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  • 1.
    Adebahr, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Andersson, Victor
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Övervakning: Var går gränsen?: En studie av lastbilschaufförer som arbetar i Bohuslän och hur de ser på IT som hjälpmedel och övervakning på jobbet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays companies and organizations are implementing IT-systems that enable surveillances, particularly within the transport business. The implementation within the surveillances systems enables a better security and a more efficient workflow. The systems make it possible for companies to see fuel consumption, the position off the truck and also to plan the most efficient routes. The truck drivers have learned to accept that they are being watched through the companies surveillance systems just because it leads to a more efficient route-planning. The drivers understand why they’re being monitored and they feel safe. Since IT-systems came into the transport business drivers are able to see the fuel consumption and by seeing that they can drive more ecological and save money for their company. The truck driver that works in Bohuslän is well aware that these services are crucial for the companies, by having these systems the companies can compete with the foreign hauliers that takes the same job for a much smaller fee. But where is the limit for acceptable surveillance? We answered the issue by doing interviews in two rounds, first with ten truck drivers then with six. We also did a literature study. The drivers where all driving for companies in Bohuslän. The drivers we interviewed had different experience within the business, some drivers worked at big companies and some drivers worked at smaller companies. By sorting the drivers out we were able to sort out our answers and see if there were a difference in the way the drivers were thinking. We wanted to get knowledge of how different business surveilled their employees and how the employees reacted. So we performed a literature study where we read different case studies from the home care, the sales industry and the elementary school. We compared the result from our study with the result from our interviews. We managed to see that truck drivers generally had more loyal thoughts to their company. The drivers that were interviewed where well aware of the hard competition within the industry. As long as surveillance makes the company more efficient and the surveillance don’t violate their private integrity it´s okay to use it.Keywords: Surveillance, loyal workers, IT-system, competition

  • 2.
    af Geijerstam, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wedenberg, Emelie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Menyers effektivitet och användbarhet på webben2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, everything is expected proceed quickly, easily and smoothly. This also applies to websites on the Internet. When you visit a website, you want thewebsite to be easily accessible and you also want to find what you are looking for quickly. It is therefore important that the menu is easy to navigate. The menu is very important for the experience of the website, as you use the menu to navigate through the website. The menu will guide users through the website, will help them plan their actions, will determine where they are and will help them find their way back if they would get lost.In this study, we have created and designed a website with menus of four different types. Our study is based on a number of theories about cognition, perception,usability and effectivity together with theories about how to create a good menu. We will use these theories in our study to determine which of the menus is the most effective. To find out which menu is the most effective, test participants were asked to conduct a usability test. During the usability test, we tested the effectivity of themenus by measuring the amount of time required by the test participants to perform different tasks, as well as how many clicks were required and how frustrated the test participants became. Then, we compared how the different menus performed inrelation to each other. The test participants were also asked to respond to aquestionnaire where they subjectively described their thoughts on the menus.Our results from this study can be used as guidelines when choosing which type of menu to use on a website, where navigation is expected to be as effective as possible.Our results show that the horizontal menu is the most effective one of the different menus we have tested. However, which menu is the most effective in a given situation or on a given website depends on many factors, and thus, the horizontal menu is not always preferable to use on every website.

  • 3.
    Aghaee, Naghmeh
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm.
    Jobe, William
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Karunaratne, Thashme
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tedre, Matti
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Interaction Gaps in PhD Education and ICT as a Way Forward: Results from a Study in Sweden2016In: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 360-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many research studies have highlighted the low completion rate and slow progress in PhD education. Universities strive to improve throughput and quality in their PhD education programs. In this study, the perceived problems of PhD education are investigated from PhD students' points of view, and how an Information and Communication Technology Support System (ICTSS) may alleviate these problems. Data were collected through an online open questionnaire sent to the PhD students at the Department of (the institution's name has been removed during the double-blind review) with a 59% response rate. The results revealed a number of problems in the PhD education and highlighted how online technology can support PhD education and facilitate interaction and communication, affect the PhD students' satisfaction, and have positive impacts on PhD students' stress. A system was prototyped, in order to facilitate different types of online interaction through accessing a set of online and structured resources and specific communication channels. Although the number of informants was not large, the result of the study provided some rudimentary ideas that refer to interaction problems and how an online ICTSS may facilitate PhD education by providing distance and collaborative learning, and PhD students' self-managed communication.

  • 4.
    Ahlinder, André
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Jerner, Marcus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    viljan att dela med sig: En undersökning i svenska användares delningsvanor på Facebook.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work researches what motivates swedish Facebook users to pass along and share

    information on Facebook, their attitude towards shared information and what affects this behavior. The goal of this thesis is to research todays behavior and motivations to enlighten  what makes information worth sharing to others on Facebook, instead of simply attracting attention. By using a web survey we have collected data by sampling a part of the actual population  of  swedens Facebook users.Our results show that swedish Facebook users main reason for using Facebook is to socialize with offline friends and share information to show others

    something

    they

    belive

    they

    will

    have

    use

    for

    and/or

    will

    appriciate.

    We

    compare

    our

    findings

    to

    existing

    research

    and

    the

    FIRO

    theory

    about

    human

    interpersonal

    needs.

    We

    find

    that

    users

    sharing

    habits

    can

    be

    identified

    as

    motivated

    by

    interpersonal

    needs

    to

    maintain

    social

    bonds,

    influence

    others

    opinion

    about

    themselves,

    feel

    unique

    and

    stand

    out

    in

    the

    crowd.

    We

    conclude

    that

    human

    needs

    are

    contributing

    to

    sharing

    activity

    on

    Facebook

    and

    influence

    the

    sharing

    habits

    of

    the

    Swedish

    Facebook

    users.

    The

    users

    show

    a

    critical

    view

    on

    sharing

    behavior

    in

    general

    but

    do

    not

    believe

    that

    they

    share

    for

    the

    same

    reason

    themselves.

  • 5.
    Ali Hassen, Yasin
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Role of ICT for the growth of small enterprises in Ethiopia2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small enterprises strive to survive and grow in the business they are involved. They makeefforts to utilize different resources and technologies available to this end as long as it isaffordable and productive. Information Communication Technology or ICT and e-commerceare among those technologies that take the front line. This study asks the question ‘howmuch are Ethiopian small enterprises responsive to ICT and the internet and how much ofthe benefits have they utilized for their growth?’ It takes five small enterprises involved inimport and export business to perform case study research on the issue and examines theirutilization level of the technology. The findings show that small enterprises in the countryare on a very low level of utilizing ICT and e-commerce due to several reasons among whichare scarcity in infrastructure development and expertise in the area coupled with barriersfrom government policy and bank regulations.

  • 6.
    Ali, Hussein
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Al-Habobi, Ahmed
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svenska molnleverantörers perspektiv på säkerhetsrisker vid användning av molntjänster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of the cloud has contributed to a remarkable change within the IT industry. The outstanding functionality of using the cloud is the possibility to access data from a variety of sources regardless of its geographical location. Today different users around the world utilize the cloud, users from a broad range of businesses and backgrounds. However, there are also downsides to the cloud that might lead to severe negative consequences if not taken into consideration. This study identifies the security risks that could occur by using the cloud. These security risks have been identified and analyzed, in order to minimize them. Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the risks of using the cloud in order to minimize security risks and to achieve an increased security when using the cloud. The research question was answered using a scientific methodology based on the collection of qualitative data. The qualitative data was collected through interviews. More specifically, multiple interviewees from different suppliers in Sweden, all whom contributed with relevant information to this study. The result of this study shows that the amount of security risks is dependent on the supplier providing the cloud and the type of cloud infrastructure. Hence, the risks in the cloud could vary depending on which supplier that offers the service. Today it is almost impossible to eliminate the security risks that the cloud entails. However, this study shows that the potential to minimize these risks are found within the set agreement between supplier and customer, risks that both parties agree on are acceptable to the customer. 

  • 7.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Ashgar, Summara
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kim, Sung Won
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Byung-Seo
    Department of Computer & Information Communication Engineering Hongik University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
    Competence development at workplace: a work integrated informal learning (WIIL) approach2016In: Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, ISSN 0973-7006, Vol. 2, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning within the organization is not only linked to the formal training and education of the employees, but also to informal processes of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices and norms, as well as in social ties among individuals in the organization. We analyzed employees' behavior and acceptance of online social networking as an information system (IS) of learning. The analysis is performed by a descriptive case survey within a telecom corporation in Pakistan. The purpose of our study is to bring an informal learning system at workplace. In this study we obtain quantitative data from 105 out of 180 targeted employees. The results show that a majority of the studied employees favor social networking to connect colleagues at different levels and more than half of the respondents share their knowledge and experiences using social sites. Nearly half of the respondents strongly agree that knowledge sharing is an important role of social sites within the organization and many are in favor of social media as an informal learning system. The results also show how the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in hierarchical levels of professions. This paper illustrates the benefits of social networking sites as an informal work integrated learning tool that also serves as an IS model for the organization.

  • 8.
    Ali, Rashid
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Ashgar, Summara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kim, Sung Won
    Department of Information and Communication Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Byung-Seo
    Department of Computer & Information Communication Engineering Hongik University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
    Social Networking sites for Interdisciplinary Learning at Workplace: Work integrated informal Learning (WiiL)2016In: International Conference on Advanced Computing, Communication and Information Sciences (ICACCI-2016): Proceedings, Pushpa Publishing House , 2016, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integrated Learning (WIL) studies usually focuses on educational situations when professional organizations are actively involved in learning processes for students in higher education. However, after completing the institutional period entering the professional arena, the professional person is still actually a student at the workplace as s/he never stops learning. Learning within the organization is not only linked to the formal training and education of the employees, but also to informal processes of sharing knowledge. The knowledge is often embedded in organizational activities, practices and norms, as well as in social ties among individuals in the organization. Our analysis of employees' behavior and acceptance of online social networking as an information system (IS) of learning is performed by a descriptive case survey within a telecom corporation in Pakistan. Thepurpose of our study is to bring an informal learning system at workplace. In this study we quantitative data isobtained from 105 out of 180 targeted employees. The results show that a majority of the studied employees favors social networking to connect colleagues at different levels and more than half of the respondents share their knowledge and experiences using social sites. Nearly half of the respondents strongly agree that knowledge sharing is an important role of social sites within the organization and many are in favor of social media as an informal learning system. The results also show how the professionals use social networking sites to share their experiences and to build a virtual break in hierarchical levels of professions. This paper illustrates the benefits of social networking sites as an informal work integrated learning tool that also serves as an IS model for the organization.

  • 9.
    Ames Villar, Christina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Aldén, Mattias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Från penna till polygon: En kvalitativ forskning om animatörers förhållningsätt till Disneys 12 animationsprinciper2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will investigate how Disney's 12 principles of animation is used today by professional 3D CGI animators in their work.

    The purpose of this study is to get an insight on how Disney's 12 principles of animation has changed for application in 3D CGI animation, as they were originally made for hand-drawn animation.

    Based on a selective choice based on a survey sent to studios working with animation and to freelance animators, we conduct interviews with the animators who answered the survey and could provide empirical data to our research.

    In the interviews, we ask how the respondents apply Disney's 12 principles of animation in their work in order to evaluate how they have changed since the 30s.

    The results we got showed that all respondents agree that Disney's 12 principles of animation are important tools in the creation of believable character animations.

    Some respondents chose to go through each animation principle and explain how they utilize each principle in their work, while other respondents stated they did not carefully followed these principles as they work with timelimited projects which means they do not have time to go through them all

  • 10.
    Andersson, Jimmy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Nordberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    There´s no sound in space: En studie om ljuddesign för fiktiva objekt inom Science Fiction2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work examines how a sound can affect the experience of an object with the focus set on sound design for an object which lacks a real world reference. The study's purpose was to research the experience of an object in relation to the sounds level of realism. We collected data through web based surveys to see how an object could be perceived differently by just altering the level of realism in the sound. The survey then gets backed up by an analysis of two movies where the related phenomenon where present. Our results leads to a discussion where possible correlations between sound and it’s level of realism are revealed which then could become a foundation for future studies.   

  • 11.
    Andersson, Jonatan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Szanto, Therese
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    You pay I play: Microdonationer kring Twitch.tv med fokus på tittarna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since Twitch started its livestreaming site in 2011 live streaming have grown incredibly fast. In 2014 Twitch had 100 million unique viewers monthly. The streams on Twitch range from esports players to people streaming for fun. Today there are streamers that are not working but instead create a living based on streaming and micro donations from its viewers. We are curious and want to explore how a streamer can live just by playing computer games. They accumulate an audience who will return as soon streamer begins streaming. In addition to advertising on their page to get streamers into micro donations through their viewers. These micro donations account for a large portion of their income.

    We focus on those watching rather than those who stream. How is it that someone would be willing to donate money to a streamer? We then decided to do a survey on motivation and microdonations Twitch viewers will answer. The questions is focused on what kind of genre, user prefer to watch and and what motivates them to donate.

    In our study, it was only 36.5% who spent less than 4 hours per week on Twitch, the rest of the responses were from people who spent over 4 hours. According to the responses of our survey people were not affected by others when it came to the choice of stream to watch. Many people choose the stream due to the streamer being entertaining or playing the same game as the streamer. Even if the people who answered our survey spent alot of time on Twitch only a part of them choose to donate 43% of them have neither donated or subscribed to a stream before. Only 5.5% donates much (over $ 10) and often. According to the answers only 56.1% have donated or subscribed to a stream before. We must take into account that 75.6% are young people under 24 years old and may not have an income, hence it is difficult to donate despite the fact that they want. Although many are donating very small sums, there are people who donate incredibly large sums which a streamer can almost fall into a state of shock.

    There was a number of different factors that motivated people to donate their money to streamers. The three most prominent factors were “Entertaining streamer” a streamer who engages the audience and makes them laugh, “I play the same game” the viewers recognize the game and play it during their own time and “I want to learn something” the viewers want to improve their own skills and learn something new. More than half the people who responded would be willing to spend atleast 10$ a month on Twitch related material. Most of the people who answered were men and around 1525 years. Benefits i.e getting something in return for a donation had a much lower impact towards motivating people than expected.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Marcus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kartläggning och automatisering av den interna varuförsörjningskedjan: en fallstudie på Lindex AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabbt ökande digitaliseringen som sker i dagens samhälle påverkar såväl människor som teknik. Utvecklingen av digitala kanaler låter oss idag kommunicera och handla på helt nya sätt samtidigt som robotar är på väg att bli en del i vardagen. Inom e-handel har utveckling av automatiserade system och robotliknande teknik kommit långt och kan bidra till effektivare processer i företag. Lindex AB är ett av Sveriges största modeföretag och konkurrera ständigt med andra företag på marknaden för att uppfylla kunders behov och krav på service. Något som blivit allt viktigare på detaljhandelsmarknaden är försäljning genom digitala kanaler och e-handel där ordrarna ökar samtidigt som det ställs högre krav på kortare ledtider.

    Lindex har i denna studie en central del där syftet är att undersöka möjligheter och hinder för automatiserade lösningar i lager genom att studera orderhanteringen i Lindex e-handelsmiljö. Studien innefattar en teoridel som introducerar läsaren till automatisering av lagerprocesser där flera exempel på robotlösningar och avancerade lagersystem presenteras. Att ha robotar som transporterar varor till personalen istället för den traditionella versionen där personalen plockar varor från stationära plockplatser är idag en möjlighet. Detta kan innebära effektivare processer och slutligen kortare ledtider till kund.

    Intervjuer och observationer ligger till grund för studiens kvalitativa undersökningsansats som ger följd till ett resultat med mycket bilder. Totalt har sex observationer och tre intervjuer genomförts för att noggrant studera företagets processer. Deltagande observationerna har genomförts där författaren fått möjligheten att följa och studera nyckelprocesserna i Lindex varuflöde på en lagernivå.

    Slutsatsen visar på att det skulle vara svårt att automatisera processer på grund av flera hinder men tyder på att en av processerna som observerats har god möjlighet till automatisering på grund av dess starka koppling till lagersystem.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Ulf
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Informatics and Media production2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Can Measurements of Online Behavior Predict Course Performance?2016In: Proceedings of the 7th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC 2016 and the 7th International Multi-Conference onSociety and Information Technologies: ICSIT 2016: Volume II (Post-Conference Edition), 2016, p. 4-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a pilot study on the relationship between performance in online classes and behavior in online discussion forums. Measuring student activity on the discussion forum, the collected data is then analyzed and mapped to the performance of the students on the course. The student activity was dividedinto a number of parameters, and during the study these parameters were compared to the performance of the students.The significance of each parameter was also analyzed through a Kruskall-Wallis-test Overall there was a strong tendency thatstudents with more activity and engagement received higher grades. This is in the future useful for developing some kind of monitoring to identify and support students on the verge of failing the course.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    How well can completion of online courses be predicted using binary logistic regression?2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses binary logistic regression to create models for predicting course performance. The data used is the data-trail left by students activities on a discussion forum while attending an online course. The purpose of the study is to evalute how well models based on binary logistic regression can be used to predict course completion.Three sets of data was used for this. One set collected at the end of the course, one collected after 75% of the course and one set collected after half the course. The result of the study says that it's possible to design models with an accuracy of between 70% and 80% using these methods, regardless of what time is used.

  • 16.
    Andreasson, Karin
    et al.
    University West, University West, the Library.
    Näverå, Elisabeth
    University West, University West, the Library.
    Arbete för ökad samverkan mellan lärare och bibliotek2009In: PUH: Pedagogiska utvecklingsprojekt i högskolan 2009 / [ed] Sigrén, Peter, Borås: Högskolan i Borås, Centrum för lärande och undervisning , 2009, p. 13-17Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rangraz, Masood
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stenmark, Dick
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied Information Technology.
    TRANSFORMATION OF COMPETENCE: THE EFFECTS OF DIGITALIZATION ONCOMMUNICATORS' WORK2017In: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS),: ECIS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 195-209Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying human competence in relation with digitalization is currently an under-researched area within information systems scholarship. This paper presents a response to the contemporary calls within the IS field for studying the changes brought on by the advent of digitalization. Based on indepth interviews with professional communicators, we illustrate the effects of digitalization on the formation of work related competences. Employing a new sociotechnical system approach (Neo-STS), we analyze and illustrate the effects of digitalization in multiple ways. First, we propose that any further study of competence cannot be inadvertent to the phenomenon of digitalization. Second, we suggest a new approach for studying competence in relation with digitalization as opposed to studying "digital competence". Third, by applying a Neo-STS perspective, we provide a substantiated explanation of the transformation of competences in the work of communicators.

  • 18.
    Arvidsson, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kutavicius, Ignas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vänta! Vart tog alla idioter vägen?!: En kvantitativ studie av beteendemönster för politiskt åsiktsutbyte hos Facebook-, Twitter- och Reddit-användare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become a big part of how we communicate with each other. It has also become a virtual meeting point to discuss politics. But is the communication model used by some of the most popular social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter and Reddit adapted well enough for political discussions to take place in a democratic way? Eli Pariser (2011) argues that personalization algorithms lock us in a filter bubble, while other studies also have found that users actively block out information that is not in line with their own political opinion themselves, resulting in selective exposure (Garrett, 2009). In this study we use a survey research to get insight about Facebook, Twitter and Reddit users behavioral and interaction habits with political content and how it affects political content visibility on their own feeds. The results have shown that majority of our respondents often share and in other ways interact with political content that primarily is in line with their own opinion, but show interest in discussing politics even with those they disagree with. Our research participants have also expressed a desire for a more balanced spectrum of political opinions in their feeds as well as discussions. They have also pointed out that there is a need for improvements in moderation of political discussions so they do not turn into smear and hate speech.

  • 19.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wilenius, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The Value of Investments in Competence Development and Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing2015In: Proceedings Cross-Cultural Business Conference 2015, Steyr, Austria / [ed] Margarethe Überwimmer, Teresa Gangl, Martina Gaisch, Robert Füreder, David Humbarger, Friedrich Bauinger, Hannes Hofstadler, Jörg Kraigher-Krainer, Christian Stadlmann, Pavel Štrach, Andreas Zehetner (Eds.), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2015, p. 13-27Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Asp, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Jensen, Caroline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Facebookgrupper och delade dokument: En kvalitativ studie om hur studenter använder sociala medier i sitt skolarbete2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify what different types of social media students use and how they actually use these different social medias in their school work.

    Social media is nowdays a natural part of our lives and our society. We interact and communicate with people close to us as well as people on the other side of the world. We use social media to seek information, receive news, share our thoughts, our lives and our opinions. Social media has gained a prominent place in our society and beginning to be used more and more in schools and education. The qualities of social media has been said to stimulate learning and in some cases improve efficiency and facilitate school work.

    We have chosen to look at how students in higher education are using social media in their studies. The selection group we focused on is the first-year students who take the program Digitala Medie at University West. We selected these students based on our own experience of the program, and we know that these students have a fundamental interest in social media and the use of these.

    The results show that Facebook is the social media most used by students, both in their individual work and group work. It is primarily the Facebook function "groups" that is used, where students created two groups for the whole class as well as small groups for each team project. Combined with Facebook groups students use Google docs as a place to collaboratively write texts and presentations. In the individual schoolwork Facebook is primarily used as a communication channel, both with teachers, classmates and team members. The students use the joint groups to contact the teacher by "tagging" them, to get help with problems and answers to questions, to get the support and motivation from classmates and to share essential information.

    In group projects, then current Facebook group works as an extension of the project, this is where most communication, decision-making and cooperation takes place. Even though the students indicate flaws and minor problems with both Google drive and Facebook in context with their school work, none of the participants search for new alternatives. The results of our study may be of interest for other students and teachers as it can inspire to new ways to apply social media in education.

    In our study, we present a variety of tools and services that students use in their schoolwork. We also present distinct examples of how students use different services and platforms. For teachers, this may be interesting to take note of when it can help them to understand students' needs regarding learning tool. It also provides an insight into how students communicate and interact outside the classroom

  • 21.
    Asp Johansson, Vidar
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Väisänen, John
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vårdens behov av modernisering av sina kommunikationssystem: En kvalitativ studie om varför man använder omodern teknik och hur den skulle kunna digitaliseras2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in digitizing health care in Sweden is increasing, however, there are still old technologies that seem impossible to get rid of. The fax machine is used daily in healthcare and is therefore a difficult process to replace. Studies show that it is necessary to replace the fax machine as it is a safety issue. The fax machine fails in patient safety, which is important to maintain in healthcare. The problem arises because the caretaker must print out the patient information and then fax it and it can be faxed wrong, but even if it is correctly faxed, there are several of the staff members that it gets through.

    This study tries to find out how this information could be digitized by reviewing how the fax is used in healthcare organizations. Replacing the fax could lead to more efficient care, reduce duplication and create more secure communication within the healthcare.

    This study has conducted interviews with a qualitative approach with healthcare staff from municipalities around western Götaland in Sweden for a deeper insight into the use of the fax and how it could be replaced. The theory is based on a sociotechnical perspective, taking into consideration both the technology and social aspects of a process change. Using the theory, previous research has been developed that has been the basis for setting up interview questions. Where all parts of the theory were analyzed to provide the best solution for how the faxed information could be digitized.

    The result of the study showed that it was necessary to change both work processes and create new features in the system to communicate between different systems. Alternatively introduce a common system for all healthcare providers. One needs to know exactly how a process is performed in an organization and digitize it one by one to make the fax disappear completely.

  • 22.
    Augustsson, Jens
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Holm, Alexis
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Framtidens konsumtion av digitala tjänster: En studie kring bruk av digitala tjänster på mobila enheter, baserat på ett Smart City-perspektiv.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out how mobile user habits can provide a basis for applications and services based on a Smart City perspective, this by using two scientific methods, interviews and user diaries. The study will also analyze and develop the method for further studies in this subject. The cell phone has in recent years evolved into a unit where the original phone functions and features have become secondary. Even though its main purpose is still to communicate with others, it’s now done primarily through other types of services. Today the development goes from a use of digital services where each unit has a specific purpose, to a practise where they work together and share a common purpose. As a result of the fact that our use and our habits of these devices are changing, the nature of the services provided by these devices are also changing. Due to this, there is an ongoing evolution towards, and a demand for, new services that can take advantage of new technologies to dissolve the border between the digital and the physical reality. Which, from a Smart City perspective, could have great potential in several areas of social and organizational development.

    One can also se that the way we consume digital services is changing. We have gone from having a device centerd focus, were every unit has a specific purpose to a serviced centerd focus, were the units work as a collaborative ecosystem. These units share a collective pupose, to act as a window towards the internet.

  • 23.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Teknik och samhälle,.
    Sonnenwald, Diane
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Teknik och samhälle.
    Att etablera ett kollaboratorium inom biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap: behov och utmaningar från ett praktikerperspektiv2007In: Svensk biblioteksforskning, ISSN 0284-4354, E-ISSN 1653-5235, Vol. 16, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Needs and Challenges with Respect to Establishing a Collaboratory within Library and Information Science: Practitioners' Perspectives2009In: Change Challenges Leadership: Library in the Academic Community / [ed] M-L. Huotari and A. Lehto (eds.), Tampere: Tampere University , 2009, p. 62-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Heideggerian Approach to "Educationalness" Aspect of Educational Technologies2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadly speaking, educational technology is primarily viewed as learning tools. But whenever we emphasize on the adjective "educational", we must however be clear about what we mean by the educationalness aspect of these technologies. Therefore, we shall consider that there exist a lot of conceptual problems associated with the particularly such an ambiguous loaded term. As an example, researchers use various keywords/concepts such as 'learning' aimed at saying learners are either learn:'via'; 'through'; and, 'with' educational technologies but not definitely 'by' them. Why? Because in the latter case; using the English proposition 'by' it means we have in somehow accepted these tools are able to teach learners automatically. However, at the end; it's only the learner who learn depending on manyfactors, each determining the ratio of her/his leaning curve. So, knowing which appropriate English proposition to use is of paramount importance. Inspired by Heideggerian approach to the notion of technology, which should concern us today as well, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the"what" aspect of the learners regarding how they maintain their relationships with whatever educational technologies in use. It seems that these Teaching-learning tools such as YouTube has not been used effectively due to mainly the various learners, more or less, unawareness about how to approach the "essence" of these learning tools. To operationalize the Heideggerian approach to learning, his notion of the "essence of technology" will be discussed by using Technology, Pedagogy, and Content (TPAC) framework. Using such a framework will help us to discuss what and how learners manage their knowledge cognitively.

  • 26.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Determinants of Perceived IT Management in Primary School Settings: integrating self-management, shared management, and IT policy into technology acceptance model2015In: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August. / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen (eds.), 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Towards a Framework for Re-conceptualization of Work-integrated Learning: an ontological approach2015In: 19th World Conference Proceedings Refereed Papers, 2015, p. 1-17Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Work-integrated learning (WIL) is very closely connected to the concept of purposefully designed curriculum. The main focus is on conducting a range of rigorous approaches to integrate theory with the practice. The existing view of the WIL emerged out of the theory of employability. WIL has been traditionally viewed as a strategic merely curriculum design rather than adopting a Whole-organization approach to effective leadership theory–practice symbiosis (LTPS), which we advocate. Such an approach is useful in enhancing an awareness to consider concerns and interests of all stakeholders that are involved in the multiple initiatives pursued in higher education institutions. But it requires fundamental rethinking and radical design of WIL-inspired educational processes such as course design. Rethinking implies approaching WIL ontologically. Depending on which extent the concept of WIL has been perceived by universities worldwide, it has been thus viewed and implemented from a diverse spectrum of perspectives. First, we discuss the implications for the existed conceptual differences. Thereafter, and inspired by the main philosophical assumptions underpinning a Whole-organization approach to WIL, we propose and thus thoroughly concretize a framework which we call Work-related Educational Activities (WREA). The model which is the theoretical foundation of WREA consists of a category of several components. After identification of the main components of the model, we adopt an ontological approach to the reconceptualization of WIL. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to demonstrate how University West in Sweden views WIL, which is its newly announced research profile. Secondly, an attempt to re-conceptualize WIL by conducting an ontological approach to WREA.

  • 28.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

  • 29.
    Backlund, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wingård, Robin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Den datorgenererade matbilden: En undersökning av graden av aptitlighet hos datorgenererade matbilder gjorda i reklamsyfte2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For several years, the recreation of photorealistic images has had a major role within the use of 3D-CGI for visualisation and advertisement. The recreation of something that can be called photorealistic without the use of a camera provides several advantages over photography. Because of this - several companies has begun using CGI as an alternative method within advertisement. There's still however, areas where the use of CGI remains limited - either because of the complexity and thus the expense, or because of how we as human perceive something that is done with CGI. We focused this study on the use of CGI food images used for advertisement. The reason for this is that we interact and consume food everyday, which can mean that our perception of something that we see as a consumable item may be drastically different from other products created with CGI.

    To test the perception of CGI images of food, we created a survey which purpose was to compare images of food utilizing CGI with photographic counterparts to judge the experienced appeal felt towards each image by a group of participants. This was done by having participants rate the images with a score of appeal as well as give written feedback of their thoughts about specific images and their general opinion of the use of CGI for advertisement purposes. Our survey showed a slight preference towards the CGI rendered images compared to the photographs that we used. There were however, several participants who disliked the "plastic" and unrealistic look of the CGI images that severely lowered the amount of appeal that was experienced. We hypothesize that the reason for the preference for CGI images in this study was because the use of CGI can make an image have an unrealistic perfection to it that can provoke a stronger appeal than how the look of the product would do in actuality. The type of product that the image represents may also play an important factor. This study focuses on chocolate bars, and thus the results may vary greatly if the study was conducted with the use of other food products, such as meat, fruit or vegetables.

  • 30.
    Bayar, Aylin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bergman, Tilde
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Att förändra utan att förstöra: En intervjuundersökning om hur externa byråer arbetar med rebranding2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are required to have the ability to be attractive because of today's intense market. They have to constantly make sure that their visual elements and graphic profile are related to the current market conditions. Furthermore the market are placing higher demands on how companies expose their brands and quite often the companies have to do a rebrand to keep their brand relevant. To do this, companies often have to hire an external party, such as an external advertising- or media agency.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what causes a rebranding and how the external agencys are working with the process. The study also examines which factors the agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity and whether it's important to preserve certain core elements from the previous visual identity. This is investigated based on following questions: "What are the reasons to why a company chooses to do a rebrand?", "What do external agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity?" and "Is it important to maintain graphic elements from the previous visual identity?".

    To answer the questions, the researchers have applied a qualitative study where semi-structured interviews have been implemented. Theory is based on secondary sources and previous research that deals with the area of rebranding, visual identity and the different elements of identity.

    The reasons to rebranding can be different. The study also shows that some companies have a visual identity that does not interact with their products or services, which is the reason to rebranding. In summary, the external agencies take into account many of the aspects surrounding the design that are brought up by previous research, but the study also adds new perspectives.

  • 31.
    Begby, Simon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Apelqvist, Hampus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Den asymmetriska karaktärsanatomin: En jämförande analys av kroppsliga differenser vid animering av asymmetriska och symmetriska karaktärer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how asymmetrical anatomy on 3D CGI characters can be constructed and influence experiences. The paper is based on comparing symmetrical and asymmetrical characters for a given situation. The experiment contains of two character animations where both characters are walking up on a staircase. One of the character has a prosthetic leg, otherwise, both characters have identical design for the same situation. For this thesis the character with asymmetrical leg is called 'asymmetrical character'.

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify and examine the effect of the differences between the characters, based on three of Disney's twelve animation principles (Frank Thomas & Ollie Johnston, 1981, s.47). The three most common, and chosen principles are: Anticipation, Exaggeration and Squash & Stretch. The comparison also include differences calculated in frames, and a discussion on considering the center of mass and the balance for figures. The aim is to create more believable characters and show how the combination of these factors can improve the reliability of the animation, and help to keep the suspension of disbelief alive.

    The results shows how the three animation principles applied to symmetrical and asymmetrical characters differs in terms of 1) usage, 2) needed frames, and 3) handling the center of gravity and obtaining balance for the characters. By interpreting the results, this study contributes to guidelines for the students interested in animation to create animation on asymmetrical characters. Since asymmetrical characters are needed for many settings, awareness about the resources required for asymmetrical characters should be clearer. Changing symmetrical characters to asymmetrical can also be common, and therefore methods and requirements for understanding the changes should be already described in handbooks and manuals used for character animations.

  • 32.
    Bellak, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bellak, Susanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Responsiv Webbdesign: En studie av två responsiva gränssnitt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market for new devices is expanding, while older devices and browsers still remains. This makes it problematic for designers and developers to know what screen size and device that is used by the visitor. Previously , this has often been handled by creating a separate mobile site , but since we are no longer limited to a few screen sizes , this becomes untenable. The designer / developer then would have to create different web pages for all devices. One popular solution to this is responsive web design, which is based on a flexible and dynamic interface that automatically adapts to the visitor's screen size. Although responsive web design has had a major impact on the web , it is still a new area which is reflected in the lack of research on the subject. The rapid development of the area has also led to that the designers and developers have had to quickly adapt interfaces and techniques as they no longer work for all user situations.

    The purpose of our study was to increase the understanding about responsive web design, and how this can be adapted to improve the usability and user experience . We have chosen to evaluate different, responsive interface to find guidelines that can be the basis for future, responsive web pages. Our research question is therefore :

    "How can responsive design be optimized for an improved user experience and greater usability?"

    The main findings in our study is partly that it is very important that the user perceives the website as consistent and recognize both the design of aesthetic elements and the interface, regardless of platform. We were also able to say that it is important for the designer / developer to prioritize the content and maintain margins and distance even on the smaller screens, allowing users to create a good overview and therefore get a better user experience

  • 33.
    Bengtegård, Dante
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mo, Johan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Fotogrammetri och 3D-artisten: En studie om fotogrammetrin inom spelindustrin och dess effekt på branschens artister2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, modelling for 3D games have strived to achieve photographic realism. The road there have historically gone through well-established traditional 3D-methods like box modelling and digital sculpting. However, in 2014 a big paradigm shift starts to happen, in 2014 photogrammetry arrives to the game industry in force. Since then the technology of photogrammetry has exploded within the game development industry and the field is now rapidly going through an arms race to not get left behind in the evolution of workflows for developing photo realistic 3D games. The purpose of this study was to understand how the implementation of this technology affects the 3D artists in the game industry. To study this, which has not been treated in previous scientific literature, we have conducted a survey study and a series of interviews. From our results we can see that the respondents, for the most part, have a positive attitude towards the change. This technology means for them a faster workflow and a shortcut towards photorealism. On top of this we cannot see a strong indication that this technology diminishes the artists creativity or causes something that can be called disruptive.

  • 34.
    Bengtsson, Viktor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Eriksson, Anton
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ilska mot maskinerna?: En studie om upplevelser och attityder gentemot användning av kameradrönare ur ett integritetsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to gain increased knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences and attitudes towards the use of camera drones from an integrity perspective.

    Theory: The theoretical framework consists of theories regarding technology, technology fear, personal-, contextual- and behavioral integrity.

    Method: The thesis assumes a mixed approach (Bryman, 2006) and the research question has been answered through a combination of qualitative content analysis and a survey.

    Result: The result shows that an overwhelming majority have a positive attitude towards camera drones. The result also points towards a lack of technology neutrality in legislation. In accordance with previous research, this study concludes that there is a need for frameworks as well as a deeper understanding of how people experience ethical, legal and integrity aspects of camera drones.

  • 35.
    Bergstedt, Tobias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sociala mediers påverkan på vår kreativitet: En studie i hur referensmaterial från sociala medier påverkar vår kreativa förmåga2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay was made to investigate the effects on creativity of students and professionals in the creative field caused by the use of reference materials from social media. It was performed by using an Aesthetics and Media class from De la Gardie High School to carry out an experiment where participants in two test groups were given the task of individually creating an image of a dragon. With the help of a preliminary investigation survey and an evaluation survey an interesting conclusion could be drawn.

    The result of the survey was that we were not significantly affected by the inspiration and reference material from social media. There was a clear difference between the results from the two groups, but this could be explained by the preliminary survey. From this survey it was obvious that the participants in Group 2 considered themselves to be more creative than the participants in group 1 did. Assuming that the participants had appreciated their ability correctly, it means that after correction based on this difference, the difference between using and not using social media for references is almost non-existent.

  • 36.
    Bergérus, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Karlsson, Harald
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Inbrott eller besök?: En experimentell studie av narrativ varseblivning genom spelmekanisk interaktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the connection between mechanical interaction in a digital game and the narrative perception of the player, and thereby whether one and the same digital game sequence is perceived as thematically and narratively different based on available interactions and their degree of granularity. By executing a user test and allowing two groups of participants to experience and evaluate a game sequence with different degrees of granularity in their core mechanics, we have aquired the self-reflective experiences of the participants through subsequent interviews. The result of this shows a correlation between the granularity of the interaction phase and the subjective perception and narrative understanding of the digital game sequence. When the player is offered mechanical conditions that enables peeking through a door before opening it, the participant's perception of the relation between player character and location changes in a way that colors the overall understanding of the scenario. The study reaches the conclusion that game mechanical interaction in a digital game is a strong semiotic information carrier and that the possibilites of extended use of thorough granularity in games creates new narrative possiblites in interactive experiences. Research on narrative aspects of game mechanics are currently very limited and we see this study as part of a foundation for further and more extensive research within the field.

  • 37.
    Berholt, Minne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olander, Yasmine
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ungdomar och Facebook: En studie om en grupp gymnasieelevers användning av Facebook2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:To study the everyday use of Facebook among high school students in order to gain a deeper understanding of Facebooks possibility to motivate and activate interaction and how this tool is given different purposes and alternative meaning in users self-presentation. With this information we aim to explain how the phenomena Facebook impacts the interaction between people and examples can be defined by how the users communicate and interact witheach other online and how they choose to present themselves in a desirable way on their profiles. Material and method:By netnografi. The material in this study consist of non-participating hidden observations on seven high school students and their use of the social media tool Facebook. We used the approach qualitative observation with the justification that this grant us the opportunity to approach the real behaviour of the users without disturbing the sequence of event. Main results: The conclusion of this study is that youths everyday use of Facebook consists of sharing videos and links more than updated information about what they are doing. Friends are more responsible for the activity on the users Facebook profile. Social spheres are the answer to the users neutral posts. The students were members in several groups were the majority of the activity took place. The interaction between the users took place in the group-tool were the students interacted with like minded people who shared the same interest and communicated with the similar language patterns.

  • 38.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    E-government and E-governance - Swedish Case Studies with Focus on the Local level2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of e-government and e-governance are used interchangeably in most research and there is no single definition of these terms. The objective of this licentiate thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of these concepts through empirical studies in a Swedish context. Further, it aims to analyse whether – and if so in what way – the implementation of local contact centres (CC) affect conditions for local planning. This is reported in three articles. In this thesis e-government is defined to as the use of tools and systems by governmental bodies made possible by ICT that affect the organization of public administration. E-governance is defined as the ICT-based networks of services and administration in New Public Management settings including both public and private actors. Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group studies, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly built on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice. Based on a theoretical discussion of New Public Management in the digital era, findings show that there is a difference between the concepts of e-government and e-governance from the perspective of e-administration and e-services and that the terms should not be used interchangeably. The study indicates that there are examples of implementation that are referred to the e-governance setting. Further the study indicates that local municipal contact centres may be referred to not only as an implementation of e-government but as a combination of e-governance and e-government. The findings indicate that there is a potential for positive impact on the conditions for local planning through the implementation of municipal contact centres.

  • 39.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    E-government and E-governance: local implementation of E-government policies in Sweden2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is recognized in international research that the public sector has been transformed into a networked, open and more flexible, informal and interactive governance structure. This is described as a transition from "government to governance". Sweden is one of the international leaders with regards to e-government development. The objective of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of how e-government policies are implemented in an e-governance context, through empirical case studies in Sweden. The focus is on the local level. The overall research question is: How is e-government policy put into practice when focusing on the local level? This is reported in four articles.Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group interviews, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly based on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice.The analysis arrives at three overarching conclusions: (1) In practice, when e-government policy is implemented and translated at the local level, it tends to happen in an e-governance setting conducted by policy entrepreneurs or promoted by entrepreneurial behaviour in public administration. E-government policies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economic structures. (2) Implementation of e-government and e-governance initiatives requires trust in the service provision among public administrators as well as among citizens. Efficiency and citizen-centred approaches in the redesign of information relationships between public administration and citizens to create some sort of added value are crucial. (3) The thesis indicates that there are two main implications of municipal contact centres (CCs): they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide "holistic" services to the individual citizen. However, although the use of ICT is essential for the organisational transformation, the results indicate that the organisational settings and internal anchoring are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of local e-government and e-governance initiatives in the form of contact centres. One example for potential added value is the source of information of citizens' issues through the implementation of municipal contact centres, which may have a positive impact on the conditions for local planning.

  • 40.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Local e-Government in Sweden: Municipal Contact Center implementation with focus on Citizens and Public Administrators2014In: Journal of Community Informatics, ISSN 1712-4441, E-ISSN 1712-4441, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to analyze the implementation of municipal contact centers (CCs) - an e-government initiative on the local level - from the perspectives of citizens and public administrators. This article is based on case studies from four Swedish municipalities. The results indicate that the CCs: contribute to increased access to municipal service, localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide a "holistic" approach to the individual citizen in her local context. However, the quality of the service also depends on the organizations of the work within the back-office of the municipality. All issues from the citizens were registered which contribute to increased knowledge about the citizens needs and perceptions regarding municipality services and planning in urban issues.

  • 41.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 9-22 August 2010, Jönköping, Sweden2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology consists of  twenty-five revised papers, first presented at the thirteenth Uddevalla Symposium, August, 19-22, 2010[1], at Jönköping University, Sweden. The overall theme was Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship – Economic, Social and Academic Aspects”. This year’s Uddevalla Symposium was organized as a Special Session within the 50th Anniversary ERSA congress 2010. Session organizers were Professor Kingsley E. Haynes, Dean, School of Public Policy, George Mason University & Professor Roger R. Stough, Vice President for Research and Economic Development, George Mason University, USA. A broad range of topics were listed among the themes for Special Sessions within this ERSA congress. One of them (and the largest) was the 13th Uddevalla Symposium to which forty papers were submitted. This session had an interdisciplinary character and provided an opportunity for researchers to discuss their ongoing research that was relevant to clarifying the role of innovation and multidimensional entrepreneurship in the growth and development of regional economies and regional economic systems. The papers were subdivided into nine different subthemes: Multidimensional Entrepreneurship, Regional Innovation Systems, Economic Development, Social Capital, Entrepreneurial Behavior, Rural Development, Industries, Firm Performance & Clusters, and Cities (for a detailed program; see the website: www.symposium.hv.se)

    1Uddevalla Symposium is an international scientific symposium established in 1998 in Uddevalla, Sweden. The primary objective is to foster research collaboration and bring together leading-edge views between experts, researchers and insightful practitioners from various fields of regional science, international business, economics, entrepreneurship and small business economics as well as from regional economics, regional planning, economic geography/economic history/political science and sociology in order to increase our knowledge as regards research questions related to “Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions".

  • 42.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This proceedings consists of  thirty-nine revised papers, first presented at the fourteenth Uddevalla Symposium & the Third International Symposium of Entrepreneurship of E-Lab at University of Bergamo, June, 16-18, 2011 , held at University of Bergamo, Italy. The overall theme was “Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions”. The symposium was hosted by the E-Lab, University of Bergamo, Italy. The purpose of the symposium was to contribute to an increased understanding of the role of entrepreneurial knowledge and technology for the transformation of regions by means of the entry, growth and exit of firms.      Except for the overall theme there were twelve special sub-themes, chaired by invited scholars from the Uddevalla Symposium Network: “Work-integrated learning in transforming regions” “Entrepreneurship, family business and innovation”, “Slow city movement and sustainable local development”, “Shrinking urban regions”, “Entrepreneurship, networking and regional development”, “Resilience capacity of firms and new forms of innovation”, “Cluster development and regional transformation in an economic perspective”, “Entrepreneurship policy in comparative perspective”, “Learning and knowledge transfer processes in small firms’ clusters”, “The spatial agglomeration of business services”, “Entrepreneurship, creativity and the brain”, and “Productivity and financing of regional infrastructure.      Ten keynote-speakers gave presentations during these three days; Prof. Shaker A. Zahra, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, USA. Assoc. Prof.  Charlotta Mellander, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden, Prof. David Audretsch, Indiana University, USA, Assoc. Prof. Johan Klaesson Jönköping International Business School & CenSE, Sweden, Prof. Andrés Rodriguez-Pose, London School of Economics, UK, Prof. Hans Westlund, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm & Jönköping International Business School, Sweden,  Prof. Maryann P. Feldman, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA,  Prof. Giovanna Dossena, University of Bergamo, Italy,  Prof. Hans Lööf, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden,  and Prof. Zoltan J. Acz, George Mason University, USA.      To stimulate high quality papers a Best Paper Award as well as a Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was announced and financially supported by the municipality of Uddevalla, Sweden. The winners of the Best Paper were Johan Klaesson & Sofia Wixe, Jönköping International Business School and CEnSE (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics), Jönköping, Sweden. The winner of the Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was Mattias Örnerheim, Linköping University, Sweden.         Organizers of this 14th Uddevalla Symposium were the University West, Sweden and the E-Lab at University of Bergamo, in co-operation with Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and George Mason University, School of Public Policy, USA. The symposium was also financial supported by the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovations Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.         This symposium would not have been possible without a lot of work and support also from certain individuals. The editor expresses sincere gratitude to all participants, participating organizations, not at least the local organizers at the University of Bergamo, and especially to Dr. Christina Bettinelli.          Also I thank all members of the Uddevalla Symposium Organising Committee and all colleagues at University West. A special thank goes to Rebecca Olsson, University West not at least for editorial help.

    Trollhättan, Sweden in December 2011 Department for Economics & IT, University West

    Iréne BernhardEditor   

  • 43.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Challenging Organizational Issues When Municipal Contact Centers are Implemented in Sweden2013In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 198-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two case studies of the implementation of Contact Centres(CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and discussed from anorganizational perspective. The research method was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. Several challenging organizational issues for management and employees were identified:the implementation strategies varied among the cases and affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation, the mental construct and understanding of the implementation. The financing of the CC and recruitment strategies created problems, but in somewhat different ways and in phases of the process in each case. The potential of using registered information as asource for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized, although somestatistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal andinformal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees inthe CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good,co-operative working climate. There was a need for continuous updating ofskills in both cases, but with slightly different focus, related to theorganization of the work. The organization in response groups required morespecialist competence, compared with the organization without response groups,which required more general competence. Some challenges for the caseadministrators in the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organizationof their work, and to co-operate more with their colleagues both in the backoffice and at the CC. They now had the possibility to plan their administrativework in a better way than before, but some administrators missed the previousspontaneous contacts with citizens. Initially, many case administrators wereafraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negativeattitudes towards CC and hampering the learning process in taking part in theimplementation process.

  • 44.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Towards Inclusive E-Government: The Development of Municipal Contact Centers in Sweden2013In: Developing E-Government Projects: Frameworks and Methodologies / [ed] Zaigham Mahmood, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2013, 1, p. 225-247Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, five case studies of the implementation of contact centers in Swedish municipalities are described and discussed with a focus on inclusive e-government. The research methods used are mainly qualitative interviews with different categories of municipal personnel and also with some citizens. The main conclusions are that the implementation of contact centers contributes to increased accessibility of municipal services, even for those citizens who might have problems using Internet services. The study indicates and development towards increased equal treatment of citizens and a contribution to reducing problems related to the “digital divide.” Municipal services became more adapted to citizens’ needs by using citizen-centric methods and dialogue during the development process and in the daily work of the contact centers. The implementation of municipal contact centers can thus be seen as a step towards inclusive e-government, but there is still a need to go further in this direction.

  • 45.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Value Creation of networks and networking for small enterprises and destination development2014In: The 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: THE values of tourism / [ed] Budeanu, Adriana; Möckel, Marie & Gyimóthy, Szilvia, Köpenhamn, 2014, p. 81-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature recognizes that networks and networking are vital for firm performance and enterprises of all sizes are joining international networks (Lechner & Dowling, 2003; Bernhard & Karlsson, 2014; Cesário & Noronha Vaz, 2014;). Further research claims that networking is an important business activity for entrepreneurs, especially important for small businesses during start-up, which can then contribute to the growth of the business and superior performance. The emerging information society challenges relations not only between public agencies such as municipalities and citizens but also small enterprises in many ways. Earlier research also claims that entrepreneurship is a key issue in destination development.

    This study aims to describe and analyze the value creation of networks for small enterprises and destination development. The enterprises are located in two municipalities in a region undergoing structural change, due to the closure of a big car plant. We will focus on the value creation of different forms of networks and networking such as face-to-face and digital-based networks. Further we focus on value creation related to different actors within the networks, such as the role of entrepreneurs, municipalities, customers and sub-contractors. Theories on entrepreneurship, e-government, social media and network are important for our study.

    The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews, observations and document studies. Twelve interviews were conducted with managers from ten small enterprises (defined as microenterprises according to European Commission (Ekonomifakta, 2014). We contacted the public managers at the business offices in each municipality and they selected a list of companies involved in destination development within their municipality. Two of the ten enterprises were chosen from the list made by the managers. The remaining eight were selected from the list of members of the tourism company’s website. The tourism company is partly owned by the two municipalities and managed by a non-profit association for tourism development. Each interview took about an hour and was recorded before transcribing. All interviews were conducted in autumn 2013 and were made together by the authors. The analysis was made by qualitative content analysis and done in two steps; first separately by each author, after which the analysis was discussed together. This was done in order to increase the validity of the analysis. Regarding some issues respondents have received follow-up questions in order to get further understanding.

    The main findings indicated that networks and municipal support were important for the small enterprises. The municipalities could for example support network building for destination development. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government.

    The respondents stressed the importance of face-to-face contacts for establishing and maintaining their networks. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents on the other hand were very skilled in their use of social media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation. Strategic choices of networks and relevant competence to handle social contacts (both face-to-face and digitally) contributed to the value creation.

    This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects that contribute to value creation for small enterprises and destination development.

  • 46.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University.
    Editorial2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 269-274Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2292-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 48.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Trust in Safe Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 19-22 August, 2010, Jönköping, Sweden / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, 1, p. 107-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Such relations taking place on the Internet or in other specific systems are called public e-services, which is a basic component of e-government.  E-services as such are innovations – even if the service as such has been there before – it is a new way producing and organizing the service. For successful implementation of innovations in public contexts the innovations has to be considered as legitimate by all involved actors.

       On a European and national level there are some policies and emerging standardization regarding public e-services. Thus policies are translated both to other levels of governments in the multi-level governance chain and secondly from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration rely on a double steering approach, with strong constitutional regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced out into regional local public agencies. Instead European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context and the implications from them rely on the local uptake in the specific setting and the competences of the professionals in the local public administration. 

       Since this is a new emerging field of innovative practice our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation opens for inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight both translations over levels in multi-level settings and constructions of meanings of safety. The conclusion is that the translation over levels from policies to praxis appears to be more critical than the technological translation. In short: the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 49.
    Bernhard, Irène
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Role of Local Destination Management Organizations for Destination Development focusing on E-government and Networks. Case studies from Scandinavia2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 123-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on destination development from the perspective of the field of tourism, explored by a descriptive study comparing three local Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) focusing on e-government and networks. Local DMOs are often founded by local municipalities and enterprises in conjunction to promote the tourism industry. This study includes three cases in Scandinavia, having inland water areas in common, situated in regions that are undergoing structural change. The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews and document studies. This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects regarding the use of e-government and networks that contribute to destination development in an Scandinavian context.

  • 50.
    Bernhard, Irène
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Role of Local E-government for Satisfied Citizens: Towards Sustainable Development?2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 141-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to study the role of local e-government regarding citizens view of municipality service, information and accessibility to municipality service. The main hypothesis was that municipalities with high degree of pro-activity regarding e-government are municipalities with high degree of satisfied citizens. Satisfaction among citizens was studied by using a national survey which is performed twice ever year. The survey normally includes roughly 130 municipalities out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden. The number of randomly selected individuals per municipality is usually 600 in smaller municipalities and 1200 in larger municipalities. In this study we focus on the following dimensions: Overall satisfaction, Satisfaction with response and accessibility and Satisfaction with influence and confidence.The results implies that e-government and satisfied citizens are correlated. The correlations between the e-variables: e-proactivity, e-strategy, e-information/transparency, e-interaction were all significantly correlated to the satisfaction indices. The correlations were generally of medium strength, i.e. around 0.2-0.4. There were no significant correlations between in real life interactions, strategy for democracy and the satisfaction indices.

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