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  • 1.
    Adolphs, Svenja
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Clark, Leigh
    University College Dublin, School of Information and Communication Studies, Dublin, Ireland.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Glover, Tony
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Muir, Christine
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Sánchez-Lozano, Enrique
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Valstar, Michel
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Digital innovations in L2 motivation: Harnessing the power of the Ideal L2 Self2018In: System (Linköping), ISSN 0346-251X, E-ISSN 1879-3282, Vol. 78, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustained motivation is crucial to learning a second language (L2), and one way to support this can be through the mental visualisation of ideal L2 selves (Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014). This paper reports on an exploratory study which investigated the possibility of using technology to create representations of language learners' ideal L2 selves digitally. Nine Chinese learners of L2 English were invited to three semi-structured interviews to discuss their ideal L2 selves and their future language goals, as well as their opinions on several different technological approaches to representing their ideal L2 selves. Three approaches were shown to participants: (a) 2D and 3D animations, (b) Facial Overlay, and (c) Facial Mask. Within these, several iterations were also included (e.g. with/without background or context). Results indicate that 3D animation currently offers the best approach in terms of realism and animation of facial features, and improvements to Facial Overlay could lead to beneficial results in the future. Approaches using the 2D animations and the Facial Mask approach appeared to have little future potential. The descriptive details of learners' ideal L2 selves also provide preliminary directions for the development of content that might be included in future technology-based interventions.

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  • 2.
    Al Bitar, Dima
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    English Loan Words and English-Swedish Cognates in Swedish Texts Among Highly Frequent Vocabulary2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    English and Swedish have descended from the same language family, the Germanic language. Over time, English and Swedish have undergone big changes both phonologically and orthographically, evolving further into different languages. Despite the difference and variance between modern English and Swedish, and although they look dissimilar at the first sight, one can still trace the remnants of the English language in the Swedish texts. This study is concerned with looking at the degree of resemblance between English and Swedish in terms of vocabulary and examines the extent to which English words and English-Swedish cognates are present in Swedish texts. 

    Previous research showed that not all languages develop the same way. All languages acquire their own unique features through their evolvement. For example, the English language showed a phonological development of its own that is different from other Germanic languages, through contact with different languages, such as the French language. The Swedish language had a more German influence which came through the translation of the New Testament from German into Swedish, which in turn left a great deal of German influence on Swedish. Despite that, both languages still share words that have mutual origins, which are called cognates. False cognates, on the other hand, are homographs that might have the same etymology or a different one but with different meanings. These are called false friends. A loanword can be defined as any word borrowed at any point in time to fulfil a lexical gap in the language. Anglicism is using an English word and inflecting it according to the Swedish norms, despite the existence of a corresponding word in Swedish.

    This essay investigated vocabulary taken from Swedish learning books. These vocabulary items were categorized in tables according to their relationships with English words, namelynon cognates, Germanic cognates, non-Germanic cognates, loan words and hybrid words in the word classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. The results showed that only 4 texts showed more non-cognates words, 4 other texts have a nearly equal number of cognates and non cognates. Nouns occupy the highest percent of cognates, followed by verbs, adjectives and at last adverbs. Only 30 false cognates appeared in all of the 10 texts. The more the text is close to society and people and describes traditions and social life, the less cognates it uses. A very little percentage of direct loan words could be found in Swedish texts directed to students in all levels. The texts that talk about everyday life and address people's worries tend to contain more loan words in comparison to other kinds of texts.

  • 3.
    Ali, Feisal
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Gender and Language similarities and differences in mixed sex conversations and same sex conversations in the American TV series Modern Family2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to analyze females and males in mixed-sex conversations and same-sex conversations using cooperative speech, competitive speech, interruptions, and similarities and differences in their communication styles in the Tv series modern family. Men and women are said to use different speech styles regarding cooperative, competitive, and interruptions. I used three conversations taken from Season 1 Episode 24, Family Portrait, for mixed-sex conversations in my analysis. I also used three same-sex discussions taken from Season 3, Episode 5, Hit and Run, and Season 1, Episode 11, Up all night. The result shows similarities in both same-sex and mixed-sex conversations regarding women’s use of cooperative speech styles and men’s use of competitive speech styles and interruptions. However, my study found differences regarding women in mixed-sex and Same-sex conversations when it comes to interruptions. Women interrupt in mixed-sex discussions and not in same-sex discussions. Therefore, my analysis of the series modern family is in line with previous research on gender and language.

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  • 4.
    Allard, Annelie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Taking things too literally: How sarcasm and irony affect the fictional character Sheldon Cooper2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies the use of indirect speech acts in dialogues from mainly Sheldon Cooper from the tv series The Big Bang Theory. By analysing the character Sheldon Cooper this essay explores the challenges people on the autistic spectrum face when someone says something that they do not mean. To investigate this, the essay focuses on the linguistic rules of the locutionary-, illocutionary- and perlocutionary act. Sheldon is seen as a special character that most people are not able to relate to and is therefore both loved and hated by many. His characteristic features align with many features of autistic criteria, such as having a hard time understanding indirect speech acts, when someone says something that they do not literally mean. This results in him often not understanding when someone is being ironic or sarcastic leading to Sheldon Cooper often being the one everyone is laughing at.

  • 5.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Jyväskylä universitet.
    Barns uppfattningar om språk: en studie av samtal om språk med barn på en finskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Sverige och en svenskspråkig daghemsavdelning i Finland2017In: Nordand 13: Abstrakt, 2017, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande studie om barns uppfattningar om språk utgör en del av ett större forskningsprojekt (Child2ling 2013–2017) som studerar uppfattningar om tvåspråkighet kring barn. Projektet Child2ling är finansierat av Finlands akademi och har Jyväskylä universitet som huvudman. Följande studie syftar till att jämföra små barn i Finland och Sveriges (3–5 år) egna uppfattningar om språk. Forskningsfrågorna är sålunda:• Vilka uppfattningar om språk, språkbruk och flerspråkighet uttrycker tvåspråkiga barn (3–5 år) på en finskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Sverige sinsemellan och i interaktion med forskaren?• Vilka uppfattningar om språk, språkbruk och flerspråkighet uttrycker tvåspråkiga barn (3–5 år) på en svenskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Finland sinsemellan och i interaktion med forskaren?Studiens fältarbete skedde i två olika steg. Det första steget var etnografiskt och det andra steget bestod av olika "lek-metoder" som syftade till att stimulera samtalsämnet "språk" mellan mig och barnen. De etnografiska observationerna och fältanteckningarna analyserades med diskursanalytiskt anslag genom begreppen interaktiv agens (Nijnatten 2013) och historisk kropp (Scollon och Scollon 2004). Inspelningarna och transkriptionerna av samtalen har analyserats med samtalsanalytiska verktyg (Lindström 2014). Detaljanalyser av interaktionen möjliggjorde en högre grad av validering än vad som är möjligt via analys av observationer och fältanteckningar.Det preliminära resultatet visar ingen skillnad mellan barnens uppfattningar om språk mellan de olika länderna. De kontextuella aspekter som aktualiseras i samtal och utsagor är knutna till samtalet som sådant och till barnens närmiljö. Den främsta uppfattningen som barnen uttrycker är att språkkunskap är likställd med annan kunskap.

  • 6.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Children's beliefs about bilingualism and language use as expressed in child-adult conversations2017In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communication, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 401-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe young children's beliefs about language and bilingualism as they are expressed in verbal utterances. The data is from Swedish-medium preschool units in three different sites in Finland. It was generated through ethnographic observations and recordings of the author's interactions with the children. The meaning constructions in the interactions were analyzed mainly by looking closely at the participants' turn taking and conversational roles. The results show that children's beliefs of bilingualism are that you should use one language when speaking to one person; that languages are learnt through using them; and that the advantage of knowing more than one language is being able to talk to (other) people. The results also show that this knowledge of languages is no different from other knowledge within their world. This will probably change over time as the children enter school, and it is something in which our presence as language researchers will have played a part.

  • 7.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. University of Jyväskylä.
    Where communication flows, languages swim freely: developing fieldwork methods for investigating preschool children's language beliefs2015In: AFinLAn vuosikirja, E-ISSN 2343-2608, no 73, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I reflect on methodological aspects to take into consideration when developing methods for investigating three- to five-year-old children's beliefs about language, language use and bilingualism. I analyze participant observations and notes taken in the field. The study focuses on bilingual Finnish-Swedish children in Swedish-medium preschools in Finland. At one of the schools, most of the children and I did not share a common language, so the interaction between us heightened both the children's language awareness and that of my own. This drew my attention to communicative aspects of embodiment and multimodality and to the distribution of responsibility for interaction. I detected two interaction orders in which children's agency stood out in their intention to make their voice heard, and I used my experiences to develop an ethically-oriented data-generating approach to enhance communication about communication.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Helene
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Jag vill inte bli sedd som den som inte kan, jag vill vara med och göra samma sak som de andra": Elevers upplevelser av organisationen av ämnet svenska som andraspråk2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hur ämnet svenska som andraspråk bör organiseras för att bäst möta elevernas behov är något som diskuterats och studerats i många år. Somliga förespråkar separat undervisning där sva-elever undervisas för sig, och andra en blandad undervisning där svaeleverna läser tillsammans med eleverna som läser svenska. Utifrån detta studeras i denna uppsats elevernas egna upplevelser av olika sätt att organisera undervisningen.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att få kunskap om några elevers upplevelser av blandad och separat undervisning i svenska som andraspråk i förhållande till språkutveckling, inkludering och integration.

    Metod: Den metod som använts är kvalitativ intervjustudie med fem elever. Intervjusvaren har analyserats enligt en kvalitativ analysmodell där svaren har tematiserats i olika kategorier. Dessa kategorier har sedan analyserats utifrån teorier om sociokulturellt lärande och inkludering som gemenskap, samt tidigare forskning om blandad respektive separat undervisning.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att eleverna upplever blandad undervisning som mer önskvärd än separat. Skälen till detta är dels att eleverna upplever att blandad grupp innebär en mer gynnsam miljö för språkutveckling, då de menar att de lär nya ord och sätt att prata och skriva av eleverna som läser svenska, dels att de anser det viktigt att ingå i gemenskapen i helklass och att inte bli betraktad som annorlunda eller mindre kunnig. Att läsa i blandad grupp upplevs också positivt för att det erbjuder möjligheter att lära eleverna som läser svenska om andra länder och kulturer och för att eleverna upplever att det hjälper dem att komma in i samhället och "bli en av folket". Fördelar med separat undervisning som lyfts fram är att undervisningen bedrivs i mindre grupper och att undervisningen har ett tydligt andraspråksperspektiv.

  • 9.
    Barazeghi, Mariam
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Wicked Witches and Evil Queens?: A corpus-based study of the near-synonyms evil and wicked in contemporary American English2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine what contemporary corpora can reveal about the use of the two adjectives evil and wicked. These two synonyms have been analysed using corpus linguistics in order to acquire results about the differences between them regarding frequency of use, as well as their collocating nouns. The results have also been analysed with a focus on gender perspectives. The study has a quantitative as well as a qualitative approach. The material investigated for this study consists of a corpus called The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). The definitions of the two adjectives have also been searched within a few of the greater dictionaries.

    The findings reveal that the word evil is used to a greater extent by speakers and writers in different contexts in comparison to its synonym wicked. There are also significant differences between male and female nouns in adjective and noun collocations. The adjective evil is more frequently used to address male nouns, whereas its synonym wicked is more widely used as an attribute to female nouns. The differences are aligned with common gender stereotypes presented in previous studies and support the results regarding gender approaches in adjective and noun collocations. 

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  • 10.
    Bogarp, Annette
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Bristen på likvärdig bedömning: en enkätstudie om lärares bedömningsstöd2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: För eleven kan det vara avgörande att få ett godkänt betyg i svenska som andraspråk eftersom den då kan komma ett steg närmare sitt utbildningsmål eller blir mer attraktiv på arbetsmarknaden. Att då Skolverket konstaterar gång på gång att det råder brister vad gäller likvärdigheten på betygssättningen gör att vi måste jobba för ett mer rättssäkert system. Ett sätt att närma sig en mer rättvis bedömning är att använda någon av de etablerade bedömningsmodellerna som finns, t ex Performansanalys eller Bygga svenska.

    Syfte: Undersökningens övergripande syfte har varit att dels undersöka om lärare ute i verksamheterna gör bedömningar som vilar på någon slags teoretisk grund, dels undersöka om de anser att det ges tillräckligt med förutsättningar för att genomföra en rättssäker bedömning.

    Metod: Den metod som tillämpades var en i huvudsak kvalitativ metod i form av en webbaserad enkätundersökning där 23 lärare i svenska som andraspråk svarade. Samtliga arbetade mot kunskapskapskraven för årskurs 9, både från grundskolan och gymnasieskolans introduktionsprogram.

    Resultat: Resultatet av denna studie visade att i princip alla känner till, behärskar och använder någon form av etablerad bedömningsmetod. Över hälften av informanterna använder dem flera gånger per termin. Samtidigt signalerar lärare att de känner tidsbrist och att det finns behov av mer samarbete med kollegor. Resultatet indikerar att det inte är lärarnas ovilja eller kompetens som felar, det är dagens system som omöjliggör en rättvis bedömning.

  • 11.
    Carlzon, Calle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Österberg, Matilda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Perspectives for Textbook Selection: A Study of Vocabulary in EFL Textbooks in year 8 in Swedish secondary school2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study three different EFL textbooks designed for pupils in 8th grade in Swedish secondary school were analyzed. The analyzed textbooks are Second Time (1997), Prime Time (2009) and Sparks (2017). By limiting the text selection to only comparing fictional excerpts in the textbooks, two texts from each textbook were randomly selected. These six texts have been used as the primary sources for this analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate how textbooks can contribute to EFL learners and their vocabulary acquisition by determining the lexical diversity and density of the textbooks and look at their frequency in word occurrence. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of textbook selection in relation to these lexical phenomena. The research questions investigated are 1, What is the lexical diversity of each textbook? How many tokens, types and noun lemmas and verb lemmas are found in the texts and the textbooks? 2, What words are considered to be high-frequency words and how do they correspond to everyday English, according to the New General Service List. 3, What is the lexical density of each textbook? Finally, 4. What are the implications in relation to textbook selection? The conclusion regarding the research questions is that the textbook Sparks could arguably be considered the book that corresponds best to the researched criteria because the data showed that Sparks contains a higher amount of lexical diversity and density, together with a higher number of high-frequency words which corresponds to the NGSL. However, this conclusion is drawn solely on the researched criteria regarding vocabulary. To obtain a broader understanding of what textbook to consider, a more qualitative study that involves more criteria, such as themes or grammar would be needed.

  • 12.
    Chan, Letty
    et al.
    University of Nottingham.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    School of English, University of Nottingham.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Learner archetypes and signature dynamics in the language classroom: A retrodictive qualitative modelling approach to studying L2 motivation2014In: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, p. 238-259Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the use of ‘retrodictive qualitative modelling’ (RQM), a novel approach described for L2 research by Dörnyei (2014) that involves the identification of learner archetypes and motivational patterns in empirical research. The method reverses the traditional way of conducting research; it first examines the outcome – that is, the end-states – and then traces back the developmental trajectories leading to this outcome. Situated in a Hong Kong secondary school, we started our project by first asking a teacher focus group to identify salient learner archetypes in their classrooms (Years 7 to 9), and on the basis of these we then conducted in-depth interviews with one prototypical learner from each group. As a result, we gained insights into the ‘signature dynamics’ of the motivational system associated with each prototype. Our focus in this chapter is on evaluating RQM in action. First we report on the processes in which teachers identified learner archetypes and thereafter offer an in-depth analysis of the system dynamics of one of these students. In the final discussion, we list the main methodological lessons that we have learnt from applying RQM.

  • 13.
    Demirsoy, Cejna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Aleke, Sophie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Andraspråksutvecklingsarbetet i praktiken: En kvalitativ studie om svenska som andraspråklärares syn på andraspråksutvecklande arbetssätt2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Språkets roll är centralt för alla människor och det sätter sin prägel på livet för andraspråksindivider, genom att det påverkar deras möjlighet att komma in i samhället. Detta gör att svenska som andraspråksundervisningen blir jätteviktig för dessa individer, eftersom det är först där språkutvecklingen kan befrämjas(Skolverket, 2019, s.12–13). Varje individ behöver få möjlighet att utveckla sin språkliga färdighet på ett så bra sätt som möjligt, vilket framgår i ämnet svenska som andraspråk som lyfter vikten av att lärare behöver anpassa sin undervisning i syfte att gynna elevers språkutvecklingsprocess.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att undersöka vilka arbetssätt fyra svenska som andraspråkslärare tillämpar i undervisningen för att främja elevers andraspråksutveckling. 

    Metod: Uppsatsen bygger på en kvalitativ metod som består av semistrukturerade intervjuer.

    Resultat: Undersökningen visar att lärarna använder sig av ett antal olika arbetssätt för att stötta elevernas andraspråksutveckling. Bland annat anser samtliga lärare att cirkelmodellen är en metod som gynnar elevernas andraspråksutveckling genom social interaktion i klassrummet. Ett annat arbetssätt som lärarna använder sig av i praktiken är det formativa arbetssättet som befrämjar elevers andraspråksutveckling genom stöttning, återkoppling och uppföljning av deras individuella kunskaper. Resultatet visar också att arbetssätten påverkas av två faktorer, dels av tidsbristen som påverkar lärarnas planeringsarbete och elevanpassning, dels klassrumsklimatet som har en stor effekt på den sociala interaktionsbefrämjande arbetssätten.Sammanfattningsvis lyfter studien vikten av den sociala interaktionens roll i elevers andraspråksutveckling, så väl som stödet de får från läraren. Studien pekar också på de faktorer som påverkar lärarens andraspråksutvecklande arbetssätt och dess effekter som sätter sin prägel på det andraspråksutvecklande arbetet. 

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  • 14.
    D’Hertefeldt, Patrick
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Konstruktionsbaserad eller traditionell grammatikundervisning?: En komparativ studie av två undervisningsmetoders effekter på inlärning av presentering och emfatisk omskrivning2021Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: För några år sedan (2017) genomfördes de två första svenska konstruktionsgrammatiska klassrumsstudierna (Håkansson, Lyngfelt & Brasch, 2019). Resultaten talade för att använda ett konstruktionsperspektiv i andraspråksundervisning och att det fanns ett stort behov av ökad kunskap om konstruktionsbaserad språkundervisning. Artikelförfattarna hoppades att de två första klassrumsstudierna skulle följas av fler och det här är den tredje klassrumsstudien av praktisk tillämpning av konstruktionsgrammatik i andraspråksundervisning.

    Syfte: Uppsatsens syfte har varit att försöka fastslå om konstruktionsgrammatik i kombination med mönsterigenkänningsdidaktik kan vara ett effektivare sätt för andraspråksinlärare att lära sig grammatik än traditionell grammatik och didaktik där regler presenteras innan tillämpning.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes i form av en kvantitativ studie med en kvasiexperimentell design, där en experimentgrupp som undervisades med konstruktionsgrammatik och mönsterigenkänningsdidaktik jämfördes med en kontrollgrupp som undervisades med traditionell grammatik och didaktik. Innehållet i grammatikundervisningen bestod av två grammatiska konstruktioner: presentering respektive emfatisk omskrivning. Båda grupper fick göra ett identiskt test, och experimentfaktorerna, konstruktionsgrammatik och mönsterigenkänning, anses förklara skillnaderna mellan de båda undervisningsmetoderna. 

    Resultat: Resultatet talade till konstruktionsgrammatikens och mönsterigenkänningens fördel då elever som undervisats enligt den metoden uppvisade ett högre testresultat jämfört med kontrollgruppen som undervisats enligt traditionell grammatik. Skillnaderna var särskilt stora beträffande presenteringskonstruktionen, men fanns också beträffande emfatisk omskrivning. Slutsatsen är att konstruktionsgrammatik med mönsterigenkänning visade sig vara en effektivare metod för inlärning av presenteringskonstruktion och emfatisk omskrivning än traditionell grammatikundervisning och didaktik. Den här studiens resultat ligger i linje med de positiva resultaten i de två tidigare klassrumsstudiernaom praktiska tillämpningar av konstruktionsgrammatik genom mönsterigenkänning som genomförts med andraspråkselever.

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  • 15.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, School of English, United Kingdom .
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Muir, Christine
    University of Nottingham, School of English, United Kingdom .
    Motivational currents in language learning: Frameworks for focused interventions2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on Zoltán Dörnyei's authoritative work in the field of learner motivation, this book introduces a new conceptualization-Directed Motivational Currents (DMCs)-and sets out the defining aspects of what they are, what they are not, and how they are related to language learning motivation. Going beyond focused behavior in a single activity, DMCs concern intensive long-term motivation. The distinctive feature of the theory is that it views motivation not simply as a springboard for action but also as a uniquely self-renewing and sustainable process. It is this energizing capacity which distinguishes DMCs from almost every other motivational construct described in the research literature. Motivational Currents in Language Learning offers new insights, valuable both to motivation researchers and classroom practitioners. The accessible style, along with plentiful illustrations and practical suggestions for promoting sustained learning, invite readers to think about motivation in a different way. Highly relevant for language teachers, teachers-in-training, teacher educators, and researchers in TESOL and applied linguistics, the book explains how the DMC construct can be integrated into course structures and teaching methodologies, and encourages teachers to try out novel methods for harnessing motivational power in classroom settings. © 2016 Taylor and Francis

  • 16.
    Dörnyei, Zoltán
    et al.
    School of English, University of Nottingham.
    MacIntyre, Peter D.Cape Breton University.Henry, AlastairUniversity West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Motivational dynamics in language learning2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Dörnyei, Zoltán
    et al.
    School of English, University of Nottingham.
    McIntyre, Peter D.
    Cape Breton University.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Introduction: Applying Complex Dynamic Systems Principles to Empirical Research on L2 Motivation2014In: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, p. 1-7Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Dörrnyei, Zoltán
    et al.
    School of English, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (GBR).
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Accounting for long-term motivation and sustained motivated learning: Motivational currents, self-concordant vision, and persistence in language learning2022In: Advances in Motivation Science, ISSN 2215-0919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although temporal conceptualizations of motivational processes have not held center stage in motivation science, the situation is currently changing. Drawing on work in the subfield of language learning motivation, where the motivational endurance needed to master a second language has been a major concern, the aim of this article is to contribute to the body of work currently exploring motivational persistence. After outlining the broader academic context of motivation and time, and describing the disciplinary trajectory of research into language learning motivation, we present two interrelated and multifaceted frameworks that seek to explain long-term motivation and motivational persistence: (a) the notion of a "directed motivational current" which refers to a period of intense, enduring, and self-sustaining engagement within an activity-sequence, and which is phenomenologically akin to an extended flow experience, and (b) a multicomponent framework of long-term motivation that offers a general account of sustained effort in learning. This framework integrates diverse components, such as self-concordant vision, habitual actions, progress checks, and affirmative feedback, and references a motivational process that is characterized by positive emotional loading and passion, and is supported by self-control capacity and self-regulatory skills.

  • 19.
    Ekström, Joel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Maxim Flouting in Guardians of the Galaxy: A Qualitative Gricean Analysis2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Communication was developed about 70,000 years ago. Since then, our communication methods have evolved from sounds to grammatical languages, humor, and conversational principles like Grice’s cooperative principle. The researcher analyzed whether the characters Quill, Gamora, and Rocket from Marvel’s Guardians of the Galaxy followed Grice’s principle. The researcher did this by posing two research questions to the material: What maxims were flouted by the characters in the film, and in what ways were they flouted? Are there any differences between what maxims the characters flouted and how they flouted them? The researcher also examined whether humor was part of the Guardian's communications. The analysis was conducted systematically, where the first step wastranscribing the material from the movie. Then, the non-observances were identified and categorized using event trees and cell charts. The Guardians are a diverse mix of characters from different backgrounds, cultures, and planets. One issue with Grice’s model is that it does not consider that people from different backgrounds, cultures, and planets have other notions of how to speak and not. This study confirmed some of these limitations with the theory. The study concluded that the characters flouted all the maxims in different ways, and humor was related to maxim flouting.

  • 20.
    Elgemark, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Mollstedt, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Changing English, Changing Challenges: The Work of Teaching English in a Context of Diverse Experiences2021In: Engaging with Work in English Studies: An Issue-based Approach / [ed] Alastair Henry & Åke Persson, Cham: Springer, 2021, p. 151-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, teachers of English are facing new challenges. As a language and as a school subject, English is in a process of transformation. Learners’ encounters with English are constantly changing, resulting in classrooms where experiences are diverse and proficiency levels vary widely. In such contexts, teachers’ professional development becomes increasingly important. This chapter draws attention to the need to include and promote language awareness as a central element in the education of preservice teachers learning the work of teaching English. With language awareness firmly cemented as a part of an English teacher’s professional practice, and with working approaches that emphasize both function and form, students can better become equipped as speakers and users of English in a globalized world.

  • 21.
    Eliasson, Mia E.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    “That Summer”: Memory, Trauma, and the Partition in Clear Light of Day2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Fjällhage, Jonathan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Asså det du hör och gör påverkar liksomhur du pratar"2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate Swedish students' use of code-switching between the Swedish and English language, in relation to their involvement or interest in extramural activities. Their own views and attitudes on the topic as well as their reasons for code-switching will also be investigated in the study. The study is based on a qualitative method of research, in which semi-structured interviews were used. The participants in this study consisted of 17 students (in four focus groups) from three different secondary schools in southern Sweden. Fundamental factors connected to the study are code-switching, extramural activities,  borrowing as well as loanwords and the theory on which the study is based is called  accommodation theory. The results of the study show that the majority of total occurrences of students' use of code-switching, belonged to the word class of nouns. Other findings indicate that students use code-switching for social reasons, efficient communication and external factors, in which the situational context as well as the social context have a significant role. Many of the code-switched occurrences could also be attached to a specific extramural activity or interest. The study show that when discussing extramural activities, students frequently code-switch both consciously and unconsci ously as well as adapt their use of language, in order to make themselves understood.

  • 23.
    Forsberg, Julia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Department of Languages and Communication, Jönköping, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, Gothenburg, Sweden; Stockholm University, Department of Swedish and Multilingualism, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ribbås, Maria Therese
    Stockholm University, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gross, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. University of Gothenburg, Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Self-assessment and standard language ideologies: bilingual adolescents in Sweden reflect on their language proficiencies2020In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 137-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard language cultures are characterised by beliefs in idealised standard forms of the language in question. In this paper, these beliefs are connected to the concepts of referee design and speech community, through analysis of how Swedish adolescents reflect upon and self-assess their language proficiencies. The data consist of interviews where 111 participants self-assess their Swedish, English and additional home languages. During the self-assessment, participants use different points of reference when reflecting on the different languages in their repertoires. Four main categories of answers are found, all relating to an absent referee in some manner: the participants' evaluations of other people's language proficiency compared to their own; their proficiency in other languages; their evaluation of their proficiency in relation to formal grading and feedback given in school; and their own experiences of their limitations and abilities in different situations. When assessing Swedish, participants display attitudes towards 'good' and 'bad' language and contextualise their proficiency in a way that focuses on standard language ideologies and their speech community. The same pattern does not occur when participants reflect on their other languages, indicating the important role that the peer group and speech community have in creating and facilitating these ideologies.

  • 24.
    Goddard, Angela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. York St John University, Languages and Linguistics.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Mondor, Monika
    Gothenburg University.
    Van Der Laaken, Manon
    University of Amsterdam.
    Have you ever been to England? You know, they speak really weird English there'.: Some implications of the growth of English as a global language for the teaching of English in the UK2013In: English in Education, ISSN 0425-0494, E-ISSN 1754-8845, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 79-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes two inter-related research projects concerned with the teaching and learning of English in contemporary contexts, where English is changing its status from being the first language of specific groups of speakers to becoming a global lingua franca. Focussing respectively on learners of English as a second language (L2 users) in the Netherlands and Sweden, and on native speakers (L1 users) in the UK, our research reveals what English as a lingua franca means to some of its European users, and considers ways for L1 teachers and learners to remain connected internationally.

  • 25.
    Gross, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Segregated vowels: Language variation and dialect features among Gothenburg youth2018In: Language Variation and Change, ISSN 0954-3945, E-ISSN 1469-8021, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 315-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of housing segregation on variation in the vowel systems of young speakers of Swedish who have grown up in different neighborhoods of Gothenburg. Significant differences are found for variants of the variables /i:/ and /y:/, which are strongly associated with the local dialect; these two vowels also exhibit coherence. Another vowel pair, /.:/ and /o:/, are involved in a coherent leveling process affecting many of the central Swedish dialects but differing in degree of openness in different neighborhoods of Gothenburg. The results show that the variation is not simply a reflection of foreign background, nor of groups of youth adopting single variants; rather, a number of social factors conflate in housing segregation, which interferes with the transmission of more abstract aspects of the local dialect’s vowel system to young speakers in certain neighborhoods.

  • 26.
    Gross, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Boyd, Sally
    Sweden: Suburban Swedish2022In: Urban contact dialects and language change: Insights from global north and south / [ed] Paul Kerswill, Heike Wiese, London: Taylor & Francis, 2022, 1., p. 246-263Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract for the whole book:

    This volume provides a systematic comparative treatment of urban contact dialects in the Global North and South, examining the emergence and development of these dialects in major cities in sub-Saharan Africa and North-Western Europe.

    The book’s focus on contemporary urban settings sheds light on the new language practices and mixed ways of speaking resulting from large-scale migration and the intense contact that occurs between new and existing languages and dialects in these contexts. In comparing these new patterns of language variation and change between cities in both Africa and Europe, the volume affords us a unique opportunity to examine commonalities in linguistic phenomena as well as sociolinguistic differences in societally multilingual settings and settings dominated by a strong monolingual habitus.

    These comparisons are reinforced by a consistent chapter structure, with each chapter presenting the linguistic and social context of the region, information on available data (including corpora), sociolinguistic and structural findings, a discussion of the status of the urban contact dialect, and its stability over time. The discussion in the book is further enriched by short commentaries from researchers contributing different theoretical and geographical perspectives.

    Taken as a whole, the book offers new insights into migration-based linguistic diversity and patterns of language variation and change, making this ideal reading for students and scholars in general linguistics and language structure, sociolinguistics, creole studies, diachronic linguistics, language acquisition, anthropological linguistics, language education and discourse analysis.

  • 27.
    Gross, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Forsberg, Julia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Weak Lips? A Possible Merger of /i/ and /y:/ in Gothenburgh2020In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 77, p. 268-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study investigates a possible merger in the early stages between /i:/ and /y:/ among young speakers in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    METHODS: (1) A large-scale online perception experiment testing listeners' abilities to identify the two vowels and (2) acoustic analysis of 705 vowels from 19 speakers.

    RESULTS: The perception study shows that listeners classify the horizontally centralized /y:/ as /i:/, both in isolated vowel items and in items containing the full word. This indicates that /y:/ is moving into the perceptual space of /i:/. Listeners also classify the unmerged /y:/ as /i:/ when listening to [y:] in isolation, indicating that lip rounding is a perceptually weak feature, for this centralized vowel, in this variety. The acoustic analysis shows that /i:/ tends to be produced as [ɨ:], and that there is no acoustic difference between /i:/ and /y:/ in measurements correlated with the first two formants, i.e. lip rounding is the most important distinctive feature.

    CONCLUSION: Results point in the direction of an incipient vowel merger, following a merger-by-approximation model. These results indicate a lack of perceptual strength of an articulatory feature in the disappearing phoneme, namely lip rounding, and the consequent perceptual similarities between the horizontally centralized [ɨ:] and /y:/.

  • 28.
    Gunston, Elizabeth
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Ehrenholm, Elina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Translanguaging och dess förutsättningar i svenska förskolor: Pedagogers arbetssätt kring flerspråkiga barns språkutveckling2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Den etniska och språkliga mångfalden i Sverige har stadigt ökat under de senasteåren. Detta innebär att det finns allt fler barn som talar ett annat modersmål än svenska inskrivnapå våra förskolor. Enligt barnkonventionen, som blev svensk lag i januari 2020, har alla barnrätt till sitt språk (Unicef Sverige, 2018). Sveriges förskolor måste vara förberedda på att geförutsättningar för att kunna utveckla ett nyanserat talspråk, ordförråd och ett intresse iskriftspråk på svenska (Läroplan för förskolan [Lpfö18], 2018, s. 14). Barn skall också gesmöjligheten att utveckla sitt modersmål om de har ett annat modersmål än svenska (Läroplanför förskolan [Lpfö18], 2018, s.14). Användandet och stödjandet av translanguaging i praktikenhar lyfts fram som ett sätt att kunna göra detta. I den här studien undersöks hur olika förskolori Västsverige arbetar kring flerspråkiga barns språkutveckling. På vilka sätt stöds barnens olikaspråk av pedagogerna och förekommer translanguaging på något sätt?Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur pedagoger arbetar med flerspråkiga barnsspråkutveckling i relation till läroplanens mål gällande svenskan såväl som modersmål.Metod: Studien genomfördes på fyra olika förskolor med ett etnografiskt angreppssätt, därobservationer och fältanteckningar har använts som datainsamlingsmetod. En tematisk analysanvändes för att bearbeta det insamlade materialet.Resultat: Resultaten visade att pedagogerna använde sig av olika arbetssätt för att utvecklabåde svenska och modersmålet. Pedagogerna arbetade på ett språkmedvetet sätt i bådeplanerade och spontana undervisningar, såväl som vardagliga rutiner såsom måltider ochinomhuslek. Detta skapade möjligheter för barn att utveckla förmågor i alla sina språk.Observationerna visade också att pedagogerna tillämpade flera olika translanguaging strategieroch i många fall hade en uttryckt strävan att inkludera barns modersmål i verksamheten. 

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  • 29.
    Hagman, Gustav
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Acting Against Principles: How the violation of conversation rules in dialoguecreates a clever TV character2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the use of violations of conversation principles in the written dialogue of Tyrion Lannister in Game of Thrones. The aim is to establish if and how these violations aid in making him seem clever. The character's dialogues are matched against three theoretical principles: Politeness Theory, The Cooperative Principle and Turn-taking Principles. The findings suggest that by breaking basic principles of conversation, Tyrion provides entertaining dialogue and manages to create unexpected solutions to different threatening situations. Results show an even distribution of strategic violations, among the three theoretical approaches, which could suggest that the dialogue is consciously written to help make the audience feel impressed by the character's features. Tyrion's violations of conversation principles is a contribution in what makes him seem witty. This ability in the character seems to be closely linked to a lack of fear for any negative social consequences. The character's ability to act free from rules of social behavior could be considered one of the reasons behind his popularity among fans of the show.

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  • 30.
    Hasan, Dania
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The effects of sarcasm in American Late Night TV shows: A qualitative study2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have been done on sarcasm in late night TV shows in relation to Politeness Theory and the concept of face by Brown and Levinson (1987). This qualitative essay aims to fill that void by examining Gordon Ramsay’s sarcastic utterances aimed at Sofia Vergara during an interview on  The Tonight Night Show With Jay Leno and study the effect of said utterances through the lens of Politeness Theory, specifically, the concept of face. The aim is achieved by studying utterances made by Gordon Ramsay towards Sofia Vergara and analysing their impact on her. The findings show that Gordon Ramsay uses face threatening acts (Brown and Levinson, 1987) to make sarcastic comments with intention to be funny. Furthermore, Ramsay’s sarcastic comments prove to have both positive and negative effects, seeing as Vergara responds with both amusement and disapproval depending on the level of threat in Ramsay’s utterances.

  • 31.
    Heidari, Enzo
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Between Words and Gender: A Linguistic Appraisal of Mel Medarda in Arcane2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the animated series, Arcane, with a particular emphasis on the character ofMel and her linguistic strategies in navigating intricate gender dynamics. Centered on theconcept of appraisal analysis, the study reveals how Mel’s dialogue not only serves as a narrative device but also challenges traditional gender norms. Using a linguistics-centric methodology, thepaper elucidates how Mel’s language — saturated with judgment, appreciation, and affect —offers a lens into the series’ multifaceted exploration of femininity, power structures, and personal agency. The research methods encompass a character-focused perspective, linguistic analysis, thematic coding and QR codes. Key findings spotlight Arcane’s prowess in portraying female characters who wield power gracefully, exhibit emotions without portraying them as vulnerabilities, and participate in a wide spectrum of relationships. Such portrayals actively defy gender conventions, showcasing women with depth and complexity in storytelling. However,while lauding the series for its progressive portrayal, the paper also acknowledges the careful balance required to ensure that character depth does not unintentionally fall into superficial ortrope-laden pitfalls. In conclusion, Arcane serves as a captivating piece of entertainment and anotable reference in the discussion of gender representation, reinforcing the power of media in molding societal perspectives on gender dynamics. 

  • 32.
    Henriksson, Samuel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Station 19 and Black Lives Matter: A critical discourse analysis2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the TV series Station 19, which is a series about a group of firefighters in Seattle, and its characters through a critical discourse analysis. The aim of the critical discourse analysis is to find how the characters within the series convey their opinions on power relations and what their feelings are towards this. Furthermore, the study aims to find whether the language used by the characters is used in order to promote, or oppose, social change within the series. When critically analysing the discourse, the results of the analysis show that there are several characters that both oppose and support social change within the series and how they convey these opinions. Additionally, the analysis reveals a clear hegemony that exists within the series that benefits the characters that are white, and not the characters of colour.

  • 33.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    A collection of contradictory selves: The dialogical self and the dynamics of identity transformation2021In: Complexity perspectives on researching language learner and teacher psychology / [ed] R. Sampson & R. Pinner, Multilingual Matters, 2021, p. 234-251Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Att vara ett global medborgare: skapandet av språkliga identiteter i och utanför skolan2014In: Att förstå ungdomars identitetsskapande: en inspirations- och metodbok / [ed] Sorbring, Emma, Andersson, Åsa & Molin, Martin, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, 1, p. 276-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet beskrivs språk som en kontext, och fokus är på identitetsskapande som kan kopplas till inlärning av främmande språk och språkanvändning.

  • 35.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Challenges in bridging between cultures of English experience2019In: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, p. 289-313Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Contexts of possibility in simultaneous language learning: using the L2 Motivational Self System to assess the impact of global English2010In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 149-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation in simultaneous L2 learning situations is an area of research largely overlooked and studies from contexts where people are engaged in learning more than one L2 are rare. In their large-scale Hungarian research, Dornyei, Csizer and Nemeth found that pupils' positive attitudes to one L2 could cause interferences with attitudes to others, with English being the greatest source of such interference. In this article it is suggested that, as an alternative to interference, Markus and Nurius' theory of the working self-concept may offer a theoretically more coherent explanation for between-language effects in situations of simultaneous learning. Using a specially designed instrument, three hypotheses were tested for a sample of Swedish pupils actively engaged in learning two L2s. First, it was hypothesised that learners would have separate L2 self-concepts as speakers of different L2s, secondly, that FL self-concepts would be interpreted negatively in relation to English self-concepts and, finally, that a high degree of FL-to-English negative self-concept referencing would be associated with low FL motivation. Whilst tentative support was found for all three hypotheses, with negative effects of English being most noticeable among boys, the results need to be followed up by further research employing more exacting methodologies.

  • 37.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Digital games and ELT: bridging the authenticity gap2013In: International perspectives on motivation: language learning and professional challenges / [ed] Ushioda, Ema, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1, p. 133-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I will suggest that in cultural contexts such as Sweden where English is an integral part of young people’s everyday lives and is encountered and used in a range of out-of-school domains, a particular challenge facing teachers is not so much generating motivation to succeed in long-term competency goals, but rather engaging students in day-to-day classroom activities. Based on the idea that self-authenticity can have a motivating force (Gecas 1991; Vannini 2006; Vannini and Burgess 2009) and drawing on James Paul Gee’s recent work on affinity spaces (Gee 2005; Hayes and Gee 2010), I will argue that teachers of English need to create learning opportunities where students can experience the types of creative and self-relevant interaction commonplace in digital gaming. This does not mean that teachers should look to leisure-time domains with an eye to the wholesale import of youth culture content into the classroom, but, rather, that greater scope should be given to aesthetic and personal expression in activity design. In arguing that there is a growing authenticity gap between the English students learn in school and the English they use outside, I will begin the chapter by looking at the sorts of things young people in Sweden do in their free time.

     

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  • 38.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Directed Motivational Currents: Extending the Theory of L2 Vision2019In: The Palgrave Handbook of Motivation for Language Learning / [ed] Lamb, Martin; Csizér, Kata; Henry, Alastair; Ryan, Stephen, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 139-161Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the idea of directed motivational currents (DMCs), and maps out the conceptual antecedents. Explaining how the construct is an extension of Dörnyei’s theory of L2 vision, it describes the components and phenomenology of DMCs. It explains how DMCs differ from peak experiences of optimal functioning conceptualized in Csikszentmihalyi’s theory of flow, how energy is directed by a self-concordant goal coupled with a matching vision of success, and how in a DMC conscious self-regulation is unnecessary. The chapter explains how DMCs can function at individual and group levels. In light of research findings, the validity of the construct is examined. The chapter explains how the DMC construct provides a template for understanding enduring motivation, and a framework for focused interventions in language classrooms.

  • 39.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Enablements and constraints: Inventorying affordances associated with lingua franca English2016In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 488-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcultural flows of capital, culture and communication have created conditions for the widespread movement of people around the globe, leading to increasing diversity in countries of destination. In contexts of global migration lingua franca English is indispensable in initial and survival communication. For migrants to northern European countries where lingua franca English functions as a 'contact language' in 'contact zone encounters', it is of value not only as a communication medium, but also as a resource for learning typologically similar host-country languages. Drawing on the concept of affordances, the purpose of this study is to create an inventory of the ways in which English can facilitate, but also constrain social interaction and the acquisition of Swedish. Interviews conducted with 14 recently arrived migrants with English in their repertoires revealed the presence of enabling and constraining affordances in social, classroom, material and cognitive domains. Discussing the study findings, it is suggested that the ways in which the individual attunes to an affordance associated with English, perceiving it as either enabling or constraining, is dependent on their current motivational and affective state and in-the-moment cognitive processing

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  • 40.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Examining the impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A case study2011In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 235-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous L2 (English) and L3 (Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves approach was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a larger dataset (n=101). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis techniques. In analysing the data Markus and Nurius’ (1986) theory of the working self-concept was used to examine experiences of and cognitive responses to the presence of L2 English in L3 learning situations. The results indicate that for these individuals an L2 English self-concept is an active constituent with a referential function in working self-concepts activated in L3 learning situations. To offset the potentially negative effects of the incursion of L2 English, some of the individuals recruited different forms of positive self-knowledge into the working self-concept. For one participant the powerful referential effect of English was such that it became difficult to sustain a viable L3-speaking/using self. The results suggest that the inclusion of a working self-concept component in possible selves motivational research may be methodologically rewarding, particularly in multilingual settings and/or where contextual or process factors are in focus.    

  • 41.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Gender differences in compulsory school pupils' L2 self-concepts: A longitudinal study2009In: System, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 177-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Gender differences in L2 motivation: A reassessment2011In: Gender Gap: causes, experiences & effects / [ed] Davies, Samuel A., New York: Nova Science , 2011, p. 81-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Along with aptitude, motivation is the primary determiner of learning outcomes in second language (L2) learning. Widely regarded as an activity especially suited to girls, empirical studies from different sociocultural contexts have, with few exceptions, revealed systematic gender differences in L2 motivation. In particular, gender differences are most apparent in relation to establishing an affinity with other L2 speakers, the ability and willingness to identify with the values associated with L2 ethnolinguistic communities and a lack of ethnocentricity. Together these attributes have been categorized as integrativeness (Gardner, 1985). Explanations for observed gender differences vary and, other than a general recognition of the impact of social norms and gender role expectations, no overarching theoretical explanation has yet been attempted. Given the recent paradigm shift in the conceptualization of L2 motivation from a social psychological approach based on identifications with other groups of speakers, to one based on the learner’s internal identification of a future language speaking ‘self’, a timely opportunity is presented to review previous findings. Following an initial discussion of the paradigm shift in L2 motivation theory and the role of gender in conceptions of the self, the literature on the gender gap in integrativeness is reviewed through the lens of self-related theories. A tentative explanation for observed differences that synthesizes the results of previous research and is theoretically consistent with a self approach is proposed. Drawing on the work of, amongst others, Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver and Surrey (1991), Markus and Kitayama (1991) and Cross and Madson (1997) it is suggested that gender differences can be understood in relation to processes involving the construction and construal of selves, where the selves of males are characterized by independence whilst those of females emphasize interdependence.

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  • 43.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    L2 Motivation and Multilingual Identities2017In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 548-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By tradition, L2 motivation research has a monolingual bias – the motivational systems of a learner’s different languages conceptualized as separate entities rather than as cognitively interconnected. At a time when multilingualism has become a new world order (Douglas Fir Group, ) and where there is evidence of powerful identity experiences connected to speaking several languages (Pavlenko, ) this is unfortunate. In alignment with the multilingual and dynamic turns in SLA (de Bot, ; May, ), and adopting a complexity thought modeling approach (Larsen–Freeman & Cameron, ), this article explores multilingual learners’ L2 motivation. It is suggested that the motivational systems of a multilingual learner’s different languages can be understood as constituting a higher-level multilingual motivational self system that is part of an ecology of interconnected and interpenetrating systems. This system contains multilingual self guides, one of which is the ideal multilingual self. Drawing on construal-level theory (Trope & Liberman, ), the manner and effects of mental representations of an ideal multilingual self are assessed. Finally, it is suggested that motivation deriving from a broader identity that encompasses but, in important ways, transcends a multilingual person’s language-specific identities has a central role to play in multilingual education.

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  • 44.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    L3 Motivation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to study secondary school students' motivation to learn a second foreign language in addition to English. In addition to the empirical investigation of L3 motivation over a program of study and the testing of the widely-held assumption that L2 English impacts negatively on L3 motivation, the aim was also to contribute to the conceptual development of self-based motivation theory by examining the evolution and development of language-speaking/using selves, and by addressing the issue of interference between different self-guides.  In Studies I and II the L3 motivational trajectories of two samples of secondary school students (n=532, n=169) were mapped across grades 4 – 6 (Study I) and grades 6 – 9 (Study II), with a particular focus on differences in the trajectories of girls' and boys' ideal language-speaking/using selves. The results of Studies I and II revealed a pattern where initial gender differences, although remaining stable after a year of learning, thereafter follow different developmental paths. While boys' ideal L3 selves declined by the end of grade 9, girls' ideal L3 selves became stronger. Although a similar pattern was found for L2 English selves, the gender gap here was not as marked.  In Study III the hypothesis that, as a result of negative cross-referencing between ideal L2 and ideal L3 selves, L2 English would have a negative effect on L3 motivation was tested in a sample of 9th grade students (n= 101). Analysis of the data indicates that students are aware of the ideal L2 English self in L3 learning situations and support was found for the hypothesised negative effect on L3 motivation, with the impact being stronger among boys. In Study IV the hypothesised processes of negative cross-referencing were examined in a series of in-depth interviews with four participants selected using a maximum variation sampling strategy. Analysis of the data revealed that when cross-referencing takes place, some students seem to invoke counteracting resources. In the discussion of the findings it is suggested that, rather than interference, competition may provide a conceptually more coherent descriptor of the processes of cognition that take place in the working self-concept when more than one possible language self is active. The implications of the findings for theoretical development are discussed in relation to both qualitative applications of the L2 Motivational Self System (Dörnyei, 2005), and the proposed ID component in the Dynamic Model of Multilingualism (Herdina & Jessner, 2002). Finally, the educational implications of the findings are discussed and a series of proposals for classroom interventions are put forward

  • 45.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Learner–environment adaptations in multiple language learning: casing the ideal multilingual self as a system functioning in context2020In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple language learning has been largely neglected in L2 motivation research. Recently, complexity principles have been used to model multilingual motivation. In this work, multilingual self-guides are conceptualised as emergent from interactions between the motivation systems of different languages. Motivational systems and their emergent properties are also influenced by the contexts in which acquisition takes place. In this interview-based study in a Swedish secondary school setting, the ideal multilingual self is explored as 'a system functioning in context'. Focusing on the ways in which multilingual identities and the social contexts of multilingualism co-evolve, analyses show how the school environment shapes and is shaped by emergent identities. The importance of multi-scalar designs is highlighted, and the contribution of motivation research to sustainable multilingual education is discussed.

  • 46.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Motivational connections in language classrooms: A research agenda2021In: Language Teaching, ISSN 0261-4448, E-ISSN 1475-3049, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 221-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With roots in social psychology, second language (L2) motivation has largely been investigated using self-report techniques. Studies drawing on observational data gathered in contexts where learning takes place are rare, and understandings of how motivation evolves in classroom interactions remain limited (Boo, Dörnyei, & Ryan, 2015). In a position paper in Language Teaching, Ushioda (2016) maps out an agenda for qualitative research examining motivation that emerges in language classrooms. With a focus on psycholinguistic processes, and with the aim of understanding how motivation 'connects with specific aspects of second language acquisition [and] particular features of linguistic development', Ushioda makes the case for researching L2 motivation 'through a small lens' (p. 564). Furthering this agenda, I make proposals for research with a relational focus where, through a somewhat wider lens, motivation and engagement generated through connections created by teachers in their classroom practice can be investigated. To frame these proposals, I use the concept of connective instruction (Martin & Dowson, 2009). Connective instruction holds that motivation and engagement increase when students can connect with the teacher as a person, with content that the teacher enables them to get involved with, and with the working methods that the teacher promotes. Copyright © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press.

  • 47.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Lund University, Center for Languages and Literature, Lund (SWE).
    Multilingualism and persistence in multiple language learning2023In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 183-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For language learners who aspire to become multilingual, commitment involves a personal journey. Defining persistence as a preoccupation with goal-focused action directed to a desired future state and drawing on research from cognitive psychology and the mental time travel paradigm, this article presents an identity-based framework of persistence in multiple language learning. In the framework, persistence is supported through the operation of 3 interconnecting processes: (a) the generation of personally meaningful goals aimed at becoming multilingual, (b) the conjuring of mental images that represent states, events, and values associated with being multilingual, and (c) the integration of representations of multilingualism within an unfolding personal history. To illustrate these processes, data from online sources and research literature exploring language learners’ narrative biographies is used. The relevance of the framework is critically assessed in relation to (a) the development of interventions supporting motivation for foreign language learning, (b) the exploration of motivational processes through narrative-based inquiry, and (c) the varying linguistic, social, and societal contexts in which multiple language learning takes place. © 2023 The Authors. The Modern Language Journal published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations, Inc.

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  • 48.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Online Media Creation and L2 Motivation: A Socially Situated Perspective2019In: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 372-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies are increasingly common in language learning. Online media creation provides scope for agency and spaces for identity construction, but empirically grounded conceptualizations of the influences on learners' motivation are lacking and the digital technology–second language motivation interface remains largely unexplored. Using a grounded theory ethnographic approach (Charmaz,2006), and with the aim of developing a theoretical account of the emergence of motivation in online media creation, this study investigated a blog project in an English language classroom in Sweden. Engaging with multiple data sources, and using Ito and colleagues' (2010) theory of participation in media practices as an analytical framework, motivation is conceptualized as stemming from the desire to create a visually appealing and authentic artefact, from a perception of audience, and through the documentation of identities. Variations in motivational intensity between student groups could betraced to varying investments in digital media practices. Primarily, differences were between validation-seeking that was locally oriented and validation-seeking conditioned through actions within a genre of practice. These conceptualizations are of importance for English language teaching. In language-developing activities that involve online media creation, motivation can be enhanced when space for genre exploration is provided

  • 49.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Rewarding foreign language learning: effects of the Swedish grade point average enhancement initiative on students' motivationto learn French.2017In: Language learning journal, ISSN 0957-1736, E-ISSN 1753-2167, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 301-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reinstate interest and motivation for learning foreign languages (FLs) other than English, the Swedish government has recently reformed the admissions system to higher education. Upper secondary students who continue with the FL learnt in secondary school are rewarded with extra credits that considerably enhance their grade point average (GPA). The purpose of this interview-based study is examine the impact this initiative has on the choices of 6 upper secondary students to continue with their FL, French, and on their motivation over one and a half semesters of study. Using self-determination theory and Dörnyei’s (2009a) L2 Motivational Self System model as analytical lenses, results reveal that for the three students whose motivation is rooted in intrinsic and/or self-determined extrinsic reasons for learning, the GPA-enhancing credits have little or no impact on either choice or effortful behaviour. For the other three students, none of whom, but for the extra credits, would have chosen to continue with French, the GPA-enhancement is almost the sole source motivation. However, because their reasons for studying French are not fully self-determined, learning lacks personal meaning. These students see little longer-term value in their efforts, nor meaningful applications for the skills they have developed. Consequently, goals do not extend beyond achieving a passing grade. The effects of making a fifth and sixth year of FL learning de facto compulsory on students’ willingness to use the FL in the future and on their FL-speaking/using self-concepts are discussed, and the consequences of the initiative are critically appraised.

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  • 50.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Swedish or English?: Migrants' experiences of the exchangeability of language resources2016In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 442-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which languages and language varieties are differently valued. In a Swedish context, where lingua franca English can facilitate communication but where monolingual norms prevail and Swedish is positioned as the key to 'integration', the purpose of this study is to examine English-speaking migrants' experiences of opportunities to use Swedish and English in communication. Interviews were conducted with 14 recently arrived migrants with English in their repertoires. Drawing on participants' experiences of language use in institutional contexts, analyses focus on the influence of value assessments, orientations to ideal-type norms, processes of self-surveillance and the effects of discursive positionings. While migrants' language choices are understood as a consequence of structural conditions, attention is also drawn to the ways in which such choices are flexibly negotiated. Analyses shed light on participants' creative and critical capacities and how, in their language choices, they evaluate, relate to and resist macro-social structures. Different varieties of English are shown to offer different communicative opportunities and not all are equally exchangeable. Opportunities to use English also differ as a consequence of the intersections of discursive positionings.

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