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  • 1.
    Adebahr, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och informatik, Avd för informatik.
    Andersson, Victor
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och informatik, Avd för informatik.
    Övervakning: Var går gränsen?: En studie av lastbilschaufförer som arbetar i Bohuslän och hur de ser på IT som hjälpmedel och övervakning på jobbet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag implementeras övervakningstjänster allt mer i olika verksamheter, särskilt inom transportbranschen. Implementeringen av övervakningstjänster möjliggör en bättre säkerhet och effektivare arbetsgång i form av att man som företag kan se bränsleförbrukning, lastbilars position och planera rutter utifrån leveransplats. Vi ville få kunskap om hur man övervakar anställda inom andra branscher och hur de anställda reagerar på övervakningen och utförde därför en bakgrundsundersökning där vi läste olika fallstudier från bland annat hemtjänsten, försäljningsbranschen och grundskolan. Vår frågeställning blev var går gränsen för acceptabel övervakning? Vi besvarade den genom att utföra intervjuer i två omgångar med tio respektive sex chaufförer som körde för företag i Bohuslän samt via en bakgrundsundersökning. Några chaufförer hade kort arbetserfarenhet och några längre, några chaufförer arbetade för större företag och några för mindre. På så sätt kunde vi se om deras svar skiljde sig utifrån antal år i branschen och eller storlek på företag. Resultatet av intervjuerna jämfördes därefter med bakgrundsundersökningen och resultatet vi kom fram till var att lastbilschaufförer numera accepterar att de blir övervakade via positioneringstjänster för att det leder till en effektivare ruttplanering. Chaufförerna anser även att det är bra att deras chefer kan se hur de kör. Genom att kunna se över sin förbrukning och hur man kör så möjliggörs en körstil som innebär mindre drivmedelsutgifter för företaget. Chaufförerna som arbetar i Bohuslän är också väl medvetna att tjänsterna krävs för att kunna konkurrera med utländska åkerier som kör för en billigare kostnad.Chaufförerna tyckte också att så länge övervakning var av relevant karaktär som driver företaget i rätt riktning anses det vara i sin ordning. Med relevant karaktär menade chaufförerna att företaget övervakar hur deras arbete flyter på och hur man kan effektivisera företaget utan att kränka deras personliga integritet. Efter vi jämfört våra intervjusvar med den bakgrundsundersökning vi utfört så kom vi fram till att. Lastbilschaufförer generellt sett har mer lojala åsikter för sitt företag än övriga yrken som vi haft med i vår undersökning.Nyckelord: Övervakning, lojala arbetare, IT-system, konkurrens

  • 2.
    af Geijerstam, Emelie
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wedenberg, Emelie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Menyers effektivitet och användbarhet på webben2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, everything is expected proceed quickly, easily and smoothly. This also applies to websites on the Internet. When you visit a website, you want thewebsite to be easily accessible and you also want to find what you are looking for quickly. It is therefore important that the menu is easy to navigate. The menu is very important for the experience of the website, as you use the menu to navigate through the website. The menu will guide users through the website, will help them plan their actions, will determine where they are and will help them find their way back if they would get lost.In this study, we have created and designed a website with menus of four different types. Our study is based on a number of theories about cognition, perception,usability and effectivity together with theories about how to create a good menu. We will use these theories in our study to determine which of the menus is the most effective. To find out which menu is the most effective, test participants were asked to conduct a usability test. During the usability test, we tested the effectivity of themenus by measuring the amount of time required by the test participants to perform different tasks, as well as how many clicks were required and how frustrated the test participants became. Then, we compared how the different menus performed inrelation to each other. The test participants were also asked to respond to aquestionnaire where they subjectively described their thoughts on the menus.Our results from this study can be used as guidelines when choosing which type of menu to use on a website, where navigation is expected to be as effective as possible.Our results show that the horizontal menu is the most effective one of the different menus we have tested. However, which menu is the most effective in a given situation or on a given website depends on many factors, and thus, the horizontal menu is not always preferable to use on every website.

  • 3.
    Aghaee, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm.
    Jobe, William
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Karunaratne, Thashme
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tedre, Matti
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Interaction Gaps in PhD Education and ICT as a Way Forward: Results from a Study in Sweden2016Inngår i: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 360-383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many research studies have highlighted the low completion rate and slow progress in PhD education. Universities strive to improve throughput and quality in their PhD education programs. In this study, the perceived problems of PhD education are investigated from PhD students' points of view, and how an Information and Communication Technology Support System (ICTSS) may alleviate these problems. Data were collected through an online open questionnaire sent to the PhD students at the Department of (the institution's name has been removed during the double-blind review) with a 59% response rate. The results revealed a number of problems in the PhD education and highlighted how online technology can support PhD education and facilitate interaction and communication, affect the PhD students' satisfaction, and have positive impacts on PhD students' stress. A system was prototyped, in order to facilitate different types of online interaction through accessing a set of online and structured resources and specific communication channels. Although the number of informants was not large, the result of the study provided some rudimentary ideas that refer to interaction problems and how an online ICTSS may facilitate PhD education by providing distance and collaborative learning, and PhD students' self-managed communication.

  • 4.
    Ahlinder, André
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Jerner, Marcus
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    viljan att dela med sig: En undersökning i svenska användares delningsvanor på Facebook.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work researches what motivates swedish Facebook users to pass along and share

    information on Facebook, their attitude towards shared information and what affects this behavior. The goal of this thesis is to research todays behavior and motivations to enlighten  what makes information worth sharing to others on Facebook, instead of simply attracting attention. By using a web survey we have collected data by sampling a part of the actual population  of  swedens Facebook users.Our results show that swedish Facebook users main reason for using Facebook is to socialize with offline friends and share information to show others

    something

    they

    belive

    they

    will

    have

    use

    for

    and/or

    will

    appriciate.

    We

    compare

    our

    findings

    to

    existing

    research

    and

    the

    FIRO

    theory

    about

    human

    interpersonal

    needs.

    We

    find

    that

    users

    sharing

    habits

    can

    be

    identified

    as

    motivated

    by

    interpersonal

    needs

    to

    maintain

    social

    bonds,

    influence

    others

    opinion

    about

    themselves,

    feel

    unique

    and

    stand

    out

    in

    the

    crowd.

    We

    conclude

    that

    human

    needs

    are

    contributing

    to

    sharing

    activity

    on

    Facebook

    and

    influence

    the

    sharing

    habits

    of

    the

    Swedish

    Facebook

    users.

    The

    users

    show

    a

    critical

    view

    on

    sharing

    behavior

    in

    general

    but

    do

    not

    believe

    that

    they

    share

    for

    the

    same

    reason

    themselves.

  • 5.
    Ali Hassen, Yasin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och informatik, Avd för informatik.
    Role of ICT for the growth of small enterprises in Ethiopia2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Small enterprises strive to survive and grow in the business they are involved. They makeefforts to utilize different resources and technologies available to this end as long as it isaffordable and productive. Information Communication Technology or ICT and e-commerceare among those technologies that take the front line. This study asks the question ‘howmuch are Ethiopian small enterprises responsive to ICT and the internet and how much ofthe benefits have they utilized for their growth?’ It takes five small enterprises involved inimport and export business to perform case study research on the issue and examines theirutilization level of the technology. The findings show that small enterprises in the countryare on a very low level of utilizing ICT and e-commerce due to several reasons among whichare scarcity in infrastructure development and expertise in the area coupled with barriersfrom government policy and bank regulations.

  • 6.
    Ali, Hussein
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Al-Habobi, Ahmed
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Svenska molnleverantörers perspektiv på säkerhetsrisker vid användning av molntjänster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På senare tid har införandet av så det kallade molnet och molntjänster bidragit till en märkbar utveckling inom IT-branschen. Det som utmärker molntjänster är främst möjligheten att ha tillgång till data från olika enheter oavsett geografisk lokalisering. Idag används molntjänster av flera användare runt om i hela världen. Dock finns det en hel del risker med dessa tjänster, som kan få förödande konsekvenser. I denna studie identifieras säkerhetsrisker som uppstår vid utnyttjande av molntjänster. Dessa säkerhetsrisker undersöks mer djupgående i syfte att minimera riskerna för att uppnå en ökad säkerhet vid bruk av molntjänster. Syftet besvarades genom att använda en vetenskaplig metod där insamlandet av kvalitativ data är i fokus. Den kvalitativa undersökningen baserades på data från intervjuer med respondenter från olika molnleverantörer i Sverige. Resultatet visar att graden av säkerhetsrisker, så som dataförlust och försök av dataintrång av exempelvis DDOS-attacker, är beroende av molnleverantör och typ av molntjänst. Detta innebär att antal risker i en molntjänst varierar beroende på vilken leverantör som erbjuder tjänsten. Det är i dagsläget näst intill omöjligt att utesluta de säkerhetsrisker molnet medför. Dock påvisar denna studie att potentialen för att minimera dessa säkerhetsrisker ligger i utformandet av avtalet mellan molnleverantör och kund och att båda parter identifierar och kommer överens om vilka säkerhetsrisker som är acceptabla för kunden.   

  • 7.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Ashgar, Summara
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Spante, Maria
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Kim, Sung Won
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Byung-Seo
    Department of Computer & Information Communication Engineering Hongik University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
    Competence development at workplace: a work integrated informal learning (WIIL) approach2016Inngår i: Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, ISSN 0973-7006, Vol. 2, s. 35-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning within the organization is not only linked to the formal training and education of the employees, but also to informal processes of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices and norms, as well as in social ties among individuals in the organization. We analyzed employees' behavior and acceptance of online social networking as an information system (IS) of learning. The analysis is performed by a descriptive case survey within a telecom corporation in Pakistan. The purpose of our study is to bring an informal learning system at workplace. In this study we obtain quantitative data from 105 out of 180 targeted employees. The results show that a majority of the studied employees favor social networking to connect colleagues at different levels and more than half of the respondents share their knowledge and experiences using social sites. Nearly half of the respondents strongly agree that knowledge sharing is an important role of social sites within the organization and many are in favor of social media as an informal learning system. The results also show how the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in hierarchical levels of professions. This paper illustrates the benefits of social networking sites as an informal work integrated learning tool that also serves as an IS model for the organization.

  • 8.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Ashgar, Summara
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Spante, Maria
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Kim, Sung Won
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Byung-Seo
    Department of Computer & Information Communication Engineering Hongik University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
    Social Networking sites for Interdisciplinary Learning at Workplace: Work integrated informal Learning (WiiL)2016Inngår i: International Conference on Advanced Computing, Communication and Information Sciences (ICACCI-2016): Proceedings, Pushpa Publishing House , 2016, s. 9-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integrated Learning (WIL) studies usually focuses on educational situations when professional organizations are actively involved in learning processes for students in higher education. However, after completing the institutional period entering the professional arena, the professional person is still actually a student at the workplace as s/he never stops learning. Learning within the organization is not only linked to the formal training and education of the employees, but also to informal processes of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices and norms, as well as in social ties among individuals in the organization. Our analysis of employees' behavior and acceptance of online social networking as an information system (IS) of learning is performed by a descriptive case survey within a telecom corporation in Pakistan. Thepurpose of our study is to bring an informal learning system at workplace. In this study we quantitative data isobtained from 105 out of 180 targeted employees. The results show that a majority of the studied employees favors social networking to connect colleagues at different levels and more than half of the respondents share their knowledge and experiences using social sites. Nearly half of the respondents strongly agree that knowledge sharing is an important role of social sites within the organization and many are in favor of social media as an informal learning system. The results also show how the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in hierarchical levels of professions. This paper illustrates the benefits of social networking sites as an informal work integrated learning tool that also serves as an IS model for the organization.

  • 9.
    Ames Villar, Christina
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Aldén, Mattias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Från penna till polygon: En kvalitativ forskning om animatörers förhållningsätt till Disneys 12 animationsprinciper2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will investigate how Disney's 12 principles of animation is used today by professional 3D CGI animators in their work.

    The purpose of this study is to get an insight on how Disney's 12 principles of animation has changed for application in 3D CGI animation, as they were originally made for hand-drawn animation.

    Based on a selective choice based on a survey sent to studios working with animation and to freelance animators, we conduct interviews with the animators who answered the survey and could provide empirical data to our research.

    In the interviews, we ask how the respondents apply Disney's 12 principles of animation in their work in order to evaluate how they have changed since the 30s.

    The results we got showed that all respondents agree that Disney's 12 principles of animation are important tools in the creation of believable character animations.

    Some respondents chose to go through each animation principle and explain how they utilize each principle in their work, while other respondents stated they did not carefully followed these principles as they work with timelimited projects which means they do not have time to go through them all

  • 10.
    Andersson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Nordberg, Daniel
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    There´s no sound in space: En studie om ljuddesign för fiktiva objekt inom Science Fiction2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kandidatuppsatsen undersöker hur ett ljud kan påverka upplevelsen av ett objekt med ett fokus på ljuddesign för ett objekt som saknar en verklig referens. Studien hade som avsikt att undersöka hur man upplever ett objekt utifrån ljudets grad av realism. Genom webbaserade enkäter samlade vi in data för att se hur ett objekt kunde upplevas olika genom att koppla samman det med olika ljud som skiljde sig i grad av realism. Enkäten kompletterades genom att analysera två filmer där relaterade fenomen förekom. Resultaten leder till en diskussion där det lyfts fram möjliga samband mellan ljud och verklighetsgrad som skulle kunna bli grund för framtida studier.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Jonatan
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Szanto, Therese
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    You pay I play: Microdonationer kring Twitch.tv med fokus på tittarna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan Twitch startade sin livestreaming site 2011 så har livestreaming vuxit otroligt fort. År 2014 hade Twitch 100 miljoner unika tittare varje månad. De som streamar på Twitch är allt från esport spelare till personer som streamar för nöjets skull. Idag finns det streamers som inte jobbar utan livnärar sig på att streama och få microdonationer från sina tittare. Vi är nyfikna på hur en streamer kan leva genom att bara spela datorspel. De samlar på sig en publik som återkommer så fort streamern börjar streama. Utöver reklam på deras sida så får streamers in microdonationer via sina tittare. Dessa microdonationer står för en stor del av deras inkomst.

    Vi har valt att fokusera extra på de som tittar och inte de som streamar. Hur kommer det sig att någon kan tänka sig att donera pengar till en streamer? Vi har då valt att göra en enkät om motivation och microdonationer som Twitchtittare kommer svara på.

    I vår undersökning så var det endast 36.5% som spenderade mindre än 4 timmar per vecka på Twitch, restrerande svar var från personer över 4 timmar. Enligt vår undersökning så påverkas många inte av andra när det kommer till val av streams. Många väljer stream på grund av att streamern är underhållande eller att man spelar likadana spel som streamern. Trots att vissa personer i undersökningen spenderar mycket tid på Twitch så donerar de inte ofta. 43% har varken donerat eller subscribat till en stream innan. Endast 5.5% donerar mycket (över 10 $) och ofta. Enligt vår undersökning så har endast 56.1% donerat eller subscribat till en stream innan. Man får ta hänsyn till att 75,6% är ungdomar under 24 år och kanske inte har en inkomst, därav är det svårt att donera trots att man vill. Trots att många donerar väldigt små summor så finns det personer som donerar otroligt stora summor där en streamer kan nästan hamna i chocktillstånd.

    Det fanns ett antal olika faktorer som motiverade personer att donera sina pengar till streamers. De tre mest framstående faktorerna var "Entertaining streamer" en streamer som engagerar publiken och får dem att skratta, "I play the same game" tittarna känner igen spelet och spelar det under sin egen tid och "I want to learn something" tittarna vill förbättra sina egna färdigheter och lära sig något nytt. Mer än hälften av de personer som svarat skulle vara villiga att spendera minst 10 dollar i månaden på Twitch relaterat material. De flesta av de personer som svarade var män och cirka 1525 år. “Benefits” dvs få något i utbyte mot en donation hade en mycket lägre effekt på folks motivation än väntat.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Marcus
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Kartläggning och automatisering av den interna varuförsörjningskedjan: en fallstudie på Lindex AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabbt ökande digitaliseringen som sker i dagens samhälle påverkar såväl människor som teknik. Utvecklingen av digitala kanaler låter oss idag kommunicera och handla på helt nya sätt samtidigt som robotar är på väg att bli en del i vardagen. Inom e-handel har utveckling av automatiserade system och robotliknande teknik kommit långt och kan bidra till effektivare processer i företag. Lindex AB är ett av Sveriges största modeföretag och konkurrera ständigt med andra företag på marknaden för att uppfylla kunders behov och krav på service. Något som blivit allt viktigare på detaljhandelsmarknaden är försäljning genom digitala kanaler och e-handel där ordrarna ökar samtidigt som det ställs högre krav på kortare ledtider.

    Lindex har i denna studie en central del där syftet är att undersöka möjligheter och hinder för automatiserade lösningar i lager genom att studera orderhanteringen i Lindex e-handelsmiljö. Studien innefattar en teoridel som introducerar läsaren till automatisering av lagerprocesser där flera exempel på robotlösningar och avancerade lagersystem presenteras. Att ha robotar som transporterar varor till personalen istället för den traditionella versionen där personalen plockar varor från stationära plockplatser är idag en möjlighet. Detta kan innebära effektivare processer och slutligen kortare ledtider till kund.

    Intervjuer och observationer ligger till grund för studiens kvalitativa undersökningsansats som ger följd till ett resultat med mycket bilder. Totalt har sex observationer och tre intervjuer genomförts för att noggrant studera företagets processer. Deltagande observationerna har genomförts där författaren fått möjligheten att följa och studera nyckelprocesserna i Lindex varuflöde på en lagernivå.

    Slutsatsen visar på att det skulle vara svårt att automatisera processer på grund av flera hinder men tyder på att en av processerna som observerats har god möjlighet till automatisering på grund av dess starka koppling till lagersystem.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Informatics and Media production2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 14.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Can Measurements of Online Behavior Predict Course Performance?2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC 2016 and the 7th International Multi-Conference onSociety and Information Technologies: ICSIT 2016: Volume II (Post-Conference Edition), 2016, s. 4-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a pilot study on the relationship between performance in online classes and behavior in online discussion forums. Measuring student activity on the discussion forum, the collected data is then analyzed and mapped to the performance of the students on the course. The student activity was dividedinto a number of parameters, and during the study these parameters were compared to the performance of the students.The significance of each parameter was also analyzed through a Kruskall-Wallis-test Overall there was a strong tendency thatstudents with more activity and engagement received higher grades. This is in the future useful for developing some kind of monitoring to identify and support students on the verge of failing the course.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    How well can completion of online courses be predicted using binary logistic regression?2016Inngår i: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, s. 1-12Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses binary logistic regression to create models for predicting course performance. The data used is the data-trail left by students activities on a discussion forum while attending an online course. The purpose of the study is to evalute how well models based on binary logistic regression can be used to predict course completion.Three sets of data was used for this. One set collected at the end of the course, one collected after 75% of the course and one set collected after half the course. The result of the study says that it's possible to design models with an accuracy of between 70% and 80% using these methods, regardless of what time is used.

  • 16.
    Andreasson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Högskolan Västs bibliotek.
    Näverå, Elisabeth
    Högskolan Väst, Högskolan Västs bibliotek.
    Arbete för ökad samverkan mellan lärare och bibliotek2009Inngår i: PUH: Pedagogiska utvecklingsprojekt i högskolan 2009 / [ed] Sigrén, Peter, Borås: Högskolan i Borås, Centrum för lärande och undervisning , 2009, s. 13-17Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Rangraz, Masood
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Stenmark, Dick
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied Information Technology.
    TRANSFORMATION OF COMPETENCE: THE EFFECTS OF DIGITALIZATION ONCOMMUNICATORS' WORK2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS),: ECIS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, s. 195-209Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying human competence in relation with digitalization is currently an under-researched area within information systems scholarship. This paper presents a response to the contemporary calls within the IS field for studying the changes brought on by the advent of digitalization. Based on indepth interviews with professional communicators, we illustrate the effects of digitalization on the formation of work related competences. Employing a new sociotechnical system approach (Neo-STS), we analyze and illustrate the effects of digitalization in multiple ways. First, we propose that any further study of competence cannot be inadvertent to the phenomenon of digitalization. Second, we suggest a new approach for studying competence in relation with digitalization as opposed to studying "digital competence". Third, by applying a Neo-STS perspective, we provide a substantiated explanation of the transformation of competences in the work of communicators.

  • 18.
    Arvidsson, Louise
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Kutavicius, Ignas
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Vänta! Vart tog alla idioter vägen?!: En kvantitativ studie av beteendemönster för politiskt åsiktsutbyte hos Facebook-, Twitter- och Reddit-användare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier har blivit en stor del av hur vi kommunicerar med varandra, det har även blivit en virtuell mötesplats för politiskt åsiktsutbyte. Men är kommunikationsmodellen för några av de mest populära sociala medieplattformarna som Facebook, Twitter och Reddit anpassade på så sätt att politiskt åsiktsutbyte kan ske på ett demokratiskt sätt? Eli Pariser (2011) menar att personliseringsalgoritmerna stänger in oss i en filterbubbla, men studier visar även på att användarna själva aktivt blockerar information som inte är i linje med deras egna åsikter vilket resulterar i selektiv exponering (Garrett, 2009). I denna studie har vi använt en enkätundersökning för att få insikt om Facebook, Twitter och Reddit användarnas beteende och interaktionsvanor med politiskt information och hur detta påverkar deras flöde. Resultatet visar på att majoriteten av användarna möter, delar och interagerar med politiska åsikter i linje med deras egna. De är däremot öppna för att möta, föra och diskutera politiskt åsiktsutbyte med personer vars åsikter inte går i linje med deras egna. De svarande vill se en mer balanserad åsiktsfördelning i deras flöde och diskussioner. Det fanns även en eftertraktan för en bättre utvecklad moderation för politisk diskussion på sociala medier då flera ansåg att dessa diskussioner ofta övergår till smutskastning samt en hatisk och fientlig stämning.

  • 19.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Wilenius, Frida
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Svensson, Ann
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    The Value of Investments in Competence Development and Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing2015Inngår i: Proceedings Cross-Cultural Business Conference 2015, Steyr, Austria / [ed] Margarethe Überwimmer, Teresa Gangl, Martina Gaisch, Robert Füreder, David Humbarger, Friedrich Bauinger, Hannes Hofstadler, Jörg Kraigher-Krainer, Christian Stadlmann, Pavel Štrach, Andreas Zehetner (Eds.), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2015, s. 13-27Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Asp, Johanna
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Jensen, Caroline
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Facebookgrupper och delade dokument: En kvalitativ studie om hur studenter använder sociala medier i sitt skolarbete2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify what different types of social media students use and how they actually use these different social medias in their school work.

    Social media is nowdays a natural part of our lives and our society. We interact and communicate with people close to us as well as people on the other side of the world. We use social media to seek information, receive news, share our thoughts, our lives and our opinions. Social media has gained a prominent place in our society and beginning to be used more and more in schools and education. The qualities of social media has been said to stimulate learning and in some cases improve efficiency and facilitate school work.

    We have chosen to look at how students in higher education are using social media in their studies. The selection group we focused on is the first-year students who take the program Digitala Medie at University West. We selected these students based on our own experience of the program, and we know that these students have a fundamental interest in social media and the use of these.

    The results show that Facebook is the social media most used by students, both in their individual work and group work. It is primarily the Facebook function "groups" that is used, where students created two groups for the whole class as well as small groups for each team project. Combined with Facebook groups students use Google docs as a place to collaboratively write texts and presentations. In the individual schoolwork Facebook is primarily used as a communication channel, both with teachers, classmates and team members. The students use the joint groups to contact the teacher by "tagging" them, to get help with problems and answers to questions, to get the support and motivation from classmates and to share essential information.

    In group projects, then current Facebook group works as an extension of the project, this is where most communication, decision-making and cooperation takes place. Even though the students indicate flaws and minor problems with both Google drive and Facebook in context with their school work, none of the participants search for new alternatives. The results of our study may be of interest for other students and teachers as it can inspire to new ways to apply social media in education.

    In our study, we present a variety of tools and services that students use in their schoolwork. We also present distinct examples of how students use different services and platforms. For teachers, this may be interesting to take note of when it can help them to understand students' needs regarding learning tool. It also provides an insight into how students communicate and interact outside the classroom

  • 21.
    Asp Johansson, Vidar
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Väisänen, John
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Vårdens behov av modernisering av sina kommunikationssystem: En kvalitativ studie om varför man använder omodern teknik och hur den skulle kunna digitaliseras2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för att digitalisera vården i Sverige ökar, dock finns det fortfarande äldre tekniker som verkar omöjliga att få bort. Faxmaskinen används dagligen inom vården och är därmed en svår process att ersätta. Studier visar att faxen behövs att ersätta då den har flera säkerhetsbrister. Faxen brister i patientsäkerhet vilket är viktigt att uppehålla inom vården. Problematiken uppstår eftersom vårdare måste skriva ut patientinformationen för att sedan faxa den vidare och då kan det faxas fel, även om faxen kommer rätt passerar den mellan flera händer.

    Den här studien försöker ta reda på hur denna information skulle kunna digitaliseras genom att se över hur faxen verkligen används i vårdorganisationerna. Ersättning av faxen skulle kunna leda till att effektivisera vården, minska dubbelarbete och skapa en säkrare kommunikation inom vården.

    Denna studie har med en kvalitativ ansats genomfört intervjuer med personal inom vård och omsorg ifrån kommuner runt om Västra Götaland i Sverige för att få en djupare inblick i användning av faxen och hur den skulle kunna ersättas. Teorin är grundad efter ett sociotekniskt perspektiv där man tar hänsyn för både det tekniska och sociala i en processändring. Med hjälp av teorin har tidigare forskning tagits fram som har varit grunden för att sätta upp intervjufrågorna. Där alla delar i teorin analyserats för att ge bästa lösningen för hur den faxade informationen skulle kunna digitaliserats.

    Resultatet av studien visade att det behövs att ändra både arbetsprocesser och skapa nya funktioner i systemet för att kunna kommunicera mellan olika system. Alternativt införa ett gemensamt system för alla vårdgivare. Man behöver alltså veta exakt hur en process utförs i en organisation och digitalisera den en efter en för att få faxen att försvinna helt.

  • 22.
    Augustsson, Jens
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Holm, Alexis
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Framtidens konsumtion av digitala tjänster: En studie kring bruk av digitala tjänster på mobila enheter, baserat på ett Smart City-perspektiv.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att med hjälp av två vetenskapliga metoder, kvalitativa intervjuer och användardagböcker ta reda på hur användares mobila brukarvanor ser ut och vilka typer av tjänster kan de ligga till grund för baserat på ett Smart city-perspektiv. Arbetet kommer även att analysera och utveckla metodiken för fortsatta studier inom ämnet.

    Mobilen har under de senaste åren utvecklats till att bli en enhet där dess ursprungliga telefonfunktioner blivit sekundära egenskaper. Dess främsta ändamål är fortfarande för att kommunicera med andra, men i första hand genom andra typer av tjänster. Man kan idag även se hur utvecklingen går från ett bruk av digitala tjänster där varje enhet har specifika syften, till ett bruk där enheter samarbetar och delar ett gemensamt syfte. I och med att vårt bruk, och våra vanor, av dessa enheter förändras, så förändras även naturen hos tjänsterna de tillhandahåller. Man kan se en utveckling mot, och en efterfrågan för, tjänster som genom att utnyttja ny teknologi kan beskrivas bryta gränsen mellan det digitala och den fysiska verkligheten. Vilket ur ett Smart City-perspektiv kan ha stor potential inom flera områden av samhälls- och verksamhetsutveckling.

    Det går även att se att synen på hur vi konsumerar digitala tjänster förändras. Från att ha haft en väldigt enhetsfokuserad syn, där varje enhet har specifika ändamål, går vi mot ett bruk av tjänster där enheten i sig inte är viktig. Många tjänster finns idag på flera enheter, och enheterna fungerar mer som ett samarbetande ekosystem än enskilda enheter med egna syften. Enheterna delar snarare ett gemensamt syfte, att agera fönster mot internet.

  • 23.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Teknik och samhälle,.
    Sonnenwald, Diane
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Teknik och samhälle.
    Att etablera ett kollaboratorium inom biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap: behov och utmaningar från ett praktikerperspektiv2007Inngår i: Svensk biblioteksforskning, ISSN 0284-4354, E-ISSN 1653-5235, Vol. 16, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Needs and Challenges with Respect to Establishing a Collaboratory within Library and Information Science: Practitioners' Perspectives2009Inngår i: Change Challenges Leadership: Library in the Academic Community / [ed] M-L. Huotari and A. Lehto (eds.), Tampere: Tampere University , 2009, s. 62-80Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    A Heideggerian Approach to "Educationalness" Aspect of Educational Technologies2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadly speaking, educational technology is primarily viewed as learning tools. But whenever we emphasize on the adjective "educational", we must however be clear about what we mean by the educationalness aspect of these technologies. Therefore, we shall consider that there exist a lot of conceptual problems associated with the particularly such an ambiguous loaded term. As an example, researchers use various keywords/concepts such as 'learning' aimed at saying learners are either learn:'via'; 'through'; and, 'with' educational technologies but not definitely 'by' them. Why? Because in the latter case; using the English proposition 'by' it means we have in somehow accepted these tools are able to teach learners automatically. However, at the end; it's only the learner who learn depending on manyfactors, each determining the ratio of her/his leaning curve. So, knowing which appropriate English proposition to use is of paramount importance. Inspired by Heideggerian approach to the notion of technology, which should concern us today as well, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the"what" aspect of the learners regarding how they maintain their relationships with whatever educational technologies in use. It seems that these Teaching-learning tools such as YouTube has not been used effectively due to mainly the various learners, more or less, unawareness about how to approach the "essence" of these learning tools. To operationalize the Heideggerian approach to learning, his notion of the "essence of technology" will be discussed by using Technology, Pedagogy, and Content (TPAC) framework. Using such a framework will help us to discuss what and how learners manage their knowledge cognitively.

  • 26.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Determinants of Perceived IT Management in Primary School Settings: integrating self-management, shared management, and IT policy into technology acceptance model2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August. / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen (eds.), 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Flensburg, Per
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Towards a Framework for Re-conceptualization of Work-integrated Learning: an ontological approach2015Inngår i: 19th World Conference Proceedings Refereed Papers, 2015, s. 1-17Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Work-integrated learning (WIL) is very closely connected to the concept of purposefully designed curriculum. The main focus is on conducting a range of rigorous approaches to integrate theory with the practice. The existing view of the WIL emerged out of the theory of employability. WIL has been traditionally viewed as a strategic merely curriculum design rather than adopting a Whole-organization approach to effective leadership theory–practice symbiosis (LTPS), which we advocate. Such an approach is useful in enhancing an awareness to consider concerns and interests of all stakeholders that are involved in the multiple initiatives pursued in higher education institutions. But it requires fundamental rethinking and radical design of WIL-inspired educational processes such as course design. Rethinking implies approaching WIL ontologically. Depending on which extent the concept of WIL has been perceived by universities worldwide, it has been thus viewed and implemented from a diverse spectrum of perspectives. First, we discuss the implications for the existed conceptual differences. Thereafter, and inspired by the main philosophical assumptions underpinning a Whole-organization approach to WIL, we propose and thus thoroughly concretize a framework which we call Work-related Educational Activities (WREA). The model which is the theoretical foundation of WREA consists of a category of several components. After identification of the main components of the model, we adopt an ontological approach to the reconceptualization of WIL. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to demonstrate how University West in Sweden views WIL, which is its newly announced research profile. Secondly, an attempt to re-conceptualize WIL by conducting an ontological approach to WREA.

  • 28.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Högberg, Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Norström, Livia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Pareto, Lena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Willermark, Sara
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016Inngår i: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, s. 1-11Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

  • 29.
    Backlund, Stefan
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wingård, Robin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Den datorgenererade matbilden: En undersökning av graden av aptitlighet hos datorgenererade matbilder gjorda i reklamsyfte2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera år har återskapandet av fotorealistiska bilder spelat en viktig roll när det gäller användningen av 3D-CGI för visualisering och marknadsföring. Återskapandet av något som kan kallas fotorealistiskt utan att ha använt en kamera medför många fördelar och möjligheter som fotografering har svårt att uppnå. På grund av detta har flera företag börjat använda CGI som en alternativ metod för marknadsföring istället för fotografi. Det finns dock fortfarande områden där användningen av CGI är begränsad, antingen på grund av hög komplexitet vilket innebär höga kostnader. För denna studie fokuserar vi på användningen och upplevelsen av CGI-bilder av mat som används i reklam. Anledningen till detta är på grund av vår dagliga interaktion och konsumtion av mat, vilket kan medföra att vår perception av något som just mat, drastiskt kan skilja sig från vår perception av andra produkter som är skapade med hjälp av CGI.

    För att testa vår perception av CGI-bilder av mat formulerade vi en enkätundersökning vars syfte var att jämföra CGI-bilder med dess fotografiska motsvarighet för att döma den aptitlighet som deltagarna känner inför varje bild. Detta genomfördes genom att deltagarna betygsatte olika bilder med ett aptitlighetsvärde samt kommenterade om hur de kände inför specifika bilder och även deras generella åsikter om användningen av CGI för marknadsföring. Vår undersökning visade en ringa preferens mot CGI-bilderna jämfört med de fotografierna som vi använt. Det fanns dock flera deltagare som ogillade det "plastiga" och orealistiska utseendet av CGI-bilderna vilket ledde till mycket lägre aptitlighet. Vi hypotiserar att anledningen till en preferens för CGI-bilderna i denna studie är för att CGI-bilder kan ha en orealistisk perfektion som kan framhäva mer aptitlighet än vad produkten utseende skulle göra i verkligheten. Vilken typ av produkt som bilderna representerar kan också spela en stor del i vårt resultat. I denna studie använde vi bilder på chokladbitar, resultatet kan därför starkt vara kopplat till val av bilder och om studien skulle använt bilder av andra matkategorier, t.ex. kött, frukt eller grönsaker, skulle resultatet kunna se annorlunda ut.

  • 30.
    Bayar, Aylin
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Bergman, Tilde
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Att förändra utan att förstöra: En intervjuundersökning om hur externa byråer arbetar med rebranding2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are required to have the ability to be attractive because of today's intense market. They have to constantly make sure that their visual elements and graphic profile are related to the current market conditions. Furthermore the market are placing higher demands on how companies expose their brands and quite often the companies have to do a rebrand to keep their brand relevant. To do this, companies often have to hire an external party, such as an external advertising- or media agency.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what causes a rebranding and how the external agencys are working with the process. The study also examines which factors the agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity and whether it's important to preserve certain core elements from the previous visual identity. This is investigated based on following questions: "What are the reasons to why a company chooses to do a rebrand?", "What do external agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity?" and "Is it important to maintain graphic elements from the previous visual identity?".

    To answer the questions, the researchers have applied a qualitative study where semi-structured interviews have been implemented. Theory is based on secondary sources and previous research that deals with the area of rebranding, visual identity and the different elements of identity.

    The reasons to rebranding can be different. The study also shows that some companies have a visual identity that does not interact with their products or services, which is the reason to rebranding. In summary, the external agencies take into account many of the aspects surrounding the design that are brought up by previous research, but the study also adds new perspectives.

  • 31.
    Begby, Simon
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Apelqvist, Hampus
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Den asymmetriska karaktärsanatomin: En jämförande analys av kroppsliga differenser vid animering av asymmetriska och symmetriska karaktärer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how asymmetrical anatomy on 3D CGI characters can be constructed and influence experiences. The paper is based on comparing symmetrical and asymmetrical characters for a given situation. The experiment contains of two character animations where both characters are walking up on a staircase. One of the character has a prosthetic leg, otherwise, both characters have identical design for the same situation. For this thesis the character with asymmetrical leg is called 'asymmetrical character'.

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify and examine the effect of the differences between the characters, based on three of Disney's twelve animation principles (Frank Thomas & Ollie Johnston, 1981, s.47). The three most common, and chosen principles are: Anticipation, Exaggeration and Squash & Stretch. The comparison also include differences calculated in frames, and a discussion on considering the center of mass and the balance for figures. The aim is to create more believable characters and show how the combination of these factors can improve the reliability of the animation, and help to keep the suspension of disbelief alive.

    The results shows how the three animation principles applied to symmetrical and asymmetrical characters differs in terms of 1) usage, 2) needed frames, and 3) handling the center of gravity and obtaining balance for the characters. By interpreting the results, this study contributes to guidelines for the students interested in animation to create animation on asymmetrical characters. Since asymmetrical characters are needed for many settings, awareness about the resources required for asymmetrical characters should be clearer. Changing symmetrical characters to asymmetrical can also be common, and therefore methods and requirements for understanding the changes should be already described in handbooks and manuals used for character animations.

  • 32.
    Bellak, Matilda
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Bellak, Susanna
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Responsiv Webbdesign: En studie av två responsiva gränssnitt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The market for new devices is expanding, while older devices and browsers still remains. This makes it problematic for designers and developers to know what screen size and device that is used by the visitor. Previously , this has often been handled by creating a separate mobile site , but since we are no longer limited to a few screen sizes , this becomes untenable. The designer / developer then would have to create different web pages for all devices. One popular solution to this is responsive web design, which is based on a flexible and dynamic interface that automatically adapts to the visitor's screen size. Although responsive web design has had a major impact on the web , it is still a new area which is reflected in the lack of research on the subject. The rapid development of the area has also led to that the designers and developers have had to quickly adapt interfaces and techniques as they no longer work for all user situations.

    The purpose of our study was to increase the understanding about responsive web design, and how this can be adapted to improve the usability and user experience . We have chosen to evaluate different, responsive interface to find guidelines that can be the basis for future, responsive web pages. Our research question is therefore :

    "How can responsive design be optimized for an improved user experience and greater usability?"

    The main findings in our study is partly that it is very important that the user perceives the website as consistent and recognize both the design of aesthetic elements and the interface, regardless of platform. We were also able to say that it is important for the designer / developer to prioritize the content and maintain margins and distance even on the smaller screens, allowing users to create a good overview and therefore get a better user experience

  • 33.
    Bengtegård, Dante
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Mo, Johan
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Fotogrammetri och 3D-artisten: En studie om fotogrammetrin inom spelindustrin och dess effekt på branschens artister2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, modelling for 3D games have strived to achieve photographic realism. The road there have historically gone through well-established traditional 3D-methods like box modelling and digital sculpting. However, in 2014 a big paradigm shift starts to happen, in 2014 photogrammetry arrives to the game industry in force. Since then the technology of photogrammetry has exploded within the game development industry and the field is now rapidly going through an arms race to not get left behind in the evolution of workflows for developing photo realistic 3D games. The purpose of this study was to understand how the implementation of this technology affects the 3D artists in the game industry. To study this, which has not been treated in previous scientific literature, we have conducted a survey study and a series of interviews. From our results we can see that the respondents, for the most part, have a positive attitude towards the change. This technology means for them a faster workflow and a shortcut towards photorealism. On top of this we cannot see a strong indication that this technology diminishes the artists creativity or causes something that can be called disruptive.

  • 34.
    Bengtsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Eriksson, Anton
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Ilska mot maskinerna?: En studie om upplevelser och attityder gentemot användning av kameradrönare ur ett integritetsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to gain increased knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences and attitudes towards the use of camera drones from an integrity perspective.

    Theory: The theoretical framework consists of theories regarding technology, technology fear, personal-, contextual- and behavioral integrity.

    Method: The thesis assumes a mixed approach (Bryman, 2006) and the research question has been answered through a combination of qualitative content analysis and a survey.

    Result: The result shows that an overwhelming majority have a positive attitude towards camera drones. The result also points towards a lack of technology neutrality in legislation. In accordance with previous research, this study concludes that there is a need for frameworks as well as a deeper understanding of how people experience ethical, legal and integrity aspects of camera drones.

  • 35.
    Bergquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Knowledge Management Group, Viktoria Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jan
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för informatik och matematik (HTU).
    Practising peer review in organizations: a qualifier for knowledge dissemination and legitimization2001Inngår i: JIT. Journal of information technology (Print), ISSN 0268-3962, E-ISSN 1466-4437, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 99-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A key issue in many organizations is how to disseminate information in an effective way and, more importantly, how to make use of this information in order to create new knowledge. One way of addressing this problem is to focus on how information is socially transformed into knowledge. This includes how knowledge is handled in practice and how the knowledge produced is qualified as being something worth knowing and acting upon. Two well-established practices for doing this are the refereeing system and the peer review process. These are used in scientific communities as a means of validating and legitimating knowledge, for example by reviewing journal papers before publishing or project proposals before granting funds, etc. This paper argues that peer review is a useful concept when looking at knowledge creation and legitimization in organizations. The social meaning of peer review is to legitimize new knowledge by organizationally sanctioning it and thereby creating a platform for collective sense making. This paper uses an example from a field study in a pharmaceutical company in order to illustrate this argument. The study took place in a quality support department where the quality of health care products and processes was assessed. The organization had a need for fast and reliable updating of information that could influence how the production process of pharmaceuticals should be carried out. In order to cope with these problems the department established an 'evaluation loop', which shared several characteristics with the peer review process.

  • 36.
    Bergstedt, Tobias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Sociala mediers påverkan på vår kreativitet: En studie i hur referensmaterial från sociala medier påverkar vår kreativa förmåga2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay was made to investigate the effects on creativity of students and professionals in the creative field caused by the use of reference materials from social media. It was performed by using an Aesthetics and Media class from De la Gardie High School to carry out an experiment where participants in two test groups were given the task of individually creating an image of a dragon. With the help of a preliminary investigation survey and an evaluation survey an interesting conclusion could be drawn.

    The result of the survey was that we were not significantly affected by the inspiration and reference material from social media. There was a clear difference between the results from the two groups, but this could be explained by the preliminary survey. From this survey it was obvious that the participants in Group 2 considered themselves to be more creative than the participants in group 1 did. Assuming that the participants had appreciated their ability correctly, it means that after correction based on this difference, the difference between using and not using social media for references is almost non-existent.

  • 37.
    Bergérus, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Karlsson, Harald
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Inbrott eller besök?: En experimentell studie av narrativ varseblivning genom spelmekanisk interaktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan spelmekanisk interaktion i ett digitalt spel och spelarens narrativa varseblivning, och därigenom huruvida en och samma digitala spelsekvens upplevs som tematiskt och narrativt annorlunda baserat på tillgängliga interaktionshandlingar och deras mått av granularitet. Genom att i ett användartest låta två grupper av deltagare uppleva och utvärdera spelsekvenser med olika grader av granularitet i sin kärnmekanik, har vi fått ta del av deltagarnas självreflektiva upplevelse genom efterföljande intervjuer. Resultatet av detta visar på ett samband mellan interaktionsfasens granularitet och den subjektiva varseblivningen och narrativa förståelsen för spelsekvensen. När spelaren erbjuds mekaniska förutsättningar för att kunna kika in genom en dörr innan de öppnar den helt och hållet så förändras dennes uppfattning om relationen mellan spelarkaraktären och platsen på ett sätt som färgar den genomgående förståelsen för hela scenariot. Vi drar härigenom slutsatsen att ramarna för spelmekanisk interaktion i ett digitalt spel är en stark semiotisk informationsbärare och att möjligheterna till utökad användning av genomarbetad granularitet i spel öppnar dörren till nya berättartekniska möjligheter i interaktiva upplevelser. Forskning kring berättartekniska aspekter av spelmekanik är idag mycket begränsad och vi ser att denna studie kan ligga till grund för vidare och djupare forskning inom ämnet.

  • 38.
    Berholt, Minne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olander, Yasmine
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Ungdomar och Facebook: En studie om en grupp gymnasieelevers användning av Facebook2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:To study the everyday use of Facebook among high school students in order to gain a deeper understanding of Facebooks possibility to motivate and activate interaction and how this tool is given different purposes and alternative meaning in users self-presentation. With this information we aim to explain how the phenomena Facebook impacts the interaction between people and examples can be defined by how the users communicate and interact witheach other online and how they choose to present themselves in a desirable way on their profiles. Material and method:By netnografi. The material in this study consist of non-participating hidden observations on seven high school students and their use of the social media tool Facebook. We used the approach qualitative observation with the justification that this grant us the opportunity to approach the real behaviour of the users without disturbing the sequence of event. Main results: The conclusion of this study is that youths everyday use of Facebook consists of sharing videos and links more than updated information about what they are doing. Friends are more responsible for the activity on the users Facebook profile. Social spheres are the answer to the users neutral posts. The students were members in several groups were the majority of the activity took place. The interaction between the users took place in the group-tool were the students interacted with like minded people who shared the same interest and communicated with the similar language patterns.

  • 39.
    Bernhard, Irene
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    E-government and E-governance - Swedish Case Studies with Focus on the Local level2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of e-government and e-governance are used interchangeably in most research and there is no single definition of these terms. The objective of this licentiate thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of these concepts through empirical studies in a Swedish context. Further, it aims to analyse whether – and if so in what way – the implementation of local contact centres (CC) affect conditions for local planning. This is reported in three articles. In this thesis e-government is defined to as the use of tools and systems by governmental bodies made possible by ICT that affect the organization of public administration. E-governance is defined as the ICT-based networks of services and administration in New Public Management settings including both public and private actors. Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group studies, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly built on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice. Based on a theoretical discussion of New Public Management in the digital era, findings show that there is a difference between the concepts of e-government and e-governance from the perspective of e-administration and e-services and that the terms should not be used interchangeably. The study indicates that there are examples of implementation that are referred to the e-governance setting. Further the study indicates that local municipal contact centres may be referred to not only as an implementation of e-government but as a combination of e-governance and e-government. The findings indicate that there is a potential for positive impact on the conditions for local planning through the implementation of municipal contact centres.

  • 40.
    Bernhard, Irene
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    E-government and E-governance: local implementation of E-government policies in Sweden2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is recognized in international research that the public sector has been transformed into a networked, open and more flexible, informal and interactive governance structure. This is described as a transition from "government to governance". Sweden is one of the international leaders with regards to e-government development. The objective of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of how e-government policies are implemented in an e-governance context, through empirical case studies in Sweden. The focus is on the local level. The overall research question is: How is e-government policy put into practice when focusing on the local level? This is reported in four articles.Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group interviews, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly based on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice.The analysis arrives at three overarching conclusions: (1) In practice, when e-government policy is implemented and translated at the local level, it tends to happen in an e-governance setting conducted by policy entrepreneurs or promoted by entrepreneurial behaviour in public administration. E-government policies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economic structures. (2) Implementation of e-government and e-governance initiatives requires trust in the service provision among public administrators as well as among citizens. Efficiency and citizen-centred approaches in the redesign of information relationships between public administration and citizens to create some sort of added value are crucial. (3) The thesis indicates that there are two main implications of municipal contact centres (CCs): they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide "holistic" services to the individual citizen. However, although the use of ICT is essential for the organisational transformation, the results indicate that the organisational settings and internal anchoring are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of local e-government and e-governance initiatives in the form of contact centres. One example for potential added value is the source of information of citizens' issues through the implementation of municipal contact centres, which may have a positive impact on the conditions for local planning.

  • 41.
    Bernhard, Irene
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Local e-Government in Sweden: Municipal Contact Center implementation with focus on Citizens and Public Administrators2014Inngår i: Journal of Community Informatics, ISSN 1712-4441, E-ISSN 1712-4441, Vol. 10, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to analyze the implementation of municipal contact centers (CCs) - an e-government initiative on the local level - from the perspectives of citizens and public administrators. This article is based on case studies from four Swedish municipalities. The results indicate that the CCs: contribute to increased access to municipal service, localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide a "holistic" approach to the individual citizen in her local context. However, the quality of the service also depends on the organizations of the work within the back-office of the municipality. All issues from the citizens were registered which contribute to increased knowledge about the citizens needs and perceptions regarding municipality services and planning in urban issues.

  • 42.
    Bernhard, Irene
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 9-22 August 2010, Jönköping, Sweden2011Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology consists of  twenty-five revised papers, first presented at the thirteenth Uddevalla Symposium, August, 19-22, 2010[1], at Jönköping University, Sweden. The overall theme was Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship – Economic, Social and Academic Aspects”. This year’s Uddevalla Symposium was organized as a Special Session within the 50th Anniversary ERSA congress 2010. Session organizers were Professor Kingsley E. Haynes, Dean, School of Public Policy, George Mason University & Professor Roger R. Stough, Vice President for Research and Economic Development, George Mason University, USA. A broad range of topics were listed among the themes for Special Sessions within this ERSA congress. One of them (and the largest) was the 13th Uddevalla Symposium to which forty papers were submitted. This session had an interdisciplinary character and provided an opportunity for researchers to discuss their ongoing research that was relevant to clarifying the role of innovation and multidimensional entrepreneurship in the growth and development of regional economies and regional economic systems. The papers were subdivided into nine different subthemes: Multidimensional Entrepreneurship, Regional Innovation Systems, Economic Development, Social Capital, Entrepreneurial Behavior, Rural Development, Industries, Firm Performance & Clusters, and Cities (for a detailed program; see the website: www.symposium.hv.se)

    1Uddevalla Symposium is an international scientific symposium established in 1998 in Uddevalla, Sweden. The primary objective is to foster research collaboration and bring together leading-edge views between experts, researchers and insightful practitioners from various fields of regional science, international business, economics, entrepreneurship and small business economics as well as from regional economics, regional planning, economic geography/economic history/political science and sociology in order to increase our knowledge as regards research questions related to “Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions".

  • 43.
    Bernhard, Irene
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy2011Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This proceedings consists of  thirty-nine revised papers, first presented at the fourteenth Uddevalla Symposium & the Third International Symposium of Entrepreneurship of E-Lab at University of Bergamo, June, 16-18, 2011 , held at University of Bergamo, Italy. The overall theme was “Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions”. The symposium was hosted by the E-Lab, University of Bergamo, Italy. The purpose of the symposium was to contribute to an increased understanding of the role of entrepreneurial knowledge and technology for the transformation of regions by means of the entry, growth and exit of firms.      Except for the overall theme there were twelve special sub-themes, chaired by invited scholars from the Uddevalla Symposium Network: “Work-integrated learning in transforming regions” “Entrepreneurship, family business and innovation”, “Slow city movement and sustainable local development”, “Shrinking urban regions”, “Entrepreneurship, networking and regional development”, “Resilience capacity of firms and new forms of innovation”, “Cluster development and regional transformation in an economic perspective”, “Entrepreneurship policy in comparative perspective”, “Learning and knowledge transfer processes in small firms’ clusters”, “The spatial agglomeration of business services”, “Entrepreneurship, creativity and the brain”, and “Productivity and financing of regional infrastructure.      Ten keynote-speakers gave presentations during these three days; Prof. Shaker A. Zahra, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, USA. Assoc. Prof.  Charlotta Mellander, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden, Prof. David Audretsch, Indiana University, USA, Assoc. Prof. Johan Klaesson Jönköping International Business School & CenSE, Sweden, Prof. Andrés Rodriguez-Pose, London School of Economics, UK, Prof. Hans Westlund, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm & Jönköping International Business School, Sweden,  Prof. Maryann P. Feldman, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA,  Prof. Giovanna Dossena, University of Bergamo, Italy,  Prof. Hans Lööf, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden,  and Prof. Zoltan J. Acz, George Mason University, USA.      To stimulate high quality papers a Best Paper Award as well as a Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was announced and financially supported by the municipality of Uddevalla, Sweden. The winners of the Best Paper were Johan Klaesson & Sofia Wixe, Jönköping International Business School and CEnSE (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics), Jönköping, Sweden. The winner of the Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was Mattias Örnerheim, Linköping University, Sweden.         Organizers of this 14th Uddevalla Symposium were the University West, Sweden and the E-Lab at University of Bergamo, in co-operation with Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and George Mason University, School of Public Policy, USA. The symposium was also financial supported by the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovations Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.         This symposium would not have been possible without a lot of work and support also from certain individuals. The editor expresses sincere gratitude to all participants, participating organizations, not at least the local organizers at the University of Bergamo, and especially to Dr. Christina Bettinelli.          Also I thank all members of the Uddevalla Symposium Organising Committee and all colleagues at University West. A special thank goes to Rebecca Olsson, University West not at least for editorial help.

    Trollhättan, Sweden in December 2011 Department for Economics & IT, University West

    Iréne BernhardEditor   

  • 44.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Challenging Organizational Issues When Municipal Contact Centers are Implemented in Sweden2013Inngår i: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 198-209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two case studies of the implementation of Contact Centres(CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and discussed from anorganizational perspective. The research method was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. Several challenging organizational issues for management and employees were identified:the implementation strategies varied among the cases and affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation, the mental construct and understanding of the implementation. The financing of the CC and recruitment strategies created problems, but in somewhat different ways and in phases of the process in each case. The potential of using registered information as asource for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized, although somestatistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal andinformal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees inthe CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good,co-operative working climate. There was a need for continuous updating ofskills in both cases, but with slightly different focus, related to theorganization of the work. The organization in response groups required morespecialist competence, compared with the organization without response groups,which required more general competence. Some challenges for the caseadministrators in the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organizationof their work, and to co-operate more with their colleagues both in the backoffice and at the CC. They now had the possibility to plan their administrativework in a better way than before, but some administrators missed the previousspontaneous contacts with citizens. Initially, many case administrators wereafraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negativeattitudes towards CC and hampering the learning process in taking part in theimplementation process.

  • 45.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Towards Inclusive E-Government: The Development of Municipal Contact Centers in Sweden2013Inngår i: Developing E-Government Projects: Frameworks and Methodologies / [ed] Zaigham Mahmood, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2013, 1, s. 225-247Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, five case studies of the implementation of contact centers in Swedish municipalities are described and discussed with a focus on inclusive e-government. The research methods used are mainly qualitative interviews with different categories of municipal personnel and also with some citizens. The main conclusions are that the implementation of contact centers contributes to increased accessibility of municipal services, even for those citizens who might have problems using Internet services. The study indicates and development towards increased equal treatment of citizens and a contribution to reducing problems related to the “digital divide.” Municipal services became more adapted to citizens’ needs by using citizen-centric methods and dialogue during the development process and in the daily work of the contact centers. The implementation of municipal contact centers can thus be seen as a step towards inclusive e-government, but there is still a need to go further in this direction.

  • 46.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Value Creation of networks and networking for small enterprises and destination development2014Inngår i: The 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: THE values of tourism / [ed] Budeanu, Adriana; Möckel, Marie & Gyimóthy, Szilvia, Köpenhamn, 2014, s. 81-82Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature recognizes that networks and networking are vital for firm performance and enterprises of all sizes are joining international networks (Lechner & Dowling, 2003; Bernhard & Karlsson, 2014; Cesário & Noronha Vaz, 2014;). Further research claims that networking is an important business activity for entrepreneurs, especially important for small businesses during start-up, which can then contribute to the growth of the business and superior performance. The emerging information society challenges relations not only between public agencies such as municipalities and citizens but also small enterprises in many ways. Earlier research also claims that entrepreneurship is a key issue in destination development.

    This study aims to describe and analyze the value creation of networks for small enterprises and destination development. The enterprises are located in two municipalities in a region undergoing structural change, due to the closure of a big car plant. We will focus on the value creation of different forms of networks and networking such as face-to-face and digital-based networks. Further we focus on value creation related to different actors within the networks, such as the role of entrepreneurs, municipalities, customers and sub-contractors. Theories on entrepreneurship, e-government, social media and network are important for our study.

    The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews, observations and document studies. Twelve interviews were conducted with managers from ten small enterprises (defined as microenterprises according to European Commission (Ekonomifakta, 2014). We contacted the public managers at the business offices in each municipality and they selected a list of companies involved in destination development within their municipality. Two of the ten enterprises were chosen from the list made by the managers. The remaining eight were selected from the list of members of the tourism company’s website. The tourism company is partly owned by the two municipalities and managed by a non-profit association for tourism development. Each interview took about an hour and was recorded before transcribing. All interviews were conducted in autumn 2013 and were made together by the authors. The analysis was made by qualitative content analysis and done in two steps; first separately by each author, after which the analysis was discussed together. This was done in order to increase the validity of the analysis. Regarding some issues respondents have received follow-up questions in order to get further understanding.

    The main findings indicated that networks and municipal support were important for the small enterprises. The municipalities could for example support network building for destination development. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government.

    The respondents stressed the importance of face-to-face contacts for establishing and maintaining their networks. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents on the other hand were very skilled in their use of social media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation. Strategic choices of networks and relevant competence to handle social contacts (both face-to-face and digitally) contributed to the value creation.

    This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects that contribute to value creation for small enterprises and destination development.

  • 47.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University.
    Editorial2014Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 269-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015Inngår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, nr 11, s. 2292-2309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 49.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Trust in Safe Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2011Inngår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 19-22 August, 2010, Jönköping, Sweden / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, 1, s. 107-124Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Such relations taking place on the Internet or in other specific systems are called public e-services, which is a basic component of e-government.  E-services as such are innovations – even if the service as such has been there before – it is a new way producing and organizing the service. For successful implementation of innovations in public contexts the innovations has to be considered as legitimate by all involved actors.

       On a European and national level there are some policies and emerging standardization regarding public e-services. Thus policies are translated both to other levels of governments in the multi-level governance chain and secondly from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration rely on a double steering approach, with strong constitutional regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced out into regional local public agencies. Instead European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context and the implications from them rely on the local uptake in the specific setting and the competences of the professionals in the local public administration. 

       Since this is a new emerging field of innovative practice our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation opens for inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight both translations over levels in multi-level settings and constructions of meanings of safety. The conclusion is that the translation over levels from policies to praxis appears to be more critical than the technological translation. In short: the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 50.
    Bernhard, Irène
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    The Role of Local Destination Management Organizations for Destination Development focusing on E-government and Networks. Case studies from Scandinavia2015Inngår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, s. 123-139Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on destination development from the perspective of the field of tourism, explored by a descriptive study comparing three local Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) focusing on e-government and networks. Local DMOs are often founded by local municipalities and enterprises in conjunction to promote the tourism industry. This study includes three cases in Scandinavia, having inland water areas in common, situated in regions that are undergoing structural change. The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews and document studies. This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects regarding the use of e-government and networks that contribute to destination development in an Scandinavian context.

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