language and bilingualism as they are expressed in verbal utterances. The data is from Swedish-medium preschool units in three different sites in Finland. It was generated through ethnographic observations and recordings of the author's interactions with the children. The meaning constructions in the interactions were analyzed mainly by looking closely at the participants' turn taking and conversational roles. The results show that children's beliefs of bilingualism are that you should use one language when speaking to one person; that languages are learnt through using them; and that the advantage of knowing more than one language is being able to talk to (other) people. The results also show that this knowledge of languages is no different from other knowledge within their world. This will probably change over time as the children enter school, and it is something in which our presence as language researchers will have played a part.

  • 4.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. University of Jyväskylä.
    Where communication flows, languages swim freely: developing fieldwork methods for investigating preschool children's language beliefs2015In: AFinLAn vuosikirja, E-ISSN 2343-2608, no 73, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I reflect on methodological aspects to take into consideration when developing methods for investigating three- to five-year-old children's beliefs about language, language use and bilingualism. I analyze participant observations and notes taken in the field. The study focuses on bilingual Finnish-Swedish children in Swedish-medium preschools in Finland. At one of the schools, most of the children and I did not share a common language, so the interaction between us heightened both the children's language awareness and that of my own. This drew my attention to communicative aspects of embodiment and multimodality and to the distribution of responsibility for interaction. I detected two interaction orders in which children's agency stood out in their intention to make their voice heard, and I used my experiences to develop an ethically-oriented data-generating approach to enhance communication about communication.

  • 5.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, School of English, United Kingdom .
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Muir, Christine
    University of Nottingham, School of English, United Kingdom .
    Motivational currents in language learning: Frameworks for focused interventions2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on Zoltán Dörnyei's authoritative work in the field of learner motivation, this book introduces a new conceptualization-Directed Motivational Currents (DMCs)-and sets out the defining aspects of what they are, what they are not, and how they are related to language learning motivation. Going beyond focused behavior in a single activity, DMCs concern intensive long-term motivation. The distinctive feature of the theory is that it views motivation not simply as a springboard for action but also as a uniquely self-renewing and sustainable process. It is this energizing capacity which distinguishes DMCs from almost every other motivational construct described in the research literature. Motivational Currents in Language Learning offers new insights, valuable both to motivation researchers and classroom practitioners. The accessible style, along with plentiful illustrations and practical suggestions for promoting sustained learning, invite readers to think about motivation in a different way. Highly relevant for language teachers, teachers-in-training, teacher educators, and researchers in TESOL and applied linguistics, the book explains how the DMC construct can be integrated into course structures and teaching methodologies, and encourages teachers to try out novel methods for harnessing motivational power in classroom settings. © 2016 Taylor and Francis

  • 6.
    Fjällhage, Jonathan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Asså det du hör och gör påverkar liksomhur du pratar"2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate Swedish students' use of code-switching between the Swedish and English language, in relation to their involvement or interest in extramural activities. Their own views and attitudes on the topic as well as their reasons for code-switching will also be investigated in the study. The study is based on a qualitative method of research, in which semi-structured interviews were used. The participants in this study consisted of 17 students (in four focus groups) from three different secondary schools in southern Sweden. Fundamental factors connected to the study are code-switching, extramural activities,  borrowing as well as loanwords and the theory on which the study is based is called  accommodation theory. The results of the study show that the majority of total occurrences of students' use of code-switching, belonged to the word class of nouns. Other findings indicate that students use code-switching for social reasons, efficient communication and external factors, in which the situational context as well as the social context have a significant role. Many of the code-switched occurrences could also be attached to a specific extramural activity or interest. The study show that when discussing extramural activities, students frequently code-switch both consciously and unconsci ously as well as adapt their use of language, in order to make themselves understood.

  • 7.
    Goddard, Angela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. York St John University, Languages and Linguistics.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Mondor, Monika
    Gothenburg University.
    Van Der Laaken, Manon
    University of Amsterdam.
    Have you ever been to England? You know, they speak really weird English there'.: Some implications of the growth of English as a global language for the teaching of English in the UK2013In: English in Education, ISSN 0425-0494, E-ISSN 1754-8845, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 79-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes two inter-related research projects concerned with the teaching and learning of English in contemporary contexts, where English is changing its status from being the first language of specific groups of speakers to becoming a global lingua franca. Focussing respectively on learners of English as a second language (L2 users) in the Netherlands and Sweden, and on native speakers (L1 users) in the UK, our research reveals what English as a lingua franca means to some of its European users, and considers ways for L1 teachers and learners to remain connected internationally.

  • 8.
    Gross, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Segregated vowels: Language variation and dialect features among Gothenburg youth2018In: Language Variation and Change, ISSN 0954-3945, E-ISSN 1469-8021, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 315-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of housing segregation on variation in the vowel systems of young speakers of Swedish who have grown up in different neighborhoods of Gothenburg. Significant differences are found for variants of the variables /i:/ and /y:/, which are strongly associated with the local dialect; these two vowels also exhibit coherence. Another vowel pair, /.:/ and /o:/, are involved in a coherent leveling process affecting many of the central Swedish dialects but differing in degree of openness in different neighborhoods of Gothenburg. The results show that the variation is not simply a reflection of foreign background, nor of groups of youth adopting single variants; rather, a number of social factors conflate in housing segregation, which interferes with the transmission of more abstract aspects of the local dialect’s vowel system to young speakers in certain neighborhoods.

  • 9.
    Gross, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Forsberg, Julia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Weak Lips? A Possible Merger of /i/ and /y:/ in Gothenburgh2019In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study investigates a possible merger in the early stages between /i:/ and /y:/ among young speakers in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    METHODS: (1) A large-scale online perception experiment testing listeners' abilities to identify the two vowels and (2) acoustic analysis of 705 vowels from 19 speakers.

    RESULTS: The perception study shows that listeners classify the horizontally centralized /y:/ as /i:/, both in isolated vowel items and in items containing the full word. This indicates that /y:/ is moving into the perceptual space of /i:/. Listeners also classify the unmerged /y:/ as /i:/ when listening to [y:] in isolation, indicating that lip rounding is a perceptually weak feature, for this centralized vowel, in this variety. The acoustic analysis shows that /i:/ tends to be produced as [ɨ:], and that there is no acoustic difference between /i:/ and /y:/ in measurements correlated with the first two formants, i.e. lip rounding is the most important distinctive feature.

    CONCLUSION: Results point in the direction of an incipient vowel merger, following a merger-by-approximation model. These results indicate a lack of perceptual strength of an articulatory feature in the disappearing phoneme, namely lip rounding, and the consequent perceptual similarities between the horizontally centralized [ɨ:] and /y:/.

  • 10.
    Hagman, Gustav
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Acting Against Principles: How the violation of conversation rules in dialoguecreates a clever TV character2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the use of violations of conversation principles in the written dialogue of Tyrion Lannister in Game of Thrones. The aim is to establish if and how these violations aid in making him seem clever. The character's dialogues are matched against three theoretical principles: Politeness Theory, The Cooperative Principle and Turn-taking Principles. The findings suggest that by breaking basic principles of conversation, Tyrion provides entertaining dialogue and manages to create unexpected solutions to different threatening situations. Results show an even distribution of strategic violations, among the three theoretical approaches, which could suggest that the dialogue is consciously written to help make the audience feel impressed by the character's features. Tyrion's violations of conversation principles is a contribution in what makes him seem witty. This ability in the character seems to be closely linked to a lack of fear for any negative social consequences. The character's ability to act free from rules of social behavior could be considered one of the reasons behind his popularity among fans of the show.

  • 11.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Challenges in bridging between cultures of English experience2019In: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, p. 289-313Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Contexts of possibility in simultaneous language learning: using the L2 Motivational Self System to assess the impact of global English2010In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 149-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation in simultaneous L2 learning situations is an area of research largely overlooked and studies from contexts where people are engaged in learning more than one L2 are rare. In their large-scale Hungarian research, Dornyei, Csizer and Nemeth found that pupils' positive attitudes to one L2 could cause interferences with attitudes to others, with English being the greatest source of such interference. In this article it is suggested that, as an alternative to interference, Markus and Nurius' theory of the working self-concept may offer a theoretically more coherent explanation for between-language effects in situations of simultaneous learning. Using a specially designed instrument, three hypotheses were tested for a sample of Swedish pupils actively engaged in learning two L2s. First, it was hypothesised that learners would have separate L2 self-concepts as speakers of different L2s, secondly, that FL self-concepts would be interpreted negatively in relation to English self-concepts and, finally, that a high degree of FL-to-English negative self-concept referencing would be associated with low FL motivation. Whilst tentative support was found for all three hypotheses, with negative effects of English being most noticeable among boys, the results need to be followed up by further research employing more exacting methodologies.

  • 13.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Digital games and ELT: bridging the authenticity gap2013In: International perspectives on motivation: language learning and professional challenges / [ed] Ushioda, Ema, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1, p. 133-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I will suggest that in cultural contexts such as Sweden where English is an integral part of young people’s everyday lives and is encountered and used in a range of out-of-school domains, a particular challenge facing teachers is not so much generating motivation to succeed in long-term competency goals, but rather engaging students in day-to-day classroom activities. Based on the idea that self-authenticity can have a motivating force (Gecas 1991; Vannini 2006; Vannini and Burgess 2009) and drawing on James Paul Gee’s recent work on affinity spaces (Gee 2005; Hayes and Gee 2010), I will argue that teachers of English need to create learning opportunities where students can experience the types of creative and self-relevant interaction commonplace in digital gaming. This does not mean that teachers should look to leisure-time domains with an eye to the wholesale import of youth culture content into the classroom, but, rather, that greater scope should be given to aesthetic and personal expression in activity design. In arguing that there is a growing authenticity gap between the English students learn in school and the English they use outside, I will begin the chapter by looking at the sorts of things young people in Sweden do in their free time.

     

  • 14.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Enablements and constraints: Inventorying affordances associated with lingua franca English2016In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 488-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcultural flows of capital, culture and communication have created conditions for the widespread movement of people around the globe, leading to increasing diversity in countries of destination. In contexts of global migration lingua franca English is indispensable in initial and survival communication. For migrants to northern European countries where lingua franca English functions as a 'contact language' in 'contact zone encounters', it is of value not only as a communication medium, but also as a resource for learning typologically similar host-country languages. Drawing on the concept of affordances, the purpose of this study is to create an inventory of the ways in which English can facilitate, but also constrain social interaction and the acquisition of Swedish. Interviews conducted with 14 recently arrived migrants with English in their repertoires revealed the presence of enabling and constraining affordances in social, classroom, material and cognitive domains. Discussing the study findings, it is suggested that the ways in which the individual attunes to an affordance associated with English, perceiving it as either enabling or constraining, is dependent on their current motivational and affective state and in-the-moment cognitive processing

  • 15.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Examining the impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A case study2011In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 235-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous L2 (English) and L3 (Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves approach was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a larger dataset (n=101). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis techniques. In analysing the data Markus and Nurius’ (1986) theory of the working self-concept was used to examine experiences of and cognitive responses to the presence of L2 English in L3 learning situations. The results indicate that for these individuals an L2 English self-concept is an active constituent with a referential function in working self-concepts activated in L3 learning situations. To offset the potentially negative effects of the incursion of L2 English, some of the individuals recruited different forms of positive self-knowledge into the working self-concept. For one participant the powerful referential effect of English was such that it became difficult to sustain a viable L3-speaking/using self. The results suggest that the inclusion of a working self-concept component in possible selves motivational research may be methodologically rewarding, particularly in multilingual settings and/or where contextual or process factors are in focus.    

  • 16.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Gender differences in compulsory school pupils' L2 self-concepts: A longitudinal study2009In: System, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 177-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Gender differences in L2 motivation: A reassessment2011In: Gender Gap: causes, experiences & effects / [ed] Davies, Samuel A., New York: Nova Science , 2011, p. 81-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Along with aptitude, motivation is the primary determiner of learning outcomes in second language (L2) learning. Widely regarded as an activity especially suited to girls, empirical studies from different sociocultural contexts have, with few exceptions, revealed systematic gender differences in L2 motivation. In particular, gender differences are most apparent in relation to establishing an affinity with other L2 speakers, the ability and willingness to identify with the values associated with L2 ethnolinguistic communities and a lack of ethnocentricity. Together these attributes have been categorized as integrativeness (Gardner, 1985). Explanations for observed gender differences vary and, other than a general recognition of the impact of social norms and gender role expectations, no overarching theoretical explanation has yet been attempted. Given the recent paradigm shift in the conceptualization of L2 motivation from a social psychological approach based on identifications with other groups of speakers, to one based on the learner’s internal identification of a future language speaking ‘self’, a timely opportunity is presented to review previous findings. Following an initial discussion of the paradigm shift in L2 motivation theory and the role of gender in conceptions of the self, the literature on the gender gap in integrativeness is reviewed through the lens of self-related theories. A tentative explanation for observed differences that synthesizes the results of previous research and is theoretically consistent with a self approach is proposed. Drawing on the work of, amongst others, Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver and Surrey (1991), Markus and Kitayama (1991) and Cross and Madson (1997) it is suggested that gender differences can be understood in relation to processes involving the construction and construal of selves, where the selves of males are characterized by independence whilst those of females emphasize interdependence.

  • 18.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    L2 Motivation and Multilingual Identities2017In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 548-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By tradition, L2 motivation research has a monolingual bias – the motivational systems of a learner’s different languages conceptualized as separate entities rather than as cognitively interconnected. At a time when multilingualism has become a new world order (Douglas Fir Group, ) and where there is evidence of powerful identity experiences connected to speaking several languages (Pavlenko, ) this is unfortunate. In alignment with the multilingual and dynamic turns in SLA (de Bot, ; May, ), and adopting a complexity thought modeling approach (Larsen–Freeman & Cameron, ), this article explores multilingual learners’ L2 motivation. It is suggested that the motivational systems of a multilingual learner’s different languages can be understood as constituting a higher-level multilingual motivational self system that is part of an ecology of interconnected and interpenetrating systems. This system contains multilingual self guides, one of which is the ideal multilingual self. Drawing on construal-level theory (Trope & Liberman, ), the manner and effects of mental representations of an ideal multilingual self are assessed. Finally, it is suggested that motivation deriving from a broader identity that encompasses but, in important ways, transcends a multilingual person’s language-specific identities has a central role to play in multilingual education.

  • 19.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Online Media Creation and L2 Motivation: A Socially Situated Perspective2019In: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 372-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies are increasingly common in language learning. Online media creation provides scope for agency and spaces for identity construction, but empirically grounded conceptualizations of the influences on learners' motivation are lacking and the digital technology–second language motivation interface remains largely unexplored. Using a grounded theory ethnographic approach (Charmaz,2006), and with the aim of developing a theoretical account of the emergence of motivation in online media creation, this study investigated a blog project in an English language classroom in Sweden. Engaging with multiple data sources, and using Ito and colleagues' (2010) theory of participation in media practices as an analytical framework, motivation is conceptualized as stemming from the desire to create a visually appealing and authentic artefact, from a perception of audience, and through the documentation of identities. Variations in motivational intensity between student groups could betraced to varying investments in digital media practices. Primarily, differences were between validation-seeking that was locally oriented and validation-seeking conditioned through actions within a genre of practice. These conceptualizations are of importance for English language teaching. In language-developing activities that involve online media creation, motivation can be enhanced when space for genre exploration is provided

  • 20.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Rewarding foreign language learning: effects of the Swedish grade point average enhancement initiative on students' motivationto learn French.2017In: Language learning journal, ISSN 0957-1736, E-ISSN 1753-2167, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 301-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reinstate interest and motivation for learning foreign languages (FLs) other than English, the Swedish government has recently reformed the admissions system to higher education. Upper secondary students who continue with the FL learnt in secondary school are rewarded with extra credits that considerably enhance their grade point average (GPA). The purpose of this interview-based study is examine the impact this initiative has on the choices of 6 upper secondary students to continue with their FL, French, and on their motivation over one and a half semesters of study. Using self-determination theory and Dörnyei’s (2009a) L2 Motivational Self System model as analytical lenses, results reveal that for the three students whose motivation is rooted in intrinsic and/or self-determined extrinsic reasons for learning, the GPA-enhancing credits have little or no impact on either choice or effortful behaviour. For the other three students, none of whom, but for the extra credits, would have chosen to continue with French, the GPA-enhancement is almost the sole source motivation. However, because their reasons for studying French are not fully self-determined, learning lacks personal meaning. These students see little longer-term value in their efforts, nor meaningful applications for the skills they have developed. Consequently, goals do not extend beyond achieving a passing grade. The effects of making a fifth and sixth year of FL learning de facto compulsory on students’ willingness to use the FL in the future and on their FL-speaking/using self-concepts are discussed, and the consequences of the initiative are critically appraised.

  • 21.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Swedish or English?: Migrants' experiences of the exchangeability of language resources2016In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 442-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which languages and language varieties are differently valued. In a Swedish context, where lingua franca English can facilitate communication but where monolingual norms prevail and Swedish is positioned as the key to 'integration', the purpose of this study is to examine English-speaking migrants' experiences of opportunities to use Swedish and English in communication. Interviews were conducted with 14 recently arrived migrants with English in their repertoires. Drawing on participants' experiences of language use in institutional contexts, analyses focus on the influence of value assessments, orientations to ideal-type norms, processes of self-surveillance and the effects of discursive positionings. While migrants' language choices are understood as a consequence of structural conditions, attention is also drawn to the ways in which such choices are flexibly negotiated. Analyses shed light on participants' creative and critical capacities and how, in their language choices, they evaluate, relate to and resist macro-social structures. Different varieties of English are shown to offer different communicative opportunities and not all are equally exchangeable. Opportunities to use English also differ as a consequence of the intersections of discursive positionings.

  • 22.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Swedish students’ beliefs about learning English in and outside of school2014In: Motivation and Foreign Language Learning: from theory to practice / [ed] David Lasagabaster, Aintzane Doiz, Juan Manuel Sierra, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 93-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden students’ encounters with English in and out of school are very different. Spending around 20 hours per week in English-mediated environments outside of school, they are often engaged in richly meaningful activities. Consequently, many young people believe they learn as much of their English as a result of participation in English-mediated leisure time activities as they do from textbook-dominated classroom instruction. Drawing on emerging discussions on the ways in which learners’ beliefs about the primacy of learning English in natural environments can have negative effects on learning behaviours in formal settings (e.g. Mercer & Ryan, 2010), and how learners’ beliefs about the causes of success in language learning can impact on motivation (e.g. Hsieh, 2012), this chapter examines the ways in which such beliefs may impact on Swedish students’ responses to classroom learning. Further, in view of the fact that beliefs about the context in which English is mostly acquired differ substantially between girls and boys, the chapter examines the ways in which gender differences in the nature of self-regulation can impact on students’ beliefs.

  • 23.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The ‘Burden’ and the Darkness: The British Empire and Colonialism2013In: Postcolonial Texts and Events: Cultural Narratives from the English-Speaking World / [ed] Andersson Hval, Ulrika, Henry, Alastair & Bergström, Catharine Walker, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 15-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The motivational effects of cross-linguistic awareness: developing  third language pedagogies to address the negative impact  of the L2 on the L3 self-concept2014In: Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1750-1229, E-ISSN 1750-1237, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning a third language (TL) brings with it particular pedagogical demands. In the pedagogy of TL learning now emerging, the development of students' metalinguistic and crosslinguistic awareness is of central importance. In particular, emphasis is placed on the benefits of cross-referencing with supporter languages. While comparisons with supporter languages have been shown to facilitate L3 production, recent research suggests that cross-referencing with the L2 may be detrimental to motivation. In the current study, 21 students learning L2 English and L3 German or Spanish were interviewed about comparisons involving L3 and L2 self-concepts. Results revealed that nearly all of the students were aware of making such comparisons. A number, however, had developed strategies to counteract the potentially detrimental effect that comparisons with the L2-speaking/using self-concept can have on L3 motivation. It is argued here that in emerging pedagogies of L3 learning proper account needs to be taken of cognitive and affective individual difference factors. In particular, as a means of offsetting the negative impact that a high-status supporter language can have on the learner's L3 self-concept, students should be made aware of the problem and helped to develop and make use of counteracting strategies.

  • 25.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Tredjespråksinlärning och motivation2016In: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] C. Bardel, Y. Falk och C. Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2016, p. 165-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Why can’t I be doing this in English instead?: An interview study of the impact of L2 English on girls’ and boys’ L3 selves2011In: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial International Gender and Language Association Conference IGALA 6, 18-20 September, Tokyo / [ed] Maree, Claire & Satoh, Kyoko, Tokyo: Tsuda College , 2011, p. 126-139Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has been very little research on L3 motivation, it would appear that the gender divergences commonly found in L2 motivation are also apparent when a third foreign language is learnt. In a previous analysis of quantitative data Henry (2010a) found an inverse relationship between i) the extent to which students compared the L3-speaking/using self-concept with the L2 English-speaking/using self-concept, and ii) L3 motivation. Further, this effect was stronger for boys. In an attempt to shed light on these gender differences, interview data from students with differing motivational profiles were analysed using the theoretical framework of the working self-concept (Markus & Nurius, 1986; Markus & Kunda, 1986). The results suggest that, for these students, the L2 English self-concept is frequently invoked in L3 learning situations and that it has a referential function. Whilst the girls interviewed appeared to be able to offset the impact of L2 English by creating cognitive barriers and recruiting positive L3-related self-knowledge, the boys seemed to rely more on forms of self-knowledge that emphasize a capacity for hard work and determination. For some of the boys the pervasive impact of L2 English meant however that it was impossible to sustain a viable L3 self-concept.  

  • 27.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Young people and English: A changing landscape with changing challenges2019In: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, p. 23-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    The Impact of Out-of-School Factors on Motivation to Learn English: Self-discrepancies, Beliefs, and Experiences of Self-authenticity2017In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 713-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    English is today learnt in multitudes of settings worldwide, making it difficult to characterize relationships between motivation and context in generalized terms (Ushioda 2013). In settings where students have extensive encounters with English outside school, a reluctance to invest effort in formal learning has been observed. To investigate ways in which out-of-school encounters impact on motivation, questionnaire data was obtained from 116 upper secondary students in Sweden. Structural equation modelling was used to test a series of hypotheses generated from emerging research into language learners identities, beliefs and self-authenticity appraisals. Results revealed that, compared to reference studies from settings where English lacks similar prominence, the Ideal L2 Self accounted for substantially less of the explained variance on a criterion measure. This can be accounted for by the limited discrepancy between current and ideal L2 selves. Results also indicate that beliefs about the efficacy of learning in natural environments have a negative impact on motivation in school, and that appraisals of self-authenticity may have a similar effect, although methodological challenges make this contention difficult to substantiate.

  • 29.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Korp, Helena
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Sundqvist, Anna
    Karlstad University, Karlstad.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Motivational Strategies and the Reframing of English: Activity Design and Challenges for Teachers in Contexts of Extensive Extramural Encounters2018In: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, no 2, p. 247-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational strategies are underresearched, and studies so far conducted have been in sociolinguistic contexts where English is not extensively encountered outside the classroom. Given also that little is known about strategies relating to the design and content of classroom activities, the purpose of this study is to identify and critically evaluate strategies focusing on activity design and content in classroom activities that, in a setting where students have extensive extramural English encounters, teachers have found to be effective in generating motivation. Using Dörnyei's (2001) taxonomy of motivational strategies as an analytical tool, 112 descriptions of motivational activities provided by a randomly drawn sample of secondary EFL teachers in Sweden (N = 252) were content-analyzed with a focus on design and content. Providing support for Dörnyei's proposals, the results reveal the prominence of activities that enable students to work with authentic materials (cultural artefacts produced for a purpose other than teaching) and in ways that can be experienced as authentic. Activities involving digital technologies which provide opportunities for creativity are also prominent. Use of authentic materials places high demands on teachers' pedagogical and linguistic skills. In contexts where students respond positively to such activities, teachers' language awareness skills become of significant importance.

  • 30.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstads universitet.
    Korp, Helena
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Elevers möten med engelska i och utanför skolan: Upprop till deltagande i forskningsprojektet Bridging the Gap2014In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, no 4, p. 22-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Disaffection and agentic engagement: ‘Redesigning’ activities to enable authentic self-expression2018In: Language Teaching Research, ISSN 1362-1688, E-ISSN 1477-0954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demotivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011) and non-participation (Norton, 2001) characterise negative responses to classroom practice of a generally chronic nature. In this article, focus is directed to negativity that emerges within the context of a particular language developing activity, and which can be understood as a situated response to the activity's demands. In conceptualizing negative responses at the activity level, disaffection – the negative face of engagement – is a construct of central importance. Drawing on data from a large-scale ethnographic project in secondary English classrooms in Sweden, in this exploratory case study disaffection (Skinner, 2016) is examined in the context of two language developing activities. Analyses reveal that disaffection can transform into active engagement, and that when called upon to perform an inauthentic identity, students can 'redesign' activities in ways that enable them to act authentically.

  • 32.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The Ideal Multilingual Self: Validity, Influences on Motivation, and Role in a Multilingual Education2018In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 349-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    L2 motivation research has a longstanding monolingual bias. Recently, however, the motivational systems of a multilingual’s different languages have been conceptualized as constituting a multilingual motivational system, and it has been suggested that interactions between the ideal Lx self and the ideal Ly self can lead to the emergence of an ideal multilingual self. While the notion of an ideal multilingual self chimes with research on multilinguals’ identity experiences, it has not been investigated empirically. The purpose of this study is to establish whether there is empirical support for the proposed ideal multilingual self construct, and whether it influences motivation to learn a second foreign language. A questionnaire containing items measuring the ideal L2 self and the ideal multilingual self was administered to a sample of secondary students (N=324) at two schools in Sweden with international profiles. Using structural equation modeling, analyses yielded discriminant validity for the ideal multilingual self construct, and revealed an indirect influence on intended effort mediated via the ideal L2 self. On the strength of these results, a case is made for future research into people’s motivation to be or become multilingual, and educational interventions focused on developing students’ ideal multilingual selves.   

     

  • 33.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Weaving webs of connection: Empathy, perspective taking, and students' motivation2019In: Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, ISSN 2083-5205, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    L2 motivation is a relational phenomenon, shaped by teacher responsiveness (Lamb, 2017; Ushioda, 2009). Little, however, is known about the practices in which responsiveness is manifested. Drawing on research from the culturally responsive teaching paradigm (Petrone, 2013), and highlighting the role of empathy and perspective taking (Warren, 2018), the aim of this ethnographic case study of two lessons with a focus on poetry is to develop a relational understanding of the evolution of motivation. Analyses reveal how perspective taking has instructional and interactional dimensions, and how connections between lesson content and funds of knowledge with origins in students' interactions with popular culture bring additional layers of meaning to learning. It is suggested that while connections that arise through perspective taking practices shape students' in-the-moment motivational responses, they also accumulate in ways that lead to enduring motivational dispositions.

  • 34.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Tynkkinen, Mona
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Becoming a Process Researcher of One's Own Development: Using an Identity Mapping Model to Make Sense of Transformation Dynamics During the Practicum2017In: Innovative Practices in Language Teacher Education / [ed] Gregersen, Tammy S.; MacIntyre, Peter D., Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 205-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by Steenbeek and van Geert’s (2015) proposal that teachers need to become process researchers of their own development, and making use of methods of retroduction, the innovation we present comes in the form of a model that provides preservice language teachers with the knowledge and tools needed to map the dynamics of identity development during practicum periods. We provide an outline of the model and describe how we used it mentoring a group of preservice teachers. When mentors take on the role of complexity coaches and offer insights into complexity principles such as nonlinearity and the interrelationship of timescales, students have opportunities to investigate shifts in their emerging teacher identities, and to identify the signature dynamics of their identity systems. Taking on the role of a process researcher, preservice teachers can gain important self-insights and become able to identify and make sense of identity transformations. By facilitating such insights and providing opportunities for ‘in-the-moment identity management’, the model can play an important role in the process of developing a coherent professional identity.

  • 35.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Walker Bergström, Catharine
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Interactive learning in culture studies2003In: Proceedings from the 8th Nordic Conference on English Studies / [ed] Aijmer, Karin& Olinder, Britta, Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis , 2003, p. 319-332Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will outline a text-based teaching strategy for culture courses and in particular will examine the contribution that ’in-text’ questions can make towards generating ’deep approaches’ to learning when they are used in a collaborative setting. A course in the history of literature and the cultural context of that literature’s reception can often involve one-way communication and a significant amount of verbatim learning. The memorisation of authors’ names, the titles and dates of works, as well as the process of categorisation (placing those works in periods or genres) are activities that reward surface approaches to learning but which are deemed a necessary evil, even by the most pedagogically-minded instructors. The purpose of this project has been to move away from such methods. In implementing this model for text-based, collaborative learning, we asked ourselves two things: First, could the use of carefully formulated in-text questions in a student-oriented, interactive setting encourage a deep, rather than a surface approach to learning, and second, could such a course help to solve the budget-versus-quality dilemma created by the steadily decreasing number of contact hours teachers are permitted to schedule, while still maintaining high educational standards.

  • 36.
    Jahlmar, Joakim
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. University of Gothenburg.
    “Give the devil his due”: Freedom, Damnation, and Milton’s Paradise Lost in Neil Gaiman’s The Sandman:Season of Mists2015In: Partial Answers, ISSN 1565-3668, E-ISSN 1936-9247, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 267-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their collection Milton in Popular Culture (2006), Laura Lungers Knoppers and Gregory M. Colón Semenza have established the importance of Miltonic intertextuality in popular culture, while recognizing the importance of William Blake to the field. Blake’s definition of Milton as “a true Poet and of the Devils party without knowing it” in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1793) lies at the centre of a main concern of Milton criticism since the poem’s original publication. The debate between Satanists and anti-Satanists goes back even further than Blake and the Romantics, and this central ambivalence is representative of the “discontinuities” and “irresolvable complexities” which Peter C. Herman and Elizabeth Sauer (2012) argue are the focus of interest of the New Milton Criticism.

    Following this strand of critical thought, this article proposes to show how the introduction of Miltonic intertext into Neil Gaiman’s The Sandman, in issues 21–28, serves to structure the series’ theme of change and death — which involve questions of freedom and teleology, free will and damnation — through a critical dialogue with, and creative rewriting of Miltonic theodicy in the epic poem. Gaiman draws upon the ambivalent theological dimensions of Paradise Lost not to present his own concept of good and evil but rather to discuss the freedom to change and the damnation inherent in the inability to change as part of the human condition.

  • 37.
    Jeong, Hyeseung
    University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Challenging the notion of non-Western students' incapabilityfor critical thinking2016In: Social sciences and interdisciplinary behavior / [ed] Gaol, Ford Lumban, Hutagalung, Fonny, Bagautdinova, Nailya & Safiullin, Lenar, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2016, p. 329-334Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a longstanding belief that critical thinking is exclusively embedded in the Western Anglo-Saxon culture and language, thereby non-Western students using English as an additional language may not be capable of critical thinking (e.g., Atkinson, 1997). This paper reports on a study that questions this belief. The study explored the accounts of eight non-Western, international doctoral students at a New Zealand university and also analyzed their academic texts. The data of the study suggested that criticality or critical thinking was found in these students' verbal accounts. What they appeared to struggle was to express their critical thinking academically. This paper argues that, unlike the claim, non-Western students should learn critical thinking itself in the course of learning English; they may need to develop skills to communicate their critical thinking effectively in the English-medium academic context.

  • 38.
    Jeong, Hyeseung
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Repositioning phonetics in teacher education in Sweden from a global ELF perspectiv: Pre-service teachers’ perspectives2019In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm, 2019, p. 37-42Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish speakers of English have received recognition for their internationally intelligible pronunciation. Reflecting this, English phonetics in teacher education programmes seems to take two extreme positions: either marginalised or acting as a 'pusher' demanding native-like accent from teachers and their pupils. This study aims to explore pre-service teachers' perspectives on the English phonetics lessons that sought 'third' positioning, promoting English as a global lingua franca and bidirectional intelligibility of pronunciation in international contexts. It is argued that phonetics, as a subject, can be a suitable tool for helping teachers to set the goal of English pronunciation in view of the pervasive role of English as a global communication tool. Together with presenting the finding, I discuss its implications for teacher education in Sweden.

  • 39.
    Jeong, Hyeseung
    et al.
    University of Waikato.
    Kim, Hyun-Ju
    Dankook University.
    Explicit Knowledge of L2 Chunks and Chunkingin English Learning and Use2010In: Secondary English Education, ISSN 1976-8222, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 64-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This present research was designed to explore how and to what extent explicit knowledge of L2 chunks and chunking, which have both grammatical and idiomatic information, would benefit English learning and use. The operation of an EFL learner's explicit L2 chunks and chunking knowledge has been qualitatively investigated over a 6-month period.Through ethnographic data collecting methods such as observations andinterviews of the participant's process of acquiring L2 knowledge system, it was found that the awareness of explicit knowledge of English chunksand chunking significantly played an effective role in developing the English language system in terms of fluency, accuracy, and complexity. Based on the results of this study, the researchers suggest that the explicit and declarative knowledge become implicit and procedural knowledge through prolonged and systematic practices: the explicit knowledge of L2 chunks and chunking works positively for L2 learning and use.

  • 40.
    Johansson Bunting, Leona
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied Information Technology.
    Lindström, Berner
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Framing English learning at the intersection of school and out-of-school practices2013In: Journal of International Scientific Publications: Language, Individual & Society, ISSN 1313-2547, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 205-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an early age Swedish students typically use and learn English as a second language in out-of-school contexts, for example when watching TV and video clips and playing computer games online. This is an important premise for learning English in school. It is hence of interest to understand relations between learning in and out of school, especially considering the digitalization of Swedish schools and new media technologies becoming available for all students.

    This study aims at describing students’ accounts of learning English in out-of-school contexts and their reasoning of how this learning relates to learning English in school. The data consists of interviews with 47 eleven-year-olds. Goffman’s concept of framing is used as an analytic tool. The results are presented in terms of two dimensions of reasoning; Accepted and Non-Accepted Language Learning Environments and Language Learning as Intention or Side-Effect. Results on what environments students regard as important for learning English are also reported.

  • 41.
    Karppinen, Annika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Nysten, Caroline
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Heta hunkar och snygga snärtor i klassrummet: har livsstilsmagasin en roll i svenskundervisningen?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Populärlitteratur har traditionellt inte haft någon stark ställning i svenskundervisningen. Detta har på senare tid ändrats till att populärlitterära romaner mycket väl kan förekomma som läsmaterial. Populärlitteratur är emellertid ett svårdefinierat begrepp, och studiens utgångspunkt är att även livsstilsmagasin ska räknas till populärlitteraturens sfär. För att kunna använda dessa texter i en undervisningssituation krävs att läraren vet vad dessa tidningar innehåller. Fokus i studien ligger dels på populärkulturens roll i samhället, dels på livsstilsmagasinens roll i populärkulturen.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka innehållet i ett antal livsstilsmagasin samt den bild av samhället de ger uttryck för. Vidare utforskar vi det språk som används i livsstilsmagasinen och vilket värde livsstilsmagasin skulle kunna ha i svenskundervisningen.

    Metod: Metoden som använts är Foucaultinspirerad diskursanalys som tillämpats på ett antal livsstilsmagasin. Vi stöder oss främst på teorier om populärkultur och genusteori. De livsstilsmagasin som valdes ut till studien är de som läses mest av ungdomar i 13-19 års ålder enligt SIFOs undersökning 2009.

    Resultat: Livsstilsmagasin beskylls ofta för att vara ytliga. Vi hävdar att de har ett budskap som ofta förbises och att livsstilsmagasinen både avslöjar och upprätthåller de rådande normerna i samhället. Bland annat syns i livsstilsmagasinen att det finns strikta regler för vad som kan skrivas i dem. Dessutom bidrar magasinen till att förstärka stereotyper och uppmuntrar till konsumtion. Livsstilsmagasinens syn på relationen mellan kvinnor och män är traditionell med kvinnan underordnad mannen. Detta gör livsstilsmagasin till värdefulla och intressanta texter att använda i svenskundervisningen som underlag för analys och diskussion.

  • 42. Kullberg, Birgitta
    et al.
    Nielsen, CeciliaUniversity West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Skriftspråka eller skriftbråka: att utvecklas till en läsande och skrivande människa2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Larsson, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Shit vad crazy": Ungdomars syn på kodväxling2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar de svar som gavs av de ungdomar som deltagit i studien angående kodväxling, en form av språkblandning. En förutsättning för att den här typen av språkblandning kan ske är att talaren erhåller en tvåspråkighet där det ena språket är mer dominant än det andra. Det språket som är dominant är i den här undersökningen är svenska och det så kallade gästspråket som kodväxlingen sker på är engelska. Kodväxlingen skiljer sig dock från låneord och importord då kodväxlingsord ännu inte blivit accepterade som låneord och importord i det svenska ordförrådet.

    Kodväxling har implementerats i det svenska språkbruket i flera decennier genom flera språk, framförallt franska och tyska under dessa länders storhetstider (Birch-Jensen 2011:146). Under senare delen av 1900-talet har dock kodväxling främst kommit att ske på engelska. Detta beror på att engelsktalande länder, som USA och England, varit i framkant på de marknader som idag är världsledande. Det mest betydande, för den här typen av språkförändring, är den tekniska utvecklingen och utvecklingen av de sociala medier som ofta förekommer på engelska (Birch-Jensen 2011:9). Kodväxlingen på engelska växte, och växer fortfarande, fram i stor del på de sociala medierna där den här typen av språkbruk används för att underlätta konversationer. Detta språkbruk används dock inte endast på sociala medier och internet utan har även kommit att implementerats i det talade språket och blivit en allt större del av vardagen menar de ungdomar som deltagit i studien.

    Den tidigare forskning som skett kring ämnet är begränsad, men Appel och Muyskens sociolingvistiska teori kring varför kodväxling förekommer är en teori som är anpassningsbar gällande ämnet. Likt den sociolingvistiska teorin påvisar den här studien på flera användningsområden för kodväxling, men det nämns av de deltagande ungdomarna ytterligare användningsområden än de Appel och Muysken redovisat. Resultatet av den här studien hävdar, i enlighet med den sociolingvistiska teorin, att den här formen av språkblandning sker med engelska ord och fraser i samband med svenskt språkbruk för att förstärka, förtydliga och för att inge en annan känsla än vad det svenska ordförrådet är kapabelt till enligt de deltagande ungdomarna (Appel & Muysken 2005:117).

    En form av exkludering kan även ske via kodväxling, men detta är dock inget som ungdomarna anser vara ett primärt användningsområde för kodväxling. Den här formen av exkludering kan ske då ungdomarna menar att de inte tillämpar kodväxling med äldre personer, då de anser att kodväxling är begränsat till en viss generation då kunskap om kodväxling och det engelska språket ofta saknas hos en äldre åldersgrupp. Appel och Muysken teori påvisar dock motsatsen att kodväxling inte är åldersbegränsat, vilket medför att ungdomarnas påstående angående detta kan ifrågasättas (Appel & Muysken 2005:119). Om kodväxling idag är åldersbegränsat, vilket ungdomarna menar, kan det dock ha skett en förändring genom de sociala mediernas stora utveckling de senaste åren. Eftersom ungdomar främst är den åldersgrupp som använder dessa sociala medier är det möjligt att de även har blivit de som brukar den typen av språkligt fenomen som ofta förekommer på dessa medier. Detta kan ha medfört att ungdomarna infört den här typen av språkbruk mer i det talade språket.

    Språkliga förändringar har påverkan på samhället och dess inrättningar. Skolan är en av de inrättningar som ständigt måste adaptera sig efter förändringar, men anpassningen efter dessa förändringar är ofta svårgenomförlig. Undervisningen i ämnet svenska präglas idag främst av det språkbruk som kallas rikssvenska, vilket många elever inte kan identifiera sig med. Om undervisningen skulle anpassas mer efter erfarenhetspedagogiken och tillåta eleverna att använda sitt egna språk, däribland kodväxling, skulle detta troligen öka elevernas förståelse och motivation till ämnet (Nilsson 2005:68).

    Kodväxling har idag enligt resultatet av den här studien blivit ett normaliserat fenomen. Detta främst beroende på att det har blivit en avgörande del av det språkbruk som tillämpas av de deltagande ungdomarna. Om detta språkbruk kommer att fortsätta att tillämpas av ungdomarna även i vuxen ålder kan inte avgöras, men då ungdomarna påstår att de tillämpar kodväxling då det svenska ordförrådet inte räcker till är det möjligt att kodväxling fortsättningsvis kommer utgöra en stor del av det svenska språkbruket för ungdomarna även i framtiden. Om en utökning av det svenska ordförrådet inte sker kommer ett alternativt språkbruk, eventuellt kodväxling, vara nödvändigt för den kommunikation som ungdomarna vill föra.

  • 44.
    Liljenberg, Tobias
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Implicature, bullshit and confusion: Donald Trump's breaking of conversational rules and its effects2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A conversation is governed by a number of unwritten rules which can be broken intentionally or unintentionally. The aim of this essay is to see if and how Donald Trump breaks rules of conversation during a press conference, and what effects he makes by doing so. According to Grice (1975), when people have conversations, they generally follow the cooperative principle, which he specifies into four maxims, Quantity, Quality, Relation and Manner. Previous research shows that Donald Trump breaks these maxims very often. He disregards the truth to the extent that it can be referred to as "bullshit".

    In this essay I analysed a transcript of a press conference, held by Donald Trump after the mid-term elections last autumn, through the lens of Grice's theory. When breakages of conversational rules were found the effects were sorted under three categories, Implicature, the hidden meaning intended by the speaker, Bullshit, not caring about the truth and Confusion, not making yourself understood.

    The results show that Donald Trump breaks all four maxims of the cooperative principle, making the effects of implicature, bullshit and confusion where implicature was the most common effect. The implicature that Trump seems to intend is that he is still or already on the campaign trail, trying to turn everything in his favour and making himself look good, in order to earn the trust of his voters.

    The essay concludes that Trump rarely follows the rules of conversation, or as Gavaler and Goldberg (2017) puts it, he follows the anti-cooperative principle.

  • 45.
    Lindahl, Filippa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Satsfläta med relativsats: CP-rekursion i spontant språkbruk2018In: Gramino 2018, Oslo, 15.-16. mai, 2018, p. 1-2Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Linell, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Norén, Kerstin
    University West, Administration .
    "Vadå spikmatta?": Att försöka förstå eller förebrå medhjälp av en reaktiv konstruktion2012Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Malm, Annica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Something that you're passionate about": Motivation and Integrated English in VocationalProgrammes2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of motivation in language learning has been emphasised and paid more attention to the last decades, and the topic of student motivation has also been touched upon in the Swedish school system. The issue of low results in the vocational programmes have been scrutinised both in media and the National Agency of Education, which resulted in an integration between the character subjects and the core subjects. The idea is to increase the students' motivation to the core subjects by integrating them with the character subjects in the vocational programmes. Therefore, integration is executed by teachers in vocational programmes, and included in the curriculum for upper secondary schools.

    The aim of this study is to investigate students' attitudes toward integrated and non-integrated English, and how it influences their motivation. 10 interviews have been carried out in the Electric and Construction programme, and the data has been analysed using a thematic analysis. Themes have been selected and discussed in relation to the aim and research question.

    The result shows that the students feel that the integrated English is useful, but that non-integrated English within their personal interests is the most motivating content in the English course. Students want to be more involved in their education and the need to express their unique personalities seems to be of importance when it comes to learning English. The results indicate that the concept of integration might not be the most motivating aspect to focus on, but rather the individual aspects of the students and what they feel is motivating

  • 48.
    Nielsen, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Att vägleda andra att bli läsande och skrivande människor: en fråga om varför2008In: Skriftspråka eller skriftbråka: att utvecklas till en läsande och skrivande människa / [ed] Kullberg, Birgitta, Nielsen, Cecilia, Malmö: Gleerups utbildning , 2008, 1. uppl., p. 152-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Nielsen, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    En läsande och skrivande människa2008In: Skriftspråka eller skriftbråka: att utvecklas till en läsande och skrivande människa / [ed] Kullberg, Birgitta, Nielsen, Cecilia, Malmö: Gleerups utbildning , 2008, 1. uppl., p. 11-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Nielsen, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Kroppen läser och skriver?: Läsningens och skrivandets kroppslighet i ljuset av Merleau-Pontys kroppsfilosofi2011In: Educare. 2011:1: Tema : svenska med didaktisk inriktning / [ed] Bergman, Lotta (huvudredaktör), Malmö: Lärarutbildningen, Malmö högskola , 2011, p. 65-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading and writing have been investigated from different perspectives. Depending on the perspective adopted, some aspects of the phenomena have become visible, while others have been ignored. One of these seldom highlighted aspects is the lived body, learning to read and write. In this article, I explore the phenomenological aspects of reading and writing. What do we see when we consider our embodied existence? Merleau-Ponty believes that man is an indivisible whole; the mind can neither be understood without the body, nor the body without the mind. What then are the consequences for our understanding of reading and writing when, in addition to aspects of skill, metacognition and learning in practice, account is also taken of the fact that we are lived bodies, situated in time and space? The findings from my doctorial thesis (Nielsen, 2005) serve to illustrate the discussion. Narratives from people with reading and writing difficulties show that the encounters with sign, words and text are a bodily encounter, as well as a mental one, facilitated by means of perception and motor activity. They also show that own time and personal space are important aspects of learning to read and write. 

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