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  • 1.
    Abelin, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet, Avdelningen för lingvistik, logik och vetenskapsteori.
    The perceptual weight of word stress, quantity and tonal word accent in Swedish2018In: Phonology in Protolanguage and Interlanguage / [ed] Babatsouli, Elena & Ingram, David, Sheffield: Equinox Publishing, 2018, p. 316-341Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wherever migration or travelling takes place, people need to learn new languages. This learning entails a variety of interlanguages. Irrespective of whether you are a learner or a teacher of a language, you need to decide how to allocate time and effort for learning and teaching into developing different sub-skills of the language. Four skills are considered in second language teaching and learning; listening, reading, speaking and writing. Proficiency in speaking requires sub-competences, such as pragmatic competence, fluency or making a clear pronunciation. Even having each of these sub-competences for speaking require having sub-skills. For example, to have a "good" pronunciation, one needs to well realise segmental features: phonemes, phonotactics, assimilations, and prosodic features: rhythm and intonation. Most of the time, young children learning their first language (L1) as well as additional languages (L2's) acquire these pronunciation skills without formal training and often reach a native-like speech also in additional languages. By contrast, adult learners of an additional language seldom reach nativelikeness in their pronunciation of the language. However, ideally, they still can achieve a fluent, intelligible and well-received pronunciation of the language. The present paper is concerned with the pronunciation of Swedish as an additional language, in particular, three phonemic prosodic contrasts, namely stress contrast, quantity contrast and tonal word accent contrast. We attempt to find out, among these three prosodic contrasts, which is more crucial than the others for making one's speech intelligible. That is, if the second language learner cannot acquire all of them perfectly, which of them should be given more priority in learning and teaching Swedish pronunciation? We also want to study whether or not a pronunciation lacking one or two of these contrasts can still be well understood.

  • 2.
    Adolphs, Svenja
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Clark, Leigh
    University College Dublin, School of Information and Communication Studies, Dublin, Ireland.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Glover, Tony
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Muir, Christine
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Sánchez-Lozano, Enrique
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Valstar, Michel
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Digital innovations in L2 motivation: Harnessing the power of the Ideal L2 Self2018In: System (Linköping), ISSN 0346-251X, E-ISSN 1879-3282, Vol. 78, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustained motivation is crucial to learning a second language (L2), and one way to support this can be through the mental visualisation of ideal L2 selves (Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014). This paper reports on an exploratory study which investigated the possibility of using technology to create representations of language learners' ideal L2 selves digitally. Nine Chinese learners of L2 English were invited to three semi-structured interviews to discuss their ideal L2 selves and their future language goals, as well as their opinions on several different technological approaches to representing their ideal L2 selves. Three approaches were shown to participants: (a) 2D and 3D animations, (b) Facial Overlay, and (c) Facial Mask. Within these, several iterations were also included (e.g. with/without background or context). Results indicate that 3D animation currently offers the best approach in terms of realism and animation of facial features, and improvements to Facial Overlay could lead to beneficial results in the future. Approaches using the 2D animations and the Facial Mask approach appeared to have little future potential. The descriptive details of learners' ideal L2 selves also provide preliminary directions for the development of content that might be included in future technology-based interventions.

  • 3.
    Alenius, Filippa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "I Can't Help What's Past!": Mourning and Melancholia in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to present Nick's, Gatsby's and Daisy's relations to their pasts, as they have the strongest connections to their previous history. In particular focus will be on what constitutes their losses from a psychoanalytic perspective, and the Freudian framework of mourning and melancholia will be applied. In his work from 1917, Freud claimed that both mourning and melancholia are responses to loss. However, mourning is seen as the healthy and conscious response to loss, whereas melancholia is a pathological and paralyzing response. Therefore, I interpret the novel as an exploration of how the different attitudes towards loss affect the main characters and their relation to the future.

    As this essay will show, both Nick and Daisy display mourning, in contrast to Gatsby who represents the more pathological state of melancholia. This results in Gatsby's unwillingness to let go of the past, and causes his obsession with having it repeated. Nick and Daisy, on the other hand, have an awareness of their losses, which eventually leads to an acceptance and therefore detachment from what they have lost.

    In Chapter One, a few of the critical readings of the novel that are relevant for the essay will be summarized, as well as a deeper explanation of Freud’s framework and his theory regarding mourning and melancholia. An introduction to the Lost Generation will also be provided, together with modernism and the American Dream, as they deepen the understanding for the novel’s historical and societal context and connect with the themes of loss, mourning and melancholia.

  • 4.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Jyväskylä universitet.
    Barns uppfattningar om språk: en studie av samtal om språk med barn på en finskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Sverige och en svenskspråkig daghemsavdelning i Finland2017In: Nordand 13: Abstrakt, 2017, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande studie om barns uppfattningar om språk utgör en del av ett större forskningsprojekt (Child2ling 2013–2017) som studerar uppfattningar om tvåspråkighet kring barn. Projektet Child2ling är finansierat av Finlands akademi och har Jyväskylä universitet som huvudman. Följande studie syftar till att jämföra små barn i Finland och Sveriges (3–5 år) egna uppfattningar om språk. Forskningsfrågorna är sålunda:• Vilka uppfattningar om språk, språkbruk och flerspråkighet uttrycker tvåspråkiga barn (3–5 år) på en finskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Sverige sinsemellan och i interaktion med forskaren?• Vilka uppfattningar om språk, språkbruk och flerspråkighet uttrycker tvåspråkiga barn (3–5 år) på en svenskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Finland sinsemellan och i interaktion med forskaren?Studiens fältarbete skedde i två olika steg. Det första steget var etnografiskt och det andra steget bestod av olika "lek-metoder" som syftade till att stimulera samtalsämnet "språk" mellan mig och barnen. De etnografiska observationerna och fältanteckningarna analyserades med diskursanalytiskt anslag genom begreppen interaktiv agens (Nijnatten 2013) och historisk kropp (Scollon och Scollon 2004). Inspelningarna och transkriptionerna av samtalen har analyserats med samtalsanalytiska verktyg (Lindström 2014). Detaljanalyser av interaktionen möjliggjorde en högre grad av validering än vad som är möjligt via analys av observationer och fältanteckningar.Det preliminära resultatet visar ingen skillnad mellan barnens uppfattningar om språk mellan de olika länderna. De kontextuella aspekter som aktualiseras i samtal och utsagor är knutna till samtalet som sådant och till barnens närmiljö. Den främsta uppfattningen som barnen uttrycker är att språkkunskap är likställd med annan kunskap.

  • 5.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Children's beliefs about bilingualism and language use as expressed in child-adult conversations2017In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communiciation, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 401-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe young children's beliefs about language and bilingualism as they are expressed in verbal utterances. The data is from Swedish-medium preschool units in three different sites in Finland. It was generated through ethnographic observations and recordings of the author's interactions with the children. The meaning constructions in the interactions were analyzed mainly by looking closely at the participants' turn taking and conversational roles. The results show that children's beliefs of bilingualism are that you should use one language when speaking to one person; that languages are learnt through using them; and that the advantage of knowing more than one language is being able to talk to (other) people. The results also show that this knowledge of languages is no different from other knowledge within their world. This will probably change over time as the children enter school, and it is something in which our presence as language researchers will have played a part.

  • 6.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. University of Jyväskylä.
    Where communication flows, languages swim freely: developing fieldwork methods for investigating preschool children's language beliefs2015In: AFinLAn vuosikirja, E-ISSN 2343-2608, no 73, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I reflect on methodological aspects to take into consideration when developing methods for investigating three- to five-year-old children's beliefs about language, language use and bilingualism. I analyze participant observations and notes taken in the field. The study focuses on bilingual Finnish-Swedish children in Swedish-medium preschools in Finland. At one of the schools, most of the children and I did not share a common language, so the interaction between us heightened both the children's language awareness and that of my own. This drew my attention to communicative aspects of embodiment and multimodality and to the distribution of responsibility for interaction. I detected two interaction orders in which children's agency stood out in their intention to make their voice heard, and I used my experiences to develop an ethically-oriented data-generating approach to enhance communication about communication.

  • 7.
    Amin, Alan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Men det beror på vem det kommer ifrån: En undersökning om skällsorden i skolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Skällsord har alltid använts av människan såvitt man vet och förekommer i alla språk, hos alla åldrar och i alla socialgrupper. Interjektioner av dessa slag har olika typer av funktion och mening beroende på vad sändaren vill förmedla. Beroende på omfattning, val av kraftuttryck och vid vilka tillfällen man väljer att använda svordomarna, blir de lämpliga respektive olämpliga. Forskning visar att uttrycken har förändrats, brett ut sig och försvunnit genom århundraden. Svordomarna förekommer oftast i det formella språket där orden är tabubelagda och har ett "förbud" över sig, men förekommer även i det informella språket då de har en viktig funktion för sändaren att förmedla exempelvis känslor på ett lekfullt sätt. I skolmiljön är skällsord inget undantag. I denna uppsats har jag valt att använda skällsord som en övergripande term för både invektiv och svordomar, men ibland har jag när det varit nödvändigt valt att skilja dem åt. Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka vilka skällsord som används i skolan. Uppsatsen kommer även att undersöka elevers attityder till skällsord och vad det har för betydelse för ungdomars språk och relationer till varandra. Metod: Enkätundersökningar.

  • 8.
    Andersson Hval, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    New Zealand/Aotearoa: Choosing an Identity2013In: Postcolonial texts and events: cultural narratives from the English-speaking world / [ed] Andersson Hval, Ulrika, Henry, Alastair & Bergström, Catharine Walker, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1. uppl., p. 261-292Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Andersson Hval, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Henry, AlastairUniversity West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.Walker Bergström, CatharineUniversity West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Postcolonial texts and events: cultural narratives from the English-speaking world2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Andersson Hval, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Stibe, Anna
    The Immigrant Girl and the Western Boyfriend: The Romance Plot in Young Adult Novels of Migration2016In: ESSE messenger, ISSN 2518-3567, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 122-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore a recurring motif in a number of young adult novels centered around the experiences of immigrant girls and their adjustment to life in a new country. The integration process appears to belinked to the girls’ relationships with boys from the majority culture, making romance a central element of the girls’ development of a new identity and sense of belonging in the new country. We will examine the intersections of gender and integration by focusing on the narrative voices of immigrant girls in three contemporary novels, Sarah Darer Littman’s Life, After (2010), Sarah Crossan’s The Weight of Water(2012), and Terry Farish’s The Good Braider (2012).

  • 11.
    Aronsson, Agda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Olsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lärande för förändring: en normkritisk analys av läromedel i svenskämnet på gymnasiet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Svenska impulser 1, 2 och 3 är kurslitteratur som används på en gymnasieskola i Sverige. Kurslitteraturen möjliggör för läraren att låta arbetet växla mellan lärarnas egen planering och efter läroböckernas upplägg, vilket i sin tur underlättar lärarens planeringsarbete. Utifrån skolans värdegrund om ett jämlikt klassrum har en studie gjorts för att ta reda på hur läroböcker förhåller sig till olika maktrelationer som kan påträffas i samhället. Med avstamp i Wineburgs (2001) teori om hur information presenteras i läroböcker, samt Kumashiros (2002) lära om vikten av normkritik i klassrummet.

    Syfte: Då litteraturen ska finnas för att underlätta lärarens arbete, är syftet med denna uppsats att ta reda på huruvida vald serie av läroböcker på egen hand möjliggör för ett normkritiskt lärande som utmanar maktrelationer, utan att lärarens roll spelar in. Analysen fokuserar på att ta reda på om det normkritiska perspektivet genomsyrar inkluderingsarbetet i läroböckerna eller om arbetet slutar i vad Bromseth (2010) kallar toleranspedagogik.

    Metod: En normkritisk analys har gjorts av läroböckernas diskussionsfrågor och skrivuppgifter för att ta reda på vilka möjligheter serien ger till samtal och lärande om samhälleliga maktstrukturer.

    Resultat: Resultatet påvisar en typisk struktur i berörda läromedel där informationen presenteras enligt Wineburgs (2001) teori. Den presenteras som en sanning utan att ifrågasättas, vilket därmed förstärker de rådande normer som serien berör. Det finns ställen där försök till inkluderingsarbete kan urskiljas, men informationshanteringen, kombinerat med diskussionsfrågorna där ett kritiskt förhållningssätt saknas, resulterar i det som Bromseth (2010) kallar för toleranspedagogik, vilket istället förstärker rådande normers maktstrukturer.  

  • 12.
    Asplund Carlsson, Maj
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Barn- och ungdomslitteratur som samhällsspegel2018In: Barn- och ungdomsvetenskap: grundläggande perspektiv / [ed] Johansson, Thomas & Sorbring, Emma, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, p. 192-204Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Avedissian, Nairi
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The language use and its change of three Disney princesses from three different generations2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Disney princess franchise is one of the most successful brands in the world and has a powerful influence on children and their behaviour.

    The aim of this research was to examine what stereotypical women's language is present in three Disney princess movies (Cinderella, Beauty and the Beast and Brave) and to see if there has been a shift in the language use. The three selected movies are from three different generations (1937-1959, 1989-1992 and 2009-2013).

    The features that were analysed include hedges, tag questions, questions, commands and directives, empty adjectives, politeness and compliments. A mixed method of both qualitative and quantitative research was used to acquire the data.

    Although the newer princess showed some usage of stereotypical women's speech, there was a vast difference to the two older princesses' speech. The third generation movie presents a princess who uses more assertive language and was more deviating towards using politeness in her speech. Overall, the two older princesses uttered a larger frequency of features that are categorized as stereotypical women's speech, making their speech appear more uncertain. The newer princess, on the other hand, used more definite language. Although some features that are traditionally viewed as women's speech are used more by the new princess, like questions, it is important to consider the content of the features. When analysing the content of the feature, it shows that a feature is not necessarily indefinite solely because it is related to typical women's speech.

  • 14.
    Bergström Walker, Catharine
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Narrative ethics and intuition of the infinite: E. L. Doctorow's gnostic hope for the postmodern era2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bunting, Leona
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied Information Technology.
    Lindström, Berner
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Framing English learning at the intersection of school and out-of-school practices2013In: Journal of International Scientific Publications: Language, Individual & Society, ISSN 1313-2547, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 205-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an early age Swedish students typically use and learn English as a second language in out-of-school contexts, for example when watching TV and video clips and playing computer games online. This is an important premise for learning English in school. It is hence of interest to understand relations between learning in and out of school, especially considering the digitalization of Swedish schools and new media technologies becoming available for all students.

    This study aims at describing students’ accounts of learning English in out-of-school contexts and their reasoning of how this learning relates to learning English in school. The data consists of interviews with 47 eleven-year-olds. Goffman’s concept of framing is used as an analytic tool. The results are presented in terms of two dimensions of reasoning; Accepted and Non-Accepted Language Learning Environments and Language Learning as Intention or Side-Effect. Results on what environments students regard as important for learning English are also reported.

  • 16.
    Byegård, Emilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Ämnesövergripande arbete i en ämnesindelad kontext: En kvalitativ studie om ämnesövergripande arbete utifrån Lgr 11 och progressivistisk teori2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Studien tar avstamp i läroplanens formuleringar om ämnesövergripande arbete samt de idéer om ämnesövergripande arbete som finns inom progressivismen. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka det ämnesövergripande arbetets roll i undervisningen och hur läroplanen påverkar det ämnesövergripande arbetet. Syftet är också att undersöka svenskämnets roll i ämnesövergripande undervisning. Metod: Studien är en intervjustudie. I studien har 7 lärare medverkat och svarat på frågor om sin ämnesövergripande undervisning. Resultat: Intervjuerna har visat på att lärarna ofta har tydligt definierade gränser mellan ämnena i ämnesövergripande arbetsområden. De sättet lärarna i studien arbetar ämnesövergripande på, är överlag inte karaktäristiskt för progressivismen. Lärarna i studien begränsas och påverkas framförallt av det centrala innehållet, när de planerar och arbetar med ämnesövergripande arbetsområden. Svenskämnets roll i det ämnesövergripande arbetet är till stor del att vara ett hjälpämne. Det innebär att svenskämnet ofta får en erfarenhetspedagogisk form. Däremot kan de tydliga ämnesgränserna leda till att svenskämnet får ett tydligare ämnesinnehåll i de ämnesövergripande arbetsområdena, vilket i så fall också skulle kunna påverka ämnets konception mot att bli mer av ett färdighetsämne.

  • 17.
    Börjesson, Sanna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Mr Holmes? Please, call me Sherlock: Narrative structures and characterisations in A Study in Scarlet and its adaptation "A Study in Pink"2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Chaimungkhun, Linda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The Human Attempt to Dominate Nature in Richard Adams' Watership Down2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Chan, Letty
    et al.
    University of Nottingham.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    School of English, University of Nottingham.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Learner archetypes and signature dynamics in the language classroom: A retrodictive qualitative modelling approach to studying L2 motivation2014In: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, p. 238-259Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the use of ‘retrodictive qualitative modelling’ (RQM), a novel approach described for L2 research by Dörnyei (2014) that involves the identification of learner archetypes and motivational patterns in empirical research. The method reverses the traditional way of conducting research; it first examines the outcome – that is, the end-states – and then traces back the developmental trajectories leading to this outcome. Situated in a Hong Kong secondary school, we started our project by first asking a teacher focus group to identify salient learner archetypes in their classrooms (Years 7 to 9), and on the basis of these we then conducted in-depth interviews with one prototypical learner from each group. As a result, we gained insights into the ‘signature dynamics’ of the motivational system associated with each prototype. Our focus in this chapter is on evaluating RQM in action. First we report on the processes in which teachers identified learner archetypes and thereafter offer an in-depth analysis of the system dynamics of one of these students. In the final discussion, we list the main methodological lessons that we have learnt from applying RQM.

  • 20.
    Dahlin, Martin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Gender and Power Distribution in George R.R. Martin’s A Feast for Crows2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Danielsson, Anneli
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Harry Potter and the Importance of Blood-Status: A Comparative Study of Race in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows and The Third Reich2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, School of English, United Kingdom .
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Muir, Christine
    University of Nottingham, School of English, United Kingdom .
    Motivational currents in language learning: Frameworks for focused interventions2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on Zoltán Dörnyei's authoritative work in the field of learner motivation, this book introduces a new conceptualization-Directed Motivational Currents (DMCs)-and sets out the defining aspects of what they are, what they are not, and how they are related to language learning motivation. Going beyond focused behavior in a single activity, DMCs concern intensive long-term motivation. The distinctive feature of the theory is that it views motivation not simply as a springboard for action but also as a uniquely self-renewing and sustainable process. It is this energizing capacity which distinguishes DMCs from almost every other motivational construct described in the research literature. Motivational Currents in Language Learning offers new insights, valuable both to motivation researchers and classroom practitioners. The accessible style, along with plentiful illustrations and practical suggestions for promoting sustained learning, invite readers to think about motivation in a different way. Highly relevant for language teachers, teachers-in-training, teacher educators, and researchers in TESOL and applied linguistics, the book explains how the DMC construct can be integrated into course structures and teaching methodologies, and encourages teachers to try out novel methods for harnessing motivational power in classroom settings. © 2016 Taylor and Francis

  • 23.
    Dörnyei, Zoltán
    et al.
    School of English, University of Nottingham.
    MacIntyre, Peter D.Cape Breton University.Henry, AlastairUniversity West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Motivational dynamics in language learning2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Dörnyei, Zoltán
    et al.
    School of English, University of Nottingham.
    McIntyre, Peter D.
    Cape Breton University.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Introduction: Applying Complex Dynamic Systems Principles to Empirical Research on L2 Motivation2014In: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, p. 1-7Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Edlund, Tina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass: A Poetic Paradox in Search of American Individualism2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of Ralph Waldo Emerson on Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass is well known; equally well known are the traces of the Transcendentalist philosophy concerning nature. But Whitman expands upon both these influences as he developed his own individualism based on solidarity rather than independence. Whitman's take on individualism permeates all parts of Leaves of Grass, including the aesthetics. The aesthetics were up for much contemporary debate as the book seemed to lack traditional poetic structure and form. However, this was not the case as this study shows. In light of the sociopolitical climate in America when Leaves of Grass was first published, there was a demand for change from within literary circles. This need to create a new American spirit was called for by Emerson among others. Leaves of Grass was the response. In his book of poetry, Whitman develops a new American spirit with the intention of encouraging the American people to seek individual solitude; although, in this innovative individualism there is a paradox revealed: one must connect with each other and find social belonging at the same time as being self-reliant to have true liberating individualism. Also, the aesthetics in Leaves of Grass does show traces of traditional structure. However, the form is altered to represent Whitman's new innovative individualism. Thus, this study shows that the influences of Emerson and the transcendentalists are evident, but Whitman develops his own individualism in support of America, and in this lies a paradox. Whitman's first-person "I" becomes a representation of this paradox in Whitman's individualism, as well as a symbol for his solidarity towards his people: the united American people.

  • 26.
    Evin, Demirsoy
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Sexual Bullying and Cyberbullying in Jay Asher's Thirteen Reasons Why2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Fjällhage, Jonathan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Asså det du hör och gör påverkar liksomhur du pratar"2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate Swedish students' use of code-switching between the Swedish and English language, in relation to their involvement or interest in extramural activities. Their own views and attitudes on the topic as well as their reasons for code-switching will also be investigated in the study. The study is based on a qualitative method of research, in which semi-structured interviews were used. The participants in this study consisted of 17 students (in four focus groups) from three different secondary schools in southern Sweden. Fundamental factors connected to the study are code-switching, extramural activities,  borrowing as well as loanwords and the theory on which the study is based is called  accommodation theory. The results of the study show that the majority of total occurrences of students' use of code-switching, belonged to the word class of nouns. Other findings indicate that students use code-switching for social reasons, efficient communication and external factors, in which the situational context as well as the social context have a significant role. Many of the code-switched occurrences could also be attached to a specific extramural activity or interest. The study show that when discussing extramural activities, students frequently code-switch both consciously and unconsci ously as well as adapt their use of language, in order to make themselves understood.

  • 28.
    Goddard, Angela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. York St John University, Languages and Linguistics.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Mondor, Monika
    Gothenburg University.
    Van Der Laaken, Manon
    University of Amsterdam.
    Have you ever been to England? You know, they speak really weird English there'.: Some implications of the growth of English as a global language for the teaching of English in the UK2013In: English in Education, ISSN 0425-0494, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 79-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes two inter-related research projects concerned with the teaching and learning of English in contemporary contexts, where English is changing its status from being the first language of specific groups of speakers to becoming a global lingua franca. Focussing respectively on learners of English as a second language (L2 users) in the Netherlands and Sweden, and on native speakers (L1 users) in the UK, our research reveals what English as a lingua franca means to some of its European users, and considers ways for L1 teachers and learners to remain connected internationally.

  • 29.
    Hagman, Gustav
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Acting Against Principles: How the violation of conversation rules in dialoguecreates a clever TV character2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the use of violations of conversation principles in the written dialogue of Tyrion Lannister in Game of Thrones. The aim is to establish if and how these violations aid in making him seem clever. The character's dialogues are matched against three theoretical principles: Politeness Theory, The Cooperative Principle and Turn-taking Principles. The findings suggest that by breaking basic principles of conversation, Tyrion provides entertaining dialogue and manages to create unexpected solutions to different threatening situations. Results show an even distribution of strategic violations, among the three theoretical approaches, which could suggest that the dialogue is consciously written to help make the audience feel impressed by the character's features. Tyrion's violations of conversation principles is a contribution in what makes him seem witty. This ability in the character seems to be closely linked to a lack of fear for any negative social consequences. The character's ability to act free from rules of social behavior could be considered one of the reasons behind his popularity among fans of the show.

  • 30.
    Heldner, Christina
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Odysseus Elytis' To Axion Esti i svensk tolkning och med förord av Christina Heldner2017Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Heldner, Christina
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Poesins makt och Historiens fasor: En essä om Odysseus Elytis och hans stora diktcykel To Axion Esti2017Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Hellström, Martin
    University West, Administration .
    Alexander i den tyskspråkiga medeltida tradiionen2018In: Alexanderlegenderna i tid och rum: Alexander den stores gränslösa historia / [ed] Hult, Karin & Vidén, Gunhild, Stockholm: Appell förlag , 2018, p. 187-202Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Contexts of possibility in simultaneous language learning: using the L2 Motivational Self System to assess the impact of global English2010In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 149-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation in simultaneous L2 learning situations is an area of research largely overlooked and studies from contexts where people are engaged in learning more than one L2 are rare. In their large-scale Hungarian research, Dornyei, Csizer and Nemeth found that pupils' positive attitudes to one L2 could cause interferences with attitudes to others, with English being the greatest source of such interference. In this article it is suggested that, as an alternative to interference, Markus and Nurius' theory of the working self-concept may offer a theoretically more coherent explanation for between-language effects in situations of simultaneous learning. Using a specially designed instrument, three hypotheses were tested for a sample of Swedish pupils actively engaged in learning two L2s. First, it was hypothesised that learners would have separate L2 self-concepts as speakers of different L2s, secondly, that FL self-concepts would be interpreted negatively in relation to English self-concepts and, finally, that a high degree of FL-to-English negative self-concept referencing would be associated with low FL motivation. Whilst tentative support was found for all three hypotheses, with negative effects of English being most noticeable among boys, the results need to be followed up by further research employing more exacting methodologies.

  • 34.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Digital games and ELT: bridging the authenticity gap2013In: International perspectives on motivation: language learning and professional challenges / [ed] Ushioda, Ema, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1, p. 133-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I will suggest that in cultural contexts such as Sweden where English is an integral part of young people’s everyday lives and is encountered and used in a range of out-of-school domains, a particular challenge facing teachers is not so much generating motivation to succeed in long-term competency goals, but rather engaging students in day-to-day classroom activities. Based on the idea that self-authenticity can have a motivating force (Gecas 1991; Vannini 2006; Vannini and Burgess 2009) and drawing on James Paul Gee’s recent work on affinity spaces (Gee 2005; Hayes and Gee 2010), I will argue that teachers of English need to create learning opportunities where students can experience the types of creative and self-relevant interaction commonplace in digital gaming. This does not mean that teachers should look to leisure-time domains with an eye to the wholesale import of youth culture content into the classroom, but, rather, that greater scope should be given to aesthetic and personal expression in activity design. In arguing that there is a growing authenticity gap between the English students learn in school and the English they use outside, I will begin the chapter by looking at the sorts of things young people in Sweden do in their free time.

     

  • 35.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Enablements and constraints: Inventorying affordances associated with lingua franca English2016In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 488-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcultural flows of capital, culture and communication have created conditions for the widespread movement of people around the globe, leading to increasing diversity in countries of destination. In contexts of global migration lingua franca English is indispensable in initial and survival communication. For migrants to northern European countries where lingua franca English functions as a 'contact language' in 'contact zone encounters', it is of value not only as a communication medium, but also as a resource for learning typologically similar host-country languages. Drawing on the concept of affordances, the purpose of this study is to create an inventory of the ways in which English can facilitate, but also constrain social interaction and the acquisition of Swedish. Interviews conducted with 14 recently arrived migrants with English in their repertoires revealed the presence of enabling and constraining affordances in social, classroom, material and cognitive domains. Discussing the study findings, it is suggested that the ways in which the individual attunes to an affordance associated with English, perceiving it as either enabling or constraining, is dependent on their current motivational and affective state and in-the-moment cognitive processing

  • 36.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Examining the impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A case study2011In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 235-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous L2 (English) and L3 (Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves approach was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a larger dataset (n=101). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis techniques. In analysing the data Markus and Nurius’ (1986) theory of the working self-concept was used to examine experiences of and cognitive responses to the presence of L2 English in L3 learning situations. The results indicate that for these individuals an L2 English self-concept is an active constituent with a referential function in working self-concepts activated in L3 learning situations. To offset the potentially negative effects of the incursion of L2 English, some of the individuals recruited different forms of positive self-knowledge into the working self-concept. For one participant the powerful referential effect of English was such that it became difficult to sustain a viable L3-speaking/using self. The results suggest that the inclusion of a working self-concept component in possible selves motivational research may be methodologically rewarding, particularly in multilingual settings and/or where contextual or process factors are in focus.    

  • 37.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Gender differences in compulsory school pupils' L2 self-concepts: A longitudinal study2009In: System, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 177-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Gender differences in L2 motivation: A reassessment2011In: Gender Gap: causes, experiences & effects / [ed] Davies, Samuel A., New York: Nova Science , 2011, p. 81-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Along with aptitude, motivation is the primary determiner of learning outcomes in second language (L2) learning. Widely regarded as an activity especially suited to girls, empirical studies from different sociocultural contexts have, with few exceptions, revealed systematic gender differences in L2 motivation. In particular, gender differences are most apparent in relation to establishing an affinity with other L2 speakers, the ability and willingness to identify with the values associated with L2 ethnolinguistic communities and a lack of ethnocentricity. Together these attributes have been categorized as integrativeness (Gardner, 1985). Explanations for observed gender differences vary and, other than a general recognition of the impact of social norms and gender role expectations, no overarching theoretical explanation has yet been attempted. Given the recent paradigm shift in the conceptualization of L2 motivation from a social psychological approach based on identifications with other groups of speakers, to one based on the learner’s internal identification of a future language speaking ‘self’, a timely opportunity is presented to review previous findings. Following an initial discussion of the paradigm shift in L2 motivation theory and the role of gender in conceptions of the self, the literature on the gender gap in integrativeness is reviewed through the lens of self-related theories. A tentative explanation for observed differences that synthesizes the results of previous research and is theoretically consistent with a self approach is proposed. Drawing on the work of, amongst others, Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver and Surrey (1991), Markus and Kitayama (1991) and Cross and Madson (1997) it is suggested that gender differences can be understood in relation to processes involving the construction and construal of selves, where the selves of males are characterized by independence whilst those of females emphasize interdependence.

  • 39.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    L2 Motivation and Multilingual Identities2017In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 548-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By tradition, L2 motivation research has a monolingual bias – the motivational systems of a learner’s different languages conceptualized as separate entities rather than as cognitively interconnected. At a time when multilingualism has become a new world order (Douglas Fir Group, ) and where there is evidence of powerful identity experiences connected to speaking several languages (Pavlenko, ) this is unfortunate. In alignment with the multilingual and dynamic turns in SLA (de Bot, ; May, ), and adopting a complexity thought modeling approach (Larsen–Freeman & Cameron, ), this article explores multilingual learners’ L2 motivation. It is suggested that the motivational systems of a multilingual learner’s different languages can be understood as constituting a higher-level multilingual motivational self system that is part of an ecology of interconnected and interpenetrating systems. This system contains multilingual self guides, one of which is the ideal multilingual self. Drawing on construal-level theory (Trope & Liberman, ), the manner and effects of mental representations of an ideal multilingual self are assessed. Finally, it is suggested that motivation deriving from a broader identity that encompasses but, in important ways, transcends a multilingual person’s language-specific identities has a central role to play in multilingual education.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-08-26 12:59
  • 40.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Rewarding foreign language learning: effects of the Swedish grade point average enhancement initiative on students' motivationto learn French.2017In: The Language Learning Journal, ISSN 1753-2167, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 301-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reinstate interest and motivation for learning foreign languages (FLs) other than English, the Swedish government has recently reformed the admissions system to higher education. Upper secondary students who continue with the FL learnt in secondary school are rewarded with extra credits that considerably enhance their grade point average (GPA). The purpose of this interview-based study is examine the impact this initiative has on the choices of 6 upper secondary students to continue with their FL, French, and on their motivation over one and a half semesters of study. Using self-determination theory and Dörnyei’s (2009a) L2 Motivational Self System model as analytical lenses, results reveal that for the three students whose motivation is rooted in intrinsic and/or self-determined extrinsic reasons for learning, the GPA-enhancing credits have little or no impact on either choice or effortful behaviour. For the other three students, none of whom, but for the extra credits, would have chosen to continue with French, the GPA-enhancement is almost the sole source motivation. However, because their reasons for studying French are not fully self-determined, learning lacks personal meaning. These students see little longer-term value in their efforts, nor meaningful applications for the skills they have developed. Consequently, goals do not extend beyond achieving a passing grade. The effects of making a fifth and sixth year of FL learning de facto compulsory on students’ willingness to use the FL in the future and on their FL-speaking/using self-concepts are discussed, and the consequences of the initiative are critically appraised.

  • 41.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Swedish or English?: Migrants' experiences of the exchangeability of language resources2016In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 442-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which languages and language varieties are differently valued. In a Swedish context, where lingua franca English can facilitate communication but where monolingual norms prevail and Swedish is positioned as the key to 'integration', the purpose of this study is to examine English-speaking migrants' experiences of opportunities to use Swedish and English in communication. Interviews were conducted with 14 recently arrived migrants with English in their repertoires. Drawing on participants' experiences of language use in institutional contexts, analyses focus on the influence of value assessments, orientations to ideal-type norms, processes of self-surveillance and the effects of discursive positionings. While migrants' language choices are understood as a consequence of structural conditions, attention is also drawn to the ways in which such choices are flexibly negotiated. Analyses shed light on participants' creative and critical capacities and how, in their language choices, they evaluate, relate to and resist macro-social structures. Different varieties of English are shown to offer different communicative opportunities and not all are equally exchangeable. Opportunities to use English also differ as a consequence of the intersections of discursive positionings.

  • 42.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Swedish students’ beliefs about learning English in and outside of school2014In: Motivation and Foreign Language Learning: from theory to practice / [ed] David Lasagabaster, Aintzane Doiz, Juan Manuel Sierra, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 93-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden students’ encounters with English in and out of school are very different. Spending around 20 hours per week in English-mediated environments outside of school, they are often engaged in richly meaningful activities. Consequently, many young people believe they learn as much of their English as a result of participation in English-mediated leisure time activities as they do from textbook-dominated classroom instruction. Drawing on emerging discussions on the ways in which learners’ beliefs about the primacy of learning English in natural environments can have negative effects on learning behaviours in formal settings (e.g. Mercer & Ryan, 2010), and how learners’ beliefs about the causes of success in language learning can impact on motivation (e.g. Hsieh, 2012), this chapter examines the ways in which such beliefs may impact on Swedish students’ responses to classroom learning. Further, in view of the fact that beliefs about the context in which English is mostly acquired differ substantially between girls and boys, the chapter examines the ways in which gender differences in the nature of self-regulation can impact on students’ beliefs.

  • 43.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The ‘Burden’ and the Darkness: The British Empire and Colonialism2013In: Postcolonial Texts and Events: Cultural Narratives from the English-Speaking World / [ed] Andersson Hval, Ulrika, Henry, Alastair & Bergström, Catharine Walker, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 15-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The Dynamics of L3 Motivation: A Longitudinal Interview /Observation-Based Study2014In: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, p. 315-342Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning a third language (L3) in school is a common experience for students in countries all over the world, particularly in Europe where a central aim of European Union educational policy is the development of multilingualism (Cenoz & Jessner, 2000; European Commission, 2005, 2008). Common language combinations, as for example in the Scandinavian countries, are English as the initial instructed foreign language (the L2) with French, German or Spanish (the L3) introduced at a later stage. The simultaneous learning of more than one foreign language (FL) has begun to attract the interest of motivation researchers, with findings pointing to the popularity of English (Csizér & Dörnyei, 2005; Csizér & Lukács, 2010) and indicating that, comparatively, motivational trajectories for L3s show a markedly steeper decline (Henry, 2009). There is also evidence that L3 motivation is prone to greater fluctuation, both gradual and dramatic (Mercer, 2011) and that, in competition for the learner’s time and resources, L2 English can have negative effects on L3 motivation (Henry, 2010, 2011, 2014; Mercer, 2011).

       As Cameron and Larsen-Freeman (2007: 227) note, complexity theory approaches that reject linear scenarios and focus on the webs of interactions taking place within and between dynamic systems, seem to resonate with ‘the problem spaces of applied linguistics’. One particular ‘problem space’ where complex dynamic systems (CDS) theories can usefully be applied is in third language acquisition. The acquisition of a third language involves greater degrees of complexity than in situations when only one new language is in focus as it is necessary to account for the interactions between different language systems in the learner’s mind (Herdina & Jessner, 2002; Jessner, 2006, 2008). This means that, in addition to all of the individual difference factors recognised in SLA, in third language acquisition the evolution of a language system will also be dependent on the development and behaviour of other parallel language systems (Jessner, 2008).    

       With the aim of examining the motivational dynamics of six Swedish students learning French as an L3, this chapter reports on findings from a series of semi-structured interviews and classroom observations conducted over a nine-month period. The chapter begins with an overview of some of the CDST concepts used when engaging with the data, and concludes with a reflection on some of the methodological challenges encountered in this type of research.

  • 45.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The Dynamics of Possible Selves2014In: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, p. 83-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dörnyei’s recasting of L2 motivation as a process of self-discrepancy has not only generated scores of journal articles and book chapters focusing on the motivational effects of L2 self-guides, but through practitioner-oriented publications (Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014; Gregersen & MacIntyre, 2013; Hadfield & Dörnyei, 2013) the Ideal L2 Self is beginning to find its way into motivational practices in the classroom. Widely recognised as potentially powerful generators of motivation, ideal L2 selves risk however being conceptualized as static constructs, fixed ‘targets’ that the individual strives to achieve or live up to. Such a view does not fit easily with the current trend in SLA towards the application of dynamic approaches. For this reason an elaboration of the dynamics of possible selves seems timely.

       In this chapter I explore two important dynamic processes. First I look at the ways in which ideal L2 selves are upward- and downwardly revised as a result of assessments of the likelihood of their achievement. I then consider processes in which changes in language speaking/using self-guides are triggered as a consequence of interactions with other self-concepts. While the identification of this first type of dynamic stems from the notion that, during a period of learning (long or short), the learner’s goalposts are likely to shift, the second is a development of the long-held recognition that motivated behaviours do not take place in relative isolation, but are shaped by the other ongoing activities in which the learner is engaged (Dörnyei, 2005; Ushioda, this volume). Before looking at these two processes, I begin by outlining three aspects of complex dynamic systems (CDS) theory of particular importance in developing an understanding of self-guide dynamics. These are, respectively, changes to attractor states, system connectedness and timescales.

  • 46.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The motivational effects of cross-linguistic awareness: developing  third language pedagogies to address the negative impact  of the L2 on the L3 self-concept2014In: Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1750-1229, E-ISSN 1750-1237, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning a third language (TL) brings with it particular pedagogical demands. In the pedagogy of TL learning now emerging, the development of students' metalinguistic and crosslinguistic awareness is of central importance. In particular, emphasis is placed on the benefits of cross-referencing with supporter languages. While comparisons with supporter languages have been shown to facilitate L3 production, recent research suggests that cross-referencing with the L2 may be detrimental to motivation. In the current study, 21 students learning L2 English and L3 German or Spanish were interviewed about comparisons involving L3 and L2 self-concepts. Results revealed that nearly all of the students were aware of making such comparisons. A number, however, had developed strategies to counteract the potentially detrimental effect that comparisons with the L2-speaking/using self-concept can have on L3 motivation. It is argued here that in emerging pedagogies of L3 learning proper account needs to be taken of cognitive and affective individual difference factors. In particular, as a means of offsetting the negative impact that a high-status supporter language can have on the learner's L3 self-concept, students should be made aware of the problem and helped to develop and make use of counteracting strategies.

  • 47.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Tredjespråksinlärning och motivation2016In: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] C. Bardel, Y. Falk och C. Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2016, p. 165-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Why can’t I be doing this in English instead?: An interview study of the impact of L2 English on girls’ and boys’ L3 selves2011In: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial International Gender and Language Association Conference IGALA 6, 18-20 September, Tokyo / [ed] Maree, Claire & Satoh, Kyoko, Tokyo: Tsuda College , 2011, p. 126-139Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has been very little research on L3 motivation, it would appear that the gender divergences commonly found in L2 motivation are also apparent when a third foreign language is learnt. In a previous analysis of quantitative data Henry (2010a) found an inverse relationship between i) the extent to which students compared the L3-speaking/using self-concept with the L2 English-speaking/using self-concept, and ii) L3 motivation. Further, this effect was stronger for boys. In an attempt to shed light on these gender differences, interview data from students with differing motivational profiles were analysed using the theoretical framework of the working self-concept (Markus & Nurius, 1986; Markus & Kunda, 1986). The results suggest that, for these students, the L2 English self-concept is frequently invoked in L3 learning situations and that it has a referential function. Whilst the girls interviewed appeared to be able to offset the impact of L2 English by creating cognitive barriers and recruiting positive L3-related self-knowledge, the boys seemed to rely more on forms of self-knowledge that emphasize a capacity for hard work and determination. For some of the boys the pervasive impact of L2 English meant however that it was impossible to sustain a viable L3 self-concept.  

  • 49.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    The Impact of Out-of-School Factors on Motivation to Learn English: Self-discrepancies, Beliefs, and Experiences of Self-authenticity2017In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 713-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    English is today learnt in multitudes of settings worldwide, making it difficult to characterize relationships between motivation and context in generalized terms (Ushioda 2013). In settings where students have extensive encounters with English outside school, a reluctance to invest effort in formal learning has been observed. To investigate ways in which out-of-school encounters impact on motivation, questionnaire data was obtained from 116 upper secondary students in Sweden. Structural equation modelling was used to test a series of hypotheses generated from emerging research into language learners identities, beliefs and self-authenticity appraisals. Results revealed that, compared to reference studies from settings where English lacks similar prominence, the Ideal L2 Self accounted for substantially less of the explained variance on a criterion measure. This can be accounted for by the limited discrepancy between current and ideal L2 selves. Results also indicate that beliefs about the efficacy of learning in natural environments have a negative impact on motivation in school, and that appraisals of self-authenticity may have a similar effect, although methodological challenges make this contention difficult to substantiate.

  • 50.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Davydenko, Sofia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Dörnyei, Zoltán
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    The Anatomy of Directed Motivational Currents: Exploring Intense and Enduring Periods of L2 Motivation2015In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 329-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of articles Dörnyei and his colleagues (Dörnyei, Ibrahim, & Muir, 2015; Dörnyei, Muir, & Ibrahim, 2014; Muir & Dörnyei, 2013) describe the phenomenon of a period of intense and enduring motivation in pursuit of a highly desired personal goal or vision. These surges of motivational energy, which they call Directed Motivational Currents (DMCs), uniquely differ from other types of highly motivated behaviour or optimal forms of engagement that are to be found in the literature in the sense that individual learning activities form integrated parts of a coherent motivational superstructure. The current article offers the first systematic empirical investigation of this motivational phenomenon. Focusing on periods of unusually intense and enduring motivation experienced by migrant learners of Swedish as a second language, the purpose of this interview-based study is to consider whether core characteristics of DMCs can be identified in participants’ descriptions of sustained motivated behaviour, thereby considering the validity of the DMC construct. Results reveal that motivated behaviour is characterised by features similar to those outlined by Dörnyei and colleagues, namely the presence of a salient facilitative structure, the generation of positive emotionality, and the direction of motivated behaviour toward long-term identity investment goals. This indicates that the DMC construct captures a unique form of motivation worthy of future investigation.

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