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  • 1.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Beckman, Anita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    ”Jag skulle så jätte, jätte, jättegärna vilja ha ett fast jobb att gå till”: Om att vara ung och arbetslös i Västervik2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The centre of Child and Youth Studies at University West works strategically with other regional research environments and institutions that study children, youths and young adults. The goal of our research centre is to spread knowledge about the social conditions under which children and young people live, thereby strengthening their position in society. Collaboration with external research environments is one of the ways that our research domain works to reach that goal. Partnerships are formed through a model that strives to create good conditions for both our research and that of our partners. This model is grounded in a dialogue between research partners who work together to select areas of interest and formulate hypotheses. These research projects are financed equally by the university and our partners. The following report is the result of one of  these research partnerships.Advanced industrial society has been replaced by a society based upon knowledge and information where industrial work/manufacturing becomes less common. Västervik is one of the small towns in Sweden whose main industries have closed down or severely decreased their workforce during the last few decades of great structural change. The groups in the job market that have been most affected by these changes are young men and women, something which is evident in the high unemployment rates among the young population. The purpose of this study was to investigate young people’s own experiences and thoughts regarding their own situation as jobseekers in the municipality of Västervik. How do they see themselves and the situation they find themselves in? The narratives were collected in the form of 18 in-depth interviews with young men and women between the ages of 19-25, all them registered at the job center in Västervik. In the report different aspects of their situation are discussed, such as: the young people’s relation to their hometown, their thoughts on the meaning and value of work, the role of education, the economic, social and emotional consequences of unemployment, and their experiences of taking part in various programs for unemployed. The narratives we have encountered can be seen as having some general validity in the sense that many of their experiences are probably shared by other unemployed young people in other locations in Sweden, but Västervik is also a specific town with a specific history and specific conditions.The young men and women have an ambivalent relationship to their hometown. On the one hand they want to start a life in the same location, but on the other, the future there is seen as very uncertain. Many of those interviewed would like to have the kind of industrial jobs that their parents have and grandparents experienced, but which are nowadays less and less common. The norm of a fulltime job is strong among the young men and women – something which strengthens the image of the evident dissonance between their seemingly traditional dreams and intentions and the structures of possibilities the municipality and community suggest for them. Connected to this are the ways the young people must relate to the postindustrial demands of employability – which means the ability to enterprise and market oneself on a competitive market. These demands presuppose abilities that are more likely to be socialized and practiced in certain social environments rather than in others, and the majority of the young men and women interviewed have a background in aworking class environment where these values and approaches are far from selfevident.The socioeconomic marginalization that these young people experienceresults in much curtailed possibilities for a period of youthful experimentation aswell as for an expected adulthood. Being unemployed means one has difficulty ingaining the status of an adult, but due to economic shortages, there are also limits to how much they can take part in this experimental lifestyle that characterizes youth. The young men and women’s situation can thereby be seen as a grey zone; they are neither young nor adults in the normative sense. In some of the narratives the young people express critical thoughts with regard to the social conditions that their difficult situation can be related to. By extension, expressing these thoughts and stating their opinion can be strengthening and mobilizing for them, both as individuals and as a group. Insights may be gained about unemployment as a shared experience rather than as a personal failure

  • 2.
    Andresen, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Tomic, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    En undersökning av vilka faktorer som samvarierar med visstidsanställdas korttidssjukskrivning på en telefonbank2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of absenteeism has in recent years led to high costs for sick leave and early retirement in the public budgets. This study is based on quantitative data obtained through a designed questionnaire. The purpose of the study was to identify factors that correlate with the high short-term absence for sickness among temporary employees at a company. Previous studies have shown an association with short-term sick leave and leadership variables such as, perceived stress, motivation and tasks. The study's problem main question included these four disciplines. These were then analyzed in relation to age, sex and number of times the employee had been at home despite having been able to work. The study included temporary employees aged 18 to retirement-age. Of the 90 employees a total of 40 surveys were gathered. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to calculate the differences between groups (age and sex). Spearman’s rank correlation was used to calculate the relationship between variables. Results of the study showed that women appeared to have stayed at home more frequently than men even though they would have been able to work. The study also revealed that there was a significant difference between the variable "to stay at home despite the fact that the individual was able to work

  • 3.
    Bador, Kourosh
    et al.
    Agera Sweden ACT AB, Borås Sweden.
    Bador, Nima
    Agera Sweden ACT AB, Borås Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Partnership Interacts with the Association between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Positive Affect2016In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 768-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective well-being is a central concept of positive psychology, and is directly coupled with a high level of positive affect and a low level of negative affect. Positive affect is associated with enthusiasm, activity, hope and inspiration, while negative affect is associated with emotions such as anger, contempt, guilt, shame, fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Physical activityis crucial for both physical and mental health and is positively associated with well-being. Gender and social factors (e.g., parenthood or partnership) have complex relations with well-being and affect. In the present study we aimed to 1) examine the association between leisure-time physical activity and affect and 2) investigate whether or not social factors interact with this association. Method: The study included information from 155 Swedish university students: 64 men (mean age 23 years) and 91 women (mean age 27 years). Students were asked to estimate their usual engagement in physical activity during their leisure-time by responding to the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. They also reported the level of positive and negative emotions experienced during past weeks by completing the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule instrument. Results: In the Swedish student population leisure-time physical activity correlated only with positive and not with negative affect. Students' gender, age or whether or not they had children did not influence this association. However, this correlation differed significantly between those who lived with a partner and those who were single. Conclusion: Leisure-time physical activityis positively correlated with an overall subjective well-being, and this correlation is modifiedby the social factor of partnership

  • 4.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    et al.
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Wiciak, Izabela
    Police Academy, Szczytno, Poland.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Burnout among a group of policemen: the role of fatigue and emotions in the work context2012In: Book of Proceedings: Proceedings of the 10th European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology Conference / [ed] Jain, Aditya, Hollis, David, Andreou, Nicholas, Wehrle, Flavia, Nottingham: I-WHO, International House, Jubilee Campus , 2012, p. 125-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Policework is a profession with a high risk of operational and organizational stress at work. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of job-related affectivity and fatigue on burnout; specifically we aimed to study the relation between acute fatigue and burnout and the indirect role of emotion during work.

    We adopted the concept of burnout with two components: exhaustion and disengagement (Halbesleben & Demerouti, 2005). In this concept, exhaustion is related to the energetic aspect, and disengagement is connected to the motivational aspect. We hypothesized that acute fatigue is a precursor to burnout. According to Van Katwyk et al. (2000), psychological well-being is synonymous with work-related affectivity, and emotions are classified into four categories: high and low-arousal of pleasant emotions and high and low-arousal of unpleasant emotions. According to the theory of stress by Selye (1978), eustress and distress are assumed to be a high arousal of emotion.

    Methods: Acute fatigue was measured by the index in accordance with the Japan Society for Occupational Health. In order to investigate exhaustion and disengagement the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory was used (Halbesleben & Demerouti, 2005). Job-related affective well-being was used to assess emotions within the work context (Van Katwyk et al., 2000). Hierarchical regressions analyses were performed.

    Group: 187 policemen (28 women) filled in the questionnaires. Half of them worked in the prevention department and one-third were on duty in the criminal division. Their average work experience was 14.7 years (range 5 - 28).

    Results: Fatigue had a direct impact on exhaustion and disengagement. This first effect was 3 times stronger than the second. In the next step the emotions were entered into these separate models. We observed that a low arousal of unpleasant emotions had an indirect relation with fatigue and exhaustion. Additionally, a high arousal of positive and negative emotions (eustress and distress) mediated between fatigue and disengagement. These effects of partial mediation were large (f2 = .34 and f2 = .32 respectively).

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that a high arousal of emotions can lead to a deterioration of motivation of work, but a low arousal of negative emotions reduce energetic ability to work among policemen.

     

     

  • 5.
    Basinska, Beata Aleksandra
    et al.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Econ & Management, Gdansk.
    Wiciak, Izabela
    Police Acad Szczytno, Dept Adm, SzczytnoPoland.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Fatigue and burnout in police officers: the mediating role of emotions2014In: Policing: an international Journal of Police Strategies and Managment, ISSN 1363-951X, E-ISSN 1758-695X, ISSN 1363-951X, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 665-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The policing profession is associated with psychosocial hazard. Fatigue and burnout often affect police officers, and may impair the functioning of the organization and public safety. The relationship between fatigue and burnout may be modified by job-related emotions. While negative emotions have been extensively studied, the role of positive emotions at work is relatively less known. Additionally, there is insufficient knowledge about the role of the intensity of emotions. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of job-related emotions in the relationship between fatigue and burnout in police officers.

    Design/methodology/approach – In all, 169 police officers (26 women) completed a test battery that assessed acute fatigue, burnout (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory: exhaustion and disengagement), and emotions (Job-related Affective Well-being Scale).

    Findings – Acute fatigue was associated more strongly with exhaustion than with disengagement. Low-arousal negative emotions partially mediated the relationship between fatigue and exhaustion. High-arousal positive and negative emotions were partial mediators between fatigue and disengagement experienced by police officers.

    Research limitations/implications – The results show that high-arousal emotions were associated with changes in work motivation, while low-arousal negative emotions reduced energetic ability to work.

    Originality/value – This paper enhances understanding of burnout among police officers and the mediating role of emotions. The patterns of the relationships between fatigue, burnout and emotions are discussed in the context of the conservation of resources theory and the tripartite model of anxiety and depression.

  • 6.
    Berg, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Nordevik, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Uppfattningar och nöjdhet kring en HR-funktions uppgifter2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With real world research as the theoretical framework, a study was conducted as an assignment by the HR-function at Parker Hannifin AB in Sweden. Bearing in mind that there have been ambiguities concerning the roles of managers and HR-staff in previous research and that the managers’ perceptions about the HR-function affects the role of the HR, this study was conducted. This study about perceptions and satisfaction concerning the working of an HR-function aimed to highlight possible differences in customer satisfaction amongst managers based on which unit they belonged to, level of managerial position, the time they have worked as managers in the organization, and the frequency of contact with the HR-department. Moreover, the study considered whether the opinions concerning areas of improvement have changed since the last conducted research. This research was conducted through an analysis of documents and a self-produced questionnaire which was sent to all managers within Parker in Sweden. The results indicated that the same areas of improvement-needs remains, that existing documents are inconsequent in relation to each other, and that several significant differences between managers’ perceptions emerged. The HR-departments along with the different documents should tentatively become more consistent so that their roles become clearer.

  • 7.
    Berglöv, Jonna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Två arbetslag inom förskolan och deras syn på trivsel och arbetstillfredsställelse: En kvalitativ studie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns lite forskning kring förskollärares upplevelse av trivsel och arbetstillfredsställelse och därför syftade den här studien till att undersöka det hos förskollärare från två nybildade arbetslag. Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ ansats med en tematisk analysmetod genom halvstrukturerade intervjuer och öppna observationer. Resultatet visade att aspekter som påverkade positivt var känsla av upprymdhet i att gå till arbetet, glädje i att vara med barnen och trygghet i arbetslagen. Aspekter som påverkade negativt var stress, tidsbrist och frustration över saker de inte kunde kontrollera. Deras arbetsmiljö skulle förbättras om de negativa aspekterna reducerades och om de fick göra de förändringar de önskade. Exempel på förändringar var att de ville ha mer tid till planering, mindre barngrupper och större budget.

  • 8.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Widén, Stephen E.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences Swedish Institute for Disability Research Örebro University, Sweden..
    University teacher and student judgments on misleading behavior in study situations2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with teachers' and students' judgments of misleading (e.g. cheating or plagiarism) behaviors during examinations. The data was collected at a university in Sweden using a questionnaire presenting specific behaviors to bejudged. In total, 253 individuals completed the questionnaire. The teachers, incontrast to the students, tended to judge the behaviors presented as more serious. There was, however, plenty of variation in the judgments made by both teachers and students. Although the teachers, on average, tended to judge the behaviors as more serious, about 20% of the students were found to judge the behaviors as more serious than the average teacher. It was also found that about 20 % of the teachers judged the scenarios as less serious compared to the average student judgments. This indicates a lack of agreement among teachers and students on the definition of misleading behavior. Subjective opinions seem to play a more important role for judgment than having actual knowledge about the rules and regulations stating what misleading behaviors really are inacademic work.

  • 9.
    Bornstein, Marc H
    et al.
    Child and Family Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Bethesda, MD, USA..
    Putnick, Diane L
    Child and Family Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Bethesda, MD, USA..
    Lansford, Jennifer E
    Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan..
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
    Bombi, Anna Silvia
    Rome University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy..
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Macau, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA..
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Rome University La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome, Italy..
    Dodge, Kenneth A
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA..
    Malone, Patrick S
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA..
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya..
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Rome University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy..
    Skinner, Ann T
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA..
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Rome University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy..
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Rome, Italy.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Mixed blessings: parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.2017In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 880-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life.

    METHODS: We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants.

    RESULTS: Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different associations with child functioning. Studying both parent and child views of religiousness and parenting are important to understand the effects of parental religiousness on parents and children.

  • 10.
    Bowen, Erica
    et al.
    University of Worcester, Institute of Health and Society, United Kingdom.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Meeting adolescents 'where they're at': the use of technology to prevent violence and abuse in adolescent romantic relationships2017In: Eliminating gender-based violence / [ed] A. Taket & B.R. Crisp (red), Abingdon: Routledge, 2017, p. 54-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Danemo, Björn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Schultz, Tobias
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    En kritisk granskning av riskstyrningsprocessen på Reinertsen Sverige AB: en kvalitativ studie ur projektledarna på Reinertsen Sverige AB perspektiv.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's petroleum industry companies work systematically with risk management to prevent major accidents; despite this major accident have occurred on several occasions in the history of petroleum industry. Many of these accidents are derived from deficiencies in companies' risk management. The purpose of this study is to do a critical research on Reinertsen Sverige AB through the project managers' perspective, and to understand how communications and group dynamics produce conditions for the risk management process. Semi-structured interviews were used on five project managers to gather data which was used in a thematic analysis. Results indicated that project managers experienced variations in the collective engagement which confines the project team possibilities to implement an effective risk management. Results also indicated the need for implications training in risk management which can be affected by lack of education and experience of installations offshore. Project managers also indicated deficiencies in the communication with platforms which affect the risk management. This study clarifies three main areas which have direct impact on the deviancies and are evolvable, group dynamics, communication and experience.

  • 12. Drysdale, Maureen
    et al.
    Ward, Lisa J.
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Zaitseva, Elena
    Sheri, Dressler
    Comparing the Attributes of Students in Cooperative Education or Work-Integrated Learning Programs in Four Countries2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies, the internalization of markets, and higher numbers of university graduates have led to greater competition for employment and greater needs for higher-order employment skills, practical experience, and a strong sense of competence. An increasing number of students are turning to work-integrated programs of learning (WIL) –where they can gain the necessary skills to enhance their future employment and career prospects.

    The aim of this international project was to examine the relationship between work-integrated learning and the psychological variables believed to play a role for success in the transition to the labour market.

    Students from four countries (Canada, Sweden, England, and the USA) completed the same online questionnaire measuring self-concept, self-efficacy, hope (goal-setting, goal achievement), procrastination, motivation, study skills, and work ethic. Results indicated there were many attitudes and behaviours shared by WIL and non-WIL students in the four countries – however there were also significant differences that shed light on WIL outcomes and/or the type of students who select WIL, regardless of where they reside. WIL students appear to have a stronger math self-concept and problem-solving self-concept. Non WIL students appear to have more confidence to attain academic and career goals, but it decreases by the end of their studies. On the other hand, confidence increases substantially for WIL students. Gender effects and achievement differences between the two groups will also be discussed. In summary, Students in WIL programs –regardless of where they reside -appear more similar than different.

  • 13.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    ashemite University, Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, HJordan .
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples, Department of Psychology, Italy .
    Lei, Chang
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, Macau .
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    University of Dheli, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, India .
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Università di Roma, Department of Psychology, Italy .
    Dodge, Kenneth .A
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology,Cyprus .
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Kenya .
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma, Department of Psychology, Italy .
    Skinner, AnnT.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Tapanya, Somabt
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Thailand .
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, France .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, Philippines .
    Interaction of reward seeking and self-regulation in the prediction of risk taking: A cross-national test of the dual systems model2016In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1593-1605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether these relations differ as a function of age and culture. To compare across cultures, we conduct 2 sets of analyses: 1 comparing individuals from Asian and Western countries, and 1 comparing individuals from low- and high-GDP countries. Results indicate that reward seeking and self-regulation have largely independent associations with risk taking and that the influences of each variable on risk taking are not unique to adolescence, but that their link to risk taking varies across cultures. © 2016 American Psychological Association.

  • 14.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University,Department of Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, USA and King Abdulaziz University.
    Icenogle, Grace
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    University of Delhi, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, New Delhi, India..
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Università di Roma, "La Sapienza", Department of Psychology, Roma, RM, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA..
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology, Kallipoleos, Cyprus..
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA..
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno, Kenya..
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma, "La Sapienza", Department of Psychology, Roma, RM, Italy.
    Skinner, Anne T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, Metro Manila, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University and Emirates College for Advanced Education, Al Zafranah, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Takash, Hanan M. S.
    Hashemite University, Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, Zarqa, Jordan..
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Department of Psychology, Caserta, CE, Italy .
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology,Zhuhai Shi, China..
    Age patterns in risk taking across the world2018In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1052-1072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological data indicate that risk behaviors are among the leading causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consistent with this, laboratory-based studies of age differences in risk behavior allude to a peak in adolescence, suggesting that adolescents demonstrate a heightened propensity, or inherent inclination, to take risks. Unlike epidemiological reports, studies of risk taking propensity have been limited to Western samples, leaving questions about the extent to which heightened risk taking propensity is an inherent or culturally constructed aspect of adolescence. In the present study, age patterns in risk-taking propensity (using two laboratory tasks: the Stoplight and the BART) and real-world risk taking (using self-reports of health and antisocial risk taking) were examined in a sample of 5,227 individuals (50.7% female) ages 10-30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 Western and non-Western countries (China, Colombia, Cyprus, India, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the US). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) risk taking follows an inverted-U pattern across age groups, peaking earlier on measures of risk taking propensity than on measures of real-world risk taking, and (2) age patterns in risk taking propensity are more consistent across countries than age patterns in real-world risk taking. Overall, risk taking followed the hypothesized inverted-U pattern across age groups, with health risk taking evincing the latest peak. Age patterns in risk taking propensity were more consistent across countries than age patterns in real-world risk taking. Results suggest that although the association between age and risk taking is sensitive to measurement and culture, around the world, risk taking is generally highest among late adolescents

  • 15.
    Dåderman, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lindgren, May
    Lund University.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The prevalence of dyslexia and AD/HD in a sample of forensic psychiatric rapists2004In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 371-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of dyslexia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) (DSM-IV) is markedly increased among those who are sentenced for criminal offences. The aim of the study was to identify developmental disabilities, dyslexia and AD/HD among severely disturbed men in forensic psychiatric care, and to study the co-occurrence of such disabilities, with the objective to discuss the importance of the diagnoses in forensic psychiatry. The participants were 10 males who had committed rape on adult women, and included two murder-rapists, one of which had murdered more than one victim (i.e. a serial murderer). All had been assigned to special long term forensic psychiatric care, based predominantly on a psychodynamic ground. In order to be identified as having dyslexia, a participant’s performance on at least three out of four tests of academic skills had to be markedly below the expected level (more than two stanine steps), given the participant’s non-verbal intellectual capacity and considering the length of his education. AD/HD was investigated by studying the participants’ forensic psychiatric files and by a clinical interview. Seven of the 10 participants met the DSM-IV criteria for dyslexia, and six of them met the DSM-IV criteria for AD/HD. Four participants had AD/HD and dyslexia, three had AD/HD but no dyslexia, and two had dyslexia but no AD/HD. Only one participant had neither dyslexia nor AD/HD. The participants with dyslexia performed well in tests assessing non-verbal reasoning, visuo-spatial capacity and visual memory. Although the generalization of the results from 10 rapists is severely limited, the results indicate the importance of assessing dyslexia as well as AD/HD in people who are admitted for forensic psychiatric assessment. The lack of correct diagnoses may negatively influence the choice of appropriate forensic psychiatric care. Early assessment of those disorders might have a positive influence on the psychological development and socialization process in people with dyslexia and/or AD/HD.

  • 16.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Faculty of Management and Economics Gdansk University of Technology.
    The work-family interface: Job demands, work engagement and turnover intentions of Polish nurses2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A conflict between one's professional life and one's family life may lead to lower well-being both at work and home. Most nurses are women who have traditionally reconciled their professional life with family life. One aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the work-family conflict (WFC),the family-work conflict (FWC), and the perception of job demands (quantitative workload and interpersonal conflicts at work). We intended also to examine the components of work engagement (vigour, dedication, and absorption) and turnover intentions. Another aim was to determine whether the variables that we examined are important for turnover intentions. This study comprised Polish registered nurses. The following instruments were used:Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales (Netemeyer, Boles, &McMurrian, 1996), the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale and Quantitative Workload Index (Spector & Jex, 1998), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale(Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006), and measures of turnover intentions (intention to leave the present workplace and intention to leave the nursing profession). The score on the scale to measure WFC was positively related to perceived workload and to both turnover intentions, while negatively related to vigour. The WFC was experienced significantly more intensively than FWC. The perception of differences in mean scale scores of job demands had a moderate effect on the FWC and WFC, while differences in mean scale scores of vigour had a strong effect on the WFC. WFC, quantitative workload and a low level of dedication were significant predictors of the intention to leave the present workplace, while the level of job demands was a significant predictor of theintention to leave the nursing profession. The results are interpreted and discussed using Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory.

  • 17.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Colli, Daniel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The significance of the sense of coherence for various coping resources in stress situations used by police officers in on-the-beat service2014In: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, ISSN 1232-1087, E-ISSN 1896-494X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPolice officers meet many stressors as part of their occupation. The psychological resource "sense of coherence" (SOC) protects against ill-health, but its impact on coping resources for stress situations has not been studied in the population of police officers. Different approaches to investigate the significance of SOC for different outcomes have been identified in literature, leading to some difficulties in the interpretation and generalization of results. The aim was therefore to explore SOC and the coping resources, and to examine the significance of SOC for various coping resources for stress using different models in a sample of Swedish police officers providing on-the-beat service.

    Materials and MethodsOne hundred and one police officers (age: mean = 33 years, SD = 8; 29 females) were included, and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-29) and the Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) were used. The dependent variable in each regression analysis was one of the coping resources: cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual/philosophical, physical, and a global resource. Global SOC-29 and/or its components (comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness) were investigated as independent variables.

    ResultsAll CRI and SOC-29 scores except for that of spiritual/philosophical resources were higher than those of reference groups. Manageability was the most important component of SOC for various coping resources in stress situations used by police officers.

    ConclusionA deeper study of manageability will give useful information, because this component of SOC is particularly significant in the variation in resources used by police officers to cope with stress. Salutogenesis, the origin of well-being, should be more in focus of future research on workplaces with a high level of occupational stress.

  • 18.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Det har blivit populärt att vara psykiskt sjuk i Kalifornien: konsekvenser av den nya lagen Three-strikes and you're out law2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, no 51-52, p. 6038-6039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of the new Three-strikes and you're out law, the law which first came into effect on 1994, was to protect innocent members of the community. A person convicted of his or her third conviction after two prior serious convictions under Three-strikes will typically receive a sentence of no less than 25 years to life in state prison. This law is well-known in California among criminals, especially repeat offenders and many of them left the state. The rate of homicides in the state has decreased by 50%. Many repeat offenders remained in California and continued to commit new crimes. Before Three-strikes was enacted, it was very uncommon for forensic psychiatrists to see criminals malingering symptoms of mental illness in any but the most serious of cases of murder or rape. Since the implementation of the new law, it has been found malingering to be much more common. Hundreds of patients at state mental hospitals fake insanity to avoid prison, costing taxpayers far more than the cost of incarceration in a prison. The most common types of malingers are discussed.

  • 19.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Developing courses in quantitative methods for undergraduate psychology students: teaching facilitated by experimental exercises with work-related elements2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2016, p. 3-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers need to develop and implement effective teaching methods when educating students who come to the university through “broadened recruitment”, that is, students with parents without higher education, and also older students who want to supplement their previous university education. These groups have, at least theoretically, more practical experiences and possible poorer study outcomes.

     

    University West tops the list of Swedish universities in the percentage of students with parents without higher education. In addition, during recent years, unemployment in the region around University West increased (by about 75%). This fact leads to a higher percentage of older students with work-related experience. These rapid changes have put us who teach methods and statistics before the question of how to teach more effectively, so that a high “throughput” can be maintained in combination with a constantly decreasing number of teaching hours. Broadening participation and high throughput: how can we make it happen?

     

    This study was an attempt to implement “learning by doing”, an activity-based teaching method where theory, practice, reflection and action are combined. In their learning of experimental methods and statistics, students at University West were expected to integrate their past and present working skills in an experiment that simulated two work-related situations (applying for employment as a manager, and applying for leave of absence from prison). In a three-group experiment, an attempt was made to manipulate the applicant’s degree of empathy, which was then measured with the IRI scale. Collected data were used in statistics education, and results were discussed with students. In subsequent knowledge tests, the proportion of the grade “fail” was low. Course evaluations reflected a high degree of student satisfaction.

     

    Therefore, the use of “learning by doing” in the teaching of statistics, which is normally considered to be difficult to understand and apply, is recommended in order to increase motivation to learn statistics.

  • 20.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Differences between severely conduct-disordered juvenile males and normal juvenile males: the study of personality traits1999In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 827-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits among a group of 47 severely conduct-disordered (C-D) juvenile males from four Swedish national correctional institutions for serious offences were studied. The Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-I), including an impulsivity scale from the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy (IVE) inventory, and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales (SSS) form V, were administered to the C-D juveniles. The scores from the KSP for this group were compared to scores from a presentative group of 82 normal juvenile male subjects from the Swedish longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA). Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated between the KSP scales and scales from the EPQ-I, and between the SSS and scales from the EPQ-I and KSP inventories. The C-D juveniles displayed notably higher scores than the mean normal scores on psychopathy-related personality scales. The present results are consistent with earlier findings concerning personality dimensions in adult criminal psychopaths: high scores on impulsivity and sensation seeking, and low scores on conformity reflected in low socialization and high psychoticism.

  • 21.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Fallet Thomas Quick: ”Bortträngda” minnen och hans diagnoser2016In: Diagnoser / [ed] Kurt Almqvist, Stockholm: Axel och Margaret Ax:son Johnsons Stiftelse , 2016, 1. ed., p. 55-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Hur kan ett arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL) synliggöras inom ämnet psykologi?2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan, 2016, p. 1-2Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte med denna presentation är att tydliggöra hur vi inom ämnet psykologi synliggör AIL, genom att beskriva resultaten från genomförda studier inom ett samverkansprojekt med aktörer från arbetslivet och akademin. Resultat från detta projekt ledde till ett nyligen avslutat verifieringsprojekt, finansierat av Innovations Kontor Väst, Chalmers. Båda projekten kommer att presenteras. Exempel ges på hur dessa psykologiska forskningsprojekt kunnat bidra till implementeringen av AIL i psykologiundervisning.

    Syfte med projektet ”Studier om en ny svensk ledarskapsmodell som bygger på teorin om ledarintelligens” var att utveckla en praktiskt tillämpbar ledarskapsmodell som bygger på Ronthys teori (2006, 2013) om ledarskapets intelligens. Detta gjordes genom att validera teorin bland chefer och ledare i ett samarbete mellan forskare inom akademin och externa aktörer (organisationer och företag). Teorin är sprungen ur Ronthys erfarenheter av att undervisa och att handleda omkring 4 000 chefer i utvecklingssamtal.

    Ett flertal examensarbeten har skrivits inom projektet, och några har resulterat i konferenspresentationer och i vetenskapliga publikationer. Genom sitt deltagande i projektet får våra studenter kontakter med ansvariga i kommuner, företag och organisationer, och ökar därigenom sina möjligheter att bli anställda. De får även bättre förståelse av arbetslivets villkor och kan på ett djupare sätt diskutera sina resultat, och får därmed bättre studieresultat. Genom examensarbeten bedrivs en reflexionsdrivande undervisning, där studenter lär sig vad det kan innebära att vara chef eller ledare i ett arbetsliv som är i förändring. Allt detta kräver eftertanke: ”Vem är jag?”, ”Vad vill jag jobba med?”. Studenterna får även en närmare relation till yrken och verksamheter utanför akademin, samt utvecklar sin yrkeskompetens genom att reflektera kring användningen av testmetodik.

    Slutsatsen är att AIL kan synliggöras i såväl psykologisk forskning som undervisning på samma sätt som AIL synliggörs i andra ämnen, exempelvis pedagogik eller informatik.

  • 23.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland; Faculty of Psychology, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland.
    Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women.

    Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations.

    Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children.

    Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations.

    Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  • 24.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland.
    Work-family interference: Occupational demands, work engagement and turnover intentions in nurses2015In: PSYSOC-2015 Abstracts Book, 2015, p. 26-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how to manage incompatible professional and non-professional demands has attracted attention from both scholars and practitioners in recent decades. One aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the work-family conflict (WFC), the family-work conflict (FWC), and the perception of job demands (quantitative workload and interpersonal conflicts at work). We intended also to examine the components of work engagement (vigour, dedication, and absorption) and turnover intentions. Another aim was to determine whether the variables that we examined are important for turnover intentions. This study comprised 98 nurses (mean age 41, SD = 6 years). The following instruments were used: Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales, the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale and Quantitative Workload Index, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and measures of turnover intentions. The score on the scale to measure WFC was positively related to perceived workload and to both turnover intentions, while negatively related to vigour. The FWC was positively related to absorption. The WFC was experienced significantly more intensively than FWC. The perception of differences in mean scale scores of job demands had a moderate effect on the FWC and WFC, while differences in mean scale scores of vigour had a strong effect on the WFC. WFC, quantitative workload and a low level of dedication were significant predictors of the intention to leave the present workplace, while the level of job demands was a significant predictor of the intention to leave the nursing profession. The results are interpreted and discussed using Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources theory. Health organizations should develop guidance and counselling to promote good and efficient work with decent working conditions and a happy family life for nurses.

  • 25.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hellström, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Interrater Reliability of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Results on Multiple Analysis Levels for a Sample of Patients Undergoing Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation2018In: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 234-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scores from the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R) are used to support decisions regarding personal liberty. In our study, performed in an applied forensic psychiatric setting, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for absolute agreement, single rater (ICCA1) were .89 for the total score, .82 for Factor 1, .88 for Factor 2, and .78 to .86 for the four facets. These results stand in contrast to lower reliabilities found in a majority of field studies. Disagreement among raters made a low contribution (0%-5%) to variability of scores on the total score, factor, and facet level. For individual items, ICCA1 varied from .38 to .94, with >.80 for seven of the 20 items. Items 17 (“Many short-term marital relationships”) and 19 (“Revocation of conditional release”) showed very low reliabilities (.38 and .43, respectively). The importance of knowledge about factors that can affect scoring of forensic instruments (e.g., education, training, experience, motivation, raters’ personality, and quality of file data) is emphasized.

  • 26.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Hellström, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Psychopathy Assessment with PCL-R has High Interrater Reliability if Conducted Without Bias2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scores of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) are used to support decisions regarding personal liberty. There is increasing concern about its interrater reliability in applied contexts, where low reliabilites have been obtained. We report a study in which 12 forensic psychiatric staff raters assessed 43 male offenders for psychopathy using the PCL-R. These ratings were compared with those obtained at a second occasion from separate interviews utilizing similar file data by an independent researcher, experienced as an expert for the defense. Intraclass correlation coefficients were high; .89 for the PCL-R total scale, .82 for Factor 1, and .38 – .94 for individual items. These results stand in contrast to the considerably lower reliabilities found in recent field studies, mainly conducted within adversary judicial systems. In such contexts, ratings may be biased. Interrater reliability of PCL-R is likely be increased if raters utilize similar data. 

  • 27.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Självbedömningsskalor avslöjar psykopati [Self-rating scales reveal psychopathy]1998In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 383-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is regarded as a dimensional concept - i.e., a person can be more or less psyhopathic. This approach enables psychopathy to be measured with reliable, validated personality scales, and to be related to impairment of serontonergic function in the brain. Several personality inventories are described in the article, especially the Karolinska Scales of Personality, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales, form V, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, including an impulsiveness scale from the IVE (Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy) inventory, and the old dimensional scale, the Marke-Nyman Personality Temperament scale based on the personality theory of Henrik Sjöbring. In this way both old and new, and both Swedish and foreign personality concepts are linked together. Personality scales are easy to use and enable better stability and validity of results to be attained.

  • 28.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Nilvang, Karolina
    Levander, Sten
    "I dislike my body, I am unhappy, but my parents are not disappointed in me": self-esteem in young women with dyslexia2014In: Applied Psychological Research Journal, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 50-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Strong self-esteem is related to good psychological health. Dyslexia has a negative effect on self-esteem, but this effect depends on support levels at home and/or school. Women with dyslexia are an under investigated group, and it has been suggested that female dyslexics should be given special attention from teachers with a view to improving their self-esteem. This paper set out to compare levels of self-esteem in women with dyslexia and normative women, and to investigate relationships between dyslexic problems and self-esteem.

    Method: It was hypothesized that women with dyslexia would have a weaker self-esteem. We have assessed dyslexia, using a Swedish battery of standardised pedagogical, IQ, and neuropsychological tests, and the self-esteem of twelve young women (mean age 19 years; range 16-30), using a Swedish questionnaire that distinguishes between different dimensions of self-esteem (physical characteristics, talents and gifts, psychological health, relationships with parents and family, and relationships with others). Comparative (t-tests) and correlational (Pearson’s correlations and stepwise multiple regression analyses) statistical methods were performed.

    Results: The study subjects had a weaker self-esteem than that of a normative sample of females (N = 313) in all dimensions, except for the dimension of relationships with parents and family. Spelling ability was related to "Physical characteristics" (negative) and to "Relations with parents and family" (positive). Moreover, speed of reading was related to "Psychological health" (positive).

    Conclusions: The use of questionnaires that distinguish between different dimensions of self-esteem and a larger sample is recommended in future studies.

  • 29.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ragnestål Impola, Carina
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Some Bright And Dark Sides Of Personality May Be Adaptive For Well-Being In Face Of Workplace Bullying2017In: Enabling Change Through Work and Organizational Psychology : Opportunities and Challenges for Research and Practice, Dublin, Irland, 2017, article id Th-OR-S36-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Targets of workplace bullying tend to have poor health, and we set out to determine whether personality may predict their health quality. 

    Design/Methodology We collected data from 172 people (98 women); social workers, engineers and restaurant employees. To measure health, we used parts of EQ-5D (usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression), and EQ VAS, a visual analogue scale. Bright (Big-Six) and dark (Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy, and narcissism) personality traits were measured by MiniIPIP6 and Short-D3. NAQ-R was used to determine who feel bullied. The relationships of the traits and bullying with health (outcome) were analyzed using 3-step hierarchical linear regressions, controlling for gender, age and social desirability.

    Results In face of workplace bullying low extraversion, humility-sincerity and low narcissism significantly predicted poor health related to both discomfort and usual activities. Separate regression models regarding both bright and dark sides of personality predicting depression/anxiety became non-significant when NAQ-R was entered.

    Limitations Cross-sectional design and Swedish population.

    Research/Practical Implications These results imply that high extraversion and narcissism may protect aspects of health important for working life in face of workplace bullying, while low levels of these traits make a target’s health more sensitive. 

    Originality/Value The study is the first to analyze different dimensions of health quality with predictors of both bright and dark personality in face of workplace bullying, discussing the results in the light of Hobfoll’s COR theory and evolution theory. 

  • 30.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ragnestål-Impola,, Carina
    Student MSc at Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Bully-typifying personality traits (the Dark Triad) of workplace bullies are not shared by their victims2015In: PSYSOC-2015 Abstracts Book, 2015, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying in workplaces creates great suffering for the victims and causes major consequences for the workplace atmosphere and the organization. Personality in bullies and their victims is an under-investigated issue, and some researchers have suggested that not only those who bully, but also those feeling bullied may be likely to act aggressively by sharing several bully-typifying personality traits. This investigation set out to compare levels of dark personality traits (“Dark Triad”: Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy, and subclinical narcissism) in workplace bullies and their victims. This study comprised 172 employed people (99 women): social workers, engineers, restaurant employees, and security personnel. The study used two questionnaires, Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) and Negative Acts Questionnaire-Perpetrators (NAQ-P) to measure who feel bullied and who can be classified as bullies. Dark Triad personality traits were measured using the Short Dark Triad (SD3) self-report measure. Bivariate correlational analyses determined that the NAQ-R was positively associated with the NAQ-P (.27). Participants who reported being the target of workplace bullying were no more likely to act aggressively themselves. The NAQ-P was positively associated with Machiavellianism (.60), subclinical psychopathy (.58) and subclinical narcissism (.54). Negligible associations (.00, .01, -.14) were found between the NAQ-R and these traits. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that Machiavellianism and subclinical psychopathy, but not subclinical narcissism, related significantly to the NAQ-P. Machiavellianism alone accounted for 36% of the variance in bullying behaviour.

  • 31.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ragnestål-Impola, Carina
    Msc, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Workplace Bullies, Not Their Victims, Score High in Dark Triad, but Both Tend Toward Introvert Neuroticism2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation set out to compare levels of the Dark Triad traits and the Big-Six personality factors in workplace bullies and their victims in 171 people (98 women); social workers, engineers and restaurant employees in Sweden. Two questionnaires, NAQ-R and NAQ-P, were used to determine who feel bullied and who are bullies. The Dark Triad traits were measured using the Short-D3, while the Big-Six were measured by the MiniIPIP6. The relationships of the traits with bullying were analyzed using 2-step hierarchical linear regression. The first step included the Dark Triad––Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy, and narcissism. The model explained about half of the variation in bullying. In the next step, the Big-Six factors–honesty-humility, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness–as well as social desirability were entered. This added 9% in explained variance. Machiavellianism and psychopathy were significant positive predictors of bullying in both steps. In step 2, narcissism, neuroticism and honesty-humility were significant positive predictors, while extraversion was a significantly negative predictor. Regression models with the same predictors, but with victimization as the dependent variable, explained only 4% of the variation in step 1, narcissism being the only significant (negative) predictor. In step 2, including the Big-Six factors in the model explained an extra 14%. Significant predictors of victimization were high neuroticism and low extraversion. These were the only traits shared by bullies and bullied. Personality traits may give an indication of who in an organization is most likely to become a target of bullying, as well as who is most likely to bully others.

     

  • 32.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ronthy, Marika
    Amfora Future Dialogue AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekegren, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Studieförbundet Vuxenskolan, Sweden.
    Mårdberg, Emanuel Bertil
    LPADATA AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    "Managing with my Heart, Brain and Soul": The Development of the Leadership Intelligence Questionnaire2013In: Journal of Cooperative Education and Internships, ISSN 1933-2130, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 61-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Swedish leadership theory of "leadership intelligence" (Ronthy, 2006; 2013) is characterized by a work integrated learning approach. This theory arose from analysis of the experiences of managers trained in performance appraisals, and describes the balance between being a leader and being a manager. A leader develops and uses, in an integrative good balance, leadership intelligence, which comprises emotional intelligence, rational intelligence and spiritual intelligence. The aim of this study was to further develop the Leadership Intelligence Questionnaire (LIQ) created by Ronthy (which has been developed to measure leadership intelligence), and to examine its reliability. Over 400 leaders, aged 21 to 69 years completed the 71-item LIQ. A shorter, 32-item version of the LIQ was developed by confirmatory factor analysis thorough excluding psychometrically "poor" items. The internal consistency measured by Cronbach’s alpha was high (> .80), and we conclude that leadership intelligence may be reliably measured with both versions of the questionnaire. Future studies should examine the internal and external validity of the LIQ before its introduction into education or into managerial practice.

  • 33.
    Dåderman, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Strindlund, Hans
    Wiklund, Nils
    Örebro University.
    Fredriksen, Svend-Otto
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Gothenburg.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The importance of a urine sample in persons intoxicated with flunitrazepam: legal issues in a forensic psychiatric case study of a serial murderer2003In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sedative–hypnotic benzodiazepine flunitrazepam (FZ) is abused worldwide. The purpose of our study was to investigate violence and anterograde amnesia following intoxication with FZ, and how this was legally evaluated in forensic psychiatric investigations with the objective of drawing some conclusions about the importance of urine sample in a case of a suspected intoxication with FZ. The case was a 23-year-old male university student who, intoxicated with FZ (and possibly with other substances such as diazepam, amphetamines or cannabis), first stabbed an acquaintance and, 2 years later, two friends to death. The police investigation files, including video-typed interviews, the forensic psychiatric files, and also results from the forensic autopsy of the victims, were compared with the information obtained from the case. Only partial recovery from anterograde amnesia was shown during a period of several months. Some important new information is contained in this case report: a forensic analysis of blood sample instead of a urine sample, might lead to confusion during police investigation and forensic psychiatric assessment (FPA) of an FZ abuser, and in consequence wrong legal decisions. FZ, alone or combined with other substances, induces severe violence and is followed by anterograde amnesia. All cases of bizarre, unexpected aggression followed by anterograde amnesia should be assessed for abuse of FZ. A urine sample is needed in case of suspected FZ intoxication. The police need to be more aware of these issues, and they must recognise that they play a crucial role in an assessment procedure. Declaring FZ an illegal drug is strongly recommended.

  • 34.
    Engdahl, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Stenberg, Sofie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Kommunikation och stress på demensboende: - En intervju- och observationsstudie av vårdgivares kommunikation medvarandra2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, communication is a vital component to avoid incidents. The aim was to illuminate the importance of communication during transport, to study how caregivers are influenced by time related stress, and how being stressed for time influences communication and to compare the result from this study with an earlier by the same authors. Therefore the following issues were chosen: 1) How caregivers communicate with each other during transport of the care-taker 2) Does time related to stress influence communication? 3) Is there any difference in communication-pattern between two experienced caregivers and one experienced and one less experienced caregivers? Five semi-structured interviews and an observational study were conducted, followed by thematic analysis. The interview participants consisted of four experienced caregivers and a trainee. The results show that the caregivers used double communication, where they indirectly informed each other through the care recipient. A great deal of work was spent on routine and therefore communication between the caregivers was not required. To be on "the same level" and to count before a transport was an important part of communication. Experiencing low stress was something that may had come with years of experience. The conclusion was that a great deal of what was going on was supported by reliable praxis, which affected how the caregivers communicated and experienced the stress level. Many of those who worked the geriatric care had worked together for years. Consequently the need for instructions was reduced. Since the caregivers did not experience stress as a problem, neither did they experience that communication was influenced. These results were further verified in three follow-up interviews at two other dementia care facilities. The theories proposed were supported by the follow-up interviews which were based on analyses from the observation.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, T. Gerhard
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Masche-No, Johanna G.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Psychology, Building 14, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Personality traits of prisoners as compared to general populations: Signs of adjustment to the situation?2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 107, p. 237-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two recent studies have challenged the well-established belief that offending behaviors are inversely related to the personality trait of conscientiousness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore prisoners’ levels of traits according to the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality compared to control groups, with a focus on conscientiousness. Two separate samples of inmates in Swedish high-security prisons were investigated in three studies. Inmates and non-inmates completed a Swedish-language translation of Goldberg’s (1999) International Personality Item Pool questionnaire (IPIP-NEO, Bäckström, 2007). Male inmates (n = 46) in Studies 1 and 2 scored higher on conscientiousness than non-inmates (norm data based on approximately 800 males, and a students’ sample), which conflicts with previous results. Study 3 further explored the conscientiousness differences on the facet level. Male and female inmates (n = 131) scored higher on order and self-discipline (even after an adjustment for social desirability) than students (n = 136). In conjunction with previous findings, these differences are interpreted as being either temporal or enduring adjustments to the prison environment. It is suggested that researchers and clinical teams should cautiously interpret the FFM factor of conscientiousness (and its facets) when planning the further treatment of inmates.

  • 36.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lundin, Linda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Punzi, Elisabeth
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    A discursive analysis concerning information on "ADHD" presented to parents by the National Institute of Mental Health (USA).2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 30938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A discourse analysis was performed based on an online document under the headline: "What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, ADD)?" published by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), USA. Three parts of the document were analysed: (1) The introductory part, as this sets the tone of the whole text. (2) Parts of the text that were specifically addressed to parents. (3) Etiology and pathology of "ADHD" with reference to a number of different symptoms and behaviors. Inattention and hyperactivity are presented in the document as a floating spectrum of symptoms caused by "ADHD." Other factors of importance for children's development, that is, early attachment, close relationships, previous experiences, culture, and contexts are ignored. Children who are perceived as inattentive and hyperactive are portrayed as having inherent difficulties with no reference to their emotions or efforts to communicate. The child is viewed as suffering from a lifelong disorder that might not be cured but controlled by a diagnosis and subsequent medication. Parents are advised to control their child's behavior and to strive for early diagnosis in order to receive treatment provided by experts. Those who are presented as experts rely on a biomedical model, and in the document, detailed descriptions of medication to correct the undesired behaviors are provided. The value of judgment in the assessment of different symptoms and behaviors that signifies "ADHD" is absent, rather taken-for-granted beliefs were identified throughout the document. A heterogeneous set of behaviors is solely described as a disorder and hereafter it is stressed that the same behaviors are caused by the disorder. In this manner, cause and effects of "ADHD" are intertwined through circular argumentation.

  • 37.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Punzi, Elisabeth
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Challenging the ADHD consensus2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-2, article id 31124Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Floberg, Bent
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Avdelningsledare på högskolan: Möten och ledarskapsroller2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att illustrera avdelningsledares roller och möten i det dagliga arbetet. Uppdraget som avdelningsledare på en högskola är speciellt då avdelningsledaren arbetar inom tre olika kulturer samt är begränsat i både tid och omfattning. Studien har utförts genom observationer där tre avdelningsledare har följts. Resultatet visar att 64 % av arbetstiden gick åt till olika typer av möten och de vanligaste ledarskapsrollerna som observerades var som ledare och informationsspridare. Vidare bedömdes avdelningsledarna bedriva ett ledarskap som visade sig till övervägande del vara vad som enligt Luthans (1988) är ett effektivt ledarskap för organisationen, snarare än ett karriärinriktat ledarskap.

  • 39.
    Gouranios Nycander, Mikael
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Hermansson, Tobias
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    En studie av sambanden mellan locus of control, self-efficacy, socialt stöd och positiv feedback2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational psychology can sometimes appear too problem-oriented emphasizing only the problems and conflicts within organizations. Though there is some focus on studying of the relationships and processes that contributes to people, groups and organizations working well. The purpose of this study was so to explore possible relationships between positive feedback, self-efficacy, locus of control and social support. Data was collected through a web-based questionnaire. The scales that were used were Work Locus of Control Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Social Support subscale from QPS Nordic. To measure positive feedback the authors constructed a scale specifically for the task. The participants of this study were employees at three different elementary schools in a middle-sized town in Sweden. The sample size was 58 persons (47 women and 11 men). The result of this study showed significant correlations between positive feedback, self-efficacy and locus of control. Conclusions made from the result are that positive feedback plays a significant role in the workplace and is a variable to consider for further investigation. 

  • 40.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Beliefs in dualism and personal values2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dualists view mind and body as two fundamentally different kinds of “things”. Mind and the physical body are viewed as equally real and neither of them is, in a primal way, thought to be dependent on the other. Cartesian or “substance” dualism include the idea that mind and body belong to two different substances, the non-physical and the physical. These two substances are furthermore thought to influence each other causally. Physicalism, on the other hand, is the notion that everything is physical or totally dependent of and determined by physical items. In this view everything in the world is composed by the same kind of substance, which is physical or material. All mental states are hence fundamentally physical states. In the current study Swedish university students views on the mind-body relationship as well as the importance they attached to different personal values were measured using a self-report inventory. Students that attached more importance to the power value; that is to strive for social status and prestige, and control or dominance over people and resources, were found to hold stronger non-dualistic or physicalistic views on the mind-body relationship. If similar results in future studies of professional philosophers should be found it would challenge the idea that philosophical arguments and opinions is something “above” or “are unaffected by” psychological factors such as personal values.

  • 41.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Bergström, Kerstin
    Dept. of Home Economics Gothenburg University.
    Fuentes, Christian
    Dept. of Business Administration Marketing Group, School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg University.
    Shanahan, Helena
    Dept. of Home Economics Gothenburg University.
    Solér, Cecilia
    Dept. of Business Administration Marketing Group, School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg University.
    Exploring the perception and use of environmental information in the food system2006In: Environmental information in the food supply system, Stockholm: Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI) , 2006, p. 31-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Biel, Anders
    Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Predictors of purchase of eco-labelled food products: A panel study2007In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 701-708Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Biel, Anders
    Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The impact of environmental information on professional purchasers' choice of products2007In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 421-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Personality traits and personal values: A replication with a Swedish sample2015In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To maintain rigor and transparency in the science of personality psychology, we conducted a replication of the often cited “The Big Five Personality Factors and Personal Values” by Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, and Knafo (2002). More than a decade ago, based on a study of Israeli students, they presented results on how personality traits and personal values relate. In the current replication study with Swedish students, we related the Big Five personality traits to Schwartz´s personal values. Our results replicated most of the earlier findings. Whereas the earlier study tested the predictive validity of traits and values on religious beliefs, presumed to be under a relatively high degree of cognitive control, our study tested the willingness-to-pay for Fairtrade alternatives. Our findings confirmed the earlier findings that personal values explain substantially more variance than personality traits in this. We discuss that traits and values are different constructs and that their relationship is consistent across the two geographic locations and student cohorts.

  • 45.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Persson, Björn
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Relationship between Mind-Body Dualism and Personal Values2016In: International Journal of Psychological Studies, ISSN 1918-7211, E-ISSN 1918-722X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dualists view the mind and the body as two fundamental different “things”, equally real and independent of each other. Cartesian thought, or substance dualism, maintains that the mind and body are two different substances, the non-physical and the physical, and a causal relationship is assumed to exist between them. Physicalism, on the other hand, is the idea that everything that exists is either physical or totally dependent of and determined by physical items. Hence, all mental states are fundamentally physical states. In the current study we investigated to what degree Swedish university students’ beliefs in mind-body dualism is explained by the importance they attach to personal values. A self-report inventory was used to measure their beliefs and values. Students who held stronger dualistic beliefs attach less importance to the power value (i.e., the effort to achieve social status, prestige, and control or dominance over people and resources). This finding shows that the strength in laypeople’s beliefs in dualism is partially explained by the importance they attach to personal values.

  • 46.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lekedal, Hans
    Marmendal, Maarit
    Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Values and eco- and fair-trade labelled products2007In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 169-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Children and Parents: Attributions, Attitudes and Agency2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children and parents are both part of children’s development and research on children and on parenting are both areas that, in some way, have changed in recent decades. These changes are related to the new way of seeing children and that children are no longer seen as ‘becomings’ or adults in the making; rather, children are insteadregarded – and seen – as more active in their development and as social agents. With a new way of viewing children and childhood there is also a new way of explaining or understanding parenthood. The general aim of this thesisis to learn more about how parents think about their parenting and how this can be related to children’s agency. Inaddition, children’s own beliefs about their agency are studied. The aim of Study I was to investigate mothers’ and fathers’ (77 participants from each group) attributions and attitudes in Sweden. The results revealed thatSwedish parents are more polarized in their attitudes than in their attributions. Regarding attitudes, mothers and fathers reported more progressive than authoritarian attitudes. Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than mothers. In Study II the aim was to assess whether mothers’ and fathers’self-reports of acceptance-rejection, warmth, and hostility/rejection/neglect of their children differ in the nine countries. A total of 1996 parents (998 mothers and 998 fathers) participated in the study. Mothers and fathers reported high acceptance and warmth and low rejection and hostility/rejection/neglect (HRN) of their children inall nine countries. Despite the high levels of acceptance and low levels of rejection across all countries, some systematic differences between countries emerged. In Study III Swedish mothers’ and fathers’ warmth towards their children was examined in relation to their children’s agency. It also studied the longitudinal relation between agency and children’s externalizing, internalizing, and school achievement. Swedish children’s parents (N = 93) were interviewed at three time points (when children were 8, 9, and 10 years old) about their warmth towards their children, children’s agency, children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors and school achievement. Results from this study indicate that Swedish parents’ warmth is directly related to children’s subsequent perceptions of their agency, which in turn are related to subsequently lower child externalizing and internalizing problems and higher academic achievement. Personal agency is studied in Study IV and the aim of this study was to examine how 10-year-old children perceive their agency in three different contexts, family, school and peer-situations. Interviews were conducted with 103 ten-year-old Swedish children. Vignettes concerning three different situations were presented to the children and their answers were written down for subsequent thematic analysis. The resultsshowed that children perceive their agency differently depending upon which context they find themselves in. The difference is not in how they think adults or peers would react to their agency, but in how they themselves would act if their agency was suppressed. It is mainly with other children that they would show assertiveness and try to find a solution together, while they would be more emotional and powerless with adults.In summary, parents in the studies report higher similarity about parenting in some cases, for example concerning acceptance and warmth and hostility/rejection/neglect, but lower in others, such as the Swedish parents’ reports about attributions. It is also revealed that parents’ warmth is related to children’s agency,and that children’s perceptions of their agency depend on whether they interact with adults or other children. Apossible contribution of this thesis is to generate additional knowledge about parental cognitions and the implications that parenting can have on child agency, but also the shedding of light on the ways in which, depending on the context, children’s beliefs of their agency differ.

  • 48.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Parenting Across Cultures: Parental attributions, attitudes and behaviour2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously studies in parenting have mainly been conducted in Western countries. Not uncommonly results from such studies are used to describe general, worldwide trends. In an attempt to make the field of parenting research more culturally heterogeneous, an international research project, Parenting Across Cultures, was started. The project includes nine participant countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and USA) and its purpose is to examine parenting across cultures. This thesis is based on reports from parent participants. The aim of Study I was to investigate mothers’ and fathers’ (77 participants from each group) attributions and attitudes in Sweden. The results revealed that Swedish parents are more polarized in their attitudes than in their attributions, they think more alike for parenting attitudes and there was greater variability for parenting attributions, particularly regarding uncontrollable success, as opposed to attributions regarding adult- or child-controlled failure. Regarding attitudes, mothers and fathers reported more progressive than authoritarian attitudes. Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than mothers. In Study II the aim was to assess whether mothers’ and fathers’ self-reports of acceptance-rejection, warmth, and hostility/rejection/neglect of their children differ in the nine countries. A total of 1996 parents (998 mothers and 998 fathers) participated in the study. Mothers and fathers reported high acceptance and warmth and low rejection and hostility/rejection/neglect (HRN) of their children in all nine countries. Despite the overwhelmingly high levels of acceptance and low levels of rejection across all countries, and despite our use of statistical controls for parental age, education, social desirability, and child age, some systematic differences between countries emerged. In summary, parents in the studies report higher similarity about parenting in some cases, for example concerning acceptance and warmth and hostility/rejection/neglect, but lower in others, such as the Swedish parents’ reports about attributions.

  • 49.
    Joelsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    E-kommunikation på arbetsplatsen: Medarbetares upplevelser av chefens e-postkommunikation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quick, technological development changed communication in the workplace. The virtual context contributed by digital means of communication, where e-mail is the most popular. The benefits are great. E-mail save time and is cost effective. According to early research organizations' performance was largely due to communication and relationships between managers and employees. In regard to the limited research on employees´ experience of the manager´s e-mail communication, this study´s purpose was based on the employee's perspective, highlighting how the virtual context influences the downward communication in the workplace. The study focused on the effects and affects e-mail has on communication, relationships, confidence and work performance. The study resulted in a qualitative design, which aim was to examine the descriptive data by individual experiences and create additional understanding. The selection was based on the criterion that the participants would work in a virtual context, where they would use e-mail communication with their manager as a tool. Based on a questionnaire guide, six semi-structured interviews were conducted. A thematic analysis resulted in four themes: cognitive abilities, interaction between employees and management, which affected as described, borderlines of time, space and labor. E-mail proved to be a complex concept. It was fast, while simultaneously a time thief. It contributed to a sense of belonging and participation, but also uncertainty and misunderstanding. We need e-mail skills in our organizations to minimize negative effects and affects.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Being a Rector: A Study of Knowledge Needs and Knowledge Development in Secondary Schools2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 357-368Conference paper (Refereed)
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