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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Josefin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Jonsson, Sofie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Sambandet mellan arbetsengagemang och personlighetsdragen i Big Five2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsengagemang är ett vanligt förekommande begrepp inom både forskning och organisationer. För att förstå arbetsengagemang relaterat till medarbetarnas individuella egenskaper och behov, har föreliggande studie undersökt sambandet mellan arbetsengagemang och personlighetsdragen i Big Five; openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness och neuroticism.

    Undersökningen genomfördes med kvantitativ metod, där yrkesverksamma individer (N=193) fick besvara enkätformulär hämtade från Mini-IPIP6 Svensk version vad berör personlighetsdrag, samt UWES-9 vad gäller arbetsengagemang. Tre av personlighetsdragen samvarierade statistisktsignifikant med arbetsengagemang. Conscientiousness och extraversion påvisade positiva samband med arbetsengagemang och neuroticism visade på negativa samband medarbetsengagemang, där de tre personlighetsdragen fortfarande visande statistiskt signifikant samvariation med arbetsengagemang även under kontroll av variabeln ålder. 

  • 2.
    Aguilar Gustavsson, Katerina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Gil, Darlene
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Chefers upplevelser av e-ledarskapet under pandemin2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Chefers arbetssätt har till följd av covid-19 förändrats. Arbete som innan utfördes på fysisk plats har under pandemin utförts på distans via digitala verktyg. Det är mot denna bakgrund vårt intresse har väckts att undersöka hur chefer som tidigare inte utövat ledarskap på distans, i stället har upplevt hur det digitala ledarskapet har kunnat tillämpas till följd av pandemin.

    Studien har ett retrospektivt syfte genom att undersöka vilka utmaningar och möjligheter ledare inom offentlig verksamhet säger sig upplevt i det digitala ledarskapet. Studien har haft en kvalitativ ansats baserat på semistrukturerade intervjuer och analyserades med hjälp av en tematisk analys. I studien deltog elva chefer med olika åldrar, kön, yrkesroller och geografisk plats på sin verksamhet. Resultatet visar på både många utmaningar och möjligheter med eledarskapet som uppstått till följd av ett påtvingat distansarbete. En snabb anpassningsförmåga har funnits hos cheferna i deras e-ledarskap och där ledningen skett medhjälp av digitala verktyg. Resultatet visar exempel på ett lyckat e-ledarskap i mening av kreativa lösningar, kompetensutveckling och en ökad förståelse för medarbetarnas behov och mående under pandemin.

  • 3.
    Aliti, Seburan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Upplevd individuell arbetsprestation i arbetslivet: med fokus på personlighet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Performing in working life is important today in order to develop, gain experience, and be judged by one’s manager. Previous research shows that our personality plays a big role in working life. This study focuses on three different parts of experienced work performance; that is, task work performance (everyday tasks), contextual work performance (initiative in addition to everyday tasks) and counterproductive work behavior (working against the business). The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between aspects of individual work performance and personality dimensions. The study made use of personality-based questionnaires, HEXACO (Mini-IPIP6) and Dark Triad (SD3), as well as a measure of individual work performance (IWPQ). The study involved 207 people (M = 36.13 years, SD = 19 years; 109 men). The results showed, as expected, that task-based work performance was positively related (.35) to conscientiousness and negative (-.36) to neuroticism. Contextual work performance was positively related (.41) to openness, which showed the strongest correlation. Counterproductive work behavior showed the strongest correlation with neuroticism (.39). This study results indicate that personality has significance for individual work performance which can be implemented in staff development.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg (SWE).
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Psychology, Lund University (SWE).
    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Center for Ageing and Health (AgeCap), University of Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Testing the personality differentiation by intelligence hypothesis in a representative sample of Swedish hexagenerians2022In: Journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 99, article id 104242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Personality Differentiation by Intelligence Hypothesis (PDIH) predicts larger trait-variances, and smaller across-trait covariances for individuals with higher intelligence. We tested these predictions using multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses (MG-CFA), while controlling for the potential confound of systematic method variance related to reversed items using a correlated trait, correlated method (CTCM) approach. Participants between the ages of 62 and 68 completed measures of personality (Mini-IPIP: Donnellan et al., 2006) and intelligence (Raven APM-12: Arthur & Day, 1994). After establishing strict measurement invariance (MI), we found no support for larger variances, and only minor support for lower trait covariances as related to higher intelligence. Overall, the findings provide scant support for the PDIH when controlling for systematic method variance.

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Casper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Henriksson, Simon
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Sambandet mellan mörka personlighetsdrag och statiskt- samt dynamiskt tankesätt2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det saknas forskning som undersöker om det finns ett samband mellan den mörka triaden, i form av machiavellianism, narcissism, psykopati och ett statiskt - samt dynamiskt tankesätt. Denna explorativa studie syftade således till att undersöka om det fanns ett samband mellan dessa fenomen. Metodvalet var kvantitativ genom ett digitalt enkätutskick. Frågorna från enkäten som användes i resultaten bestod av 27 frågor relaterade till den mörka triaden och 16 frågor relaterade till statiskt och dynamiskt tankesätt inom intelligens och talang. Instrumentet SD3 användes för att mäta nivåer av personlighetsdrag inom den mörka triadenoch DMI användes för att mäta nivåer av statiskt eller dynamiskt tankesätt för intelligens och talang. Höga värden i enkäten innebar ett statiskt tankesätt, låga värden innebar ett dynamiskt. Totalt antal respondenter uppgick till 82 personer (M = 36 år, SD = 14.4, 52.4%kvinnor, 3.7% annat). Bekvämlighetsurval användes i undersökningen och studien riktades främst mot yrkesverksamma.

    Resultaten indikerade på att endast personlighetsdraget machiavellianism inom den mörka triaden korrelerade signifikant med ett statiskt tankesätt, både inom intelligens och talang. Resultatet uppvisade inga samband mellan den mörka triaden och ett dynamiskt tankesätt. Begränsningar och implikationer inför framtida forskning diskuterades. 

  • 6.
    Andersson, Katarina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Issa Boström, Lisa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Sambandet mellan medarbetarresiliensoch mörka triaden: En kvantitativ studie bland yrkesverksamma2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of research on how the relationship between the concept of employee resilience and each individual feature of the dark triad looks like among workers. The purpose of this study is therefore to fill the knowledge gap and examine the relationship between employee resilience and machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy that are part of the dark triad. A quantitative study was based on the validated measuring instruments Employee Resilience Scale (EmpRes) and Short Dark Triad (SD3). The study included 120 working respondents. With a multiple regression analysis, the relationship between employee resilience and the dark triad: machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy was studied, controlling for background variables. The results indicate that employees with higher machiavellianism tend to have lower employee resilience, which can be a challenge for the organization. 

  • 7.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Beckman, Anita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    ”Jag skulle så jätte, jätte, jättegärna vilja ha ett fast jobb att gå till”: Om att vara ung och arbetslös i Västervik2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The centre of Child and Youth Studies at University West works strategically with other regional research environments and institutions that study children, youths and young adults. The goal of our research centre is to spread knowledge about the social conditions under which children and young people live, thereby strengthening their position in society. Collaboration with external research environments is one of the ways that our research domain works to reach that goal. Partnerships are formed through a model that strives to create good conditions for both our research and that of our partners. This model is grounded in a dialogue between research partners who work together to select areas of interest and formulate hypotheses. These research projects are financed equally by the university and our partners. The following report is the result of one of  these research partnerships.Advanced industrial society has been replaced by a society based upon knowledge and information where industrial work/manufacturing becomes less common. Västervik is one of the small towns in Sweden whose main industries have closed down or severely decreased their workforce during the last few decades of great structural change. The groups in the job market that have been most affected by these changes are young men and women, something which is evident in the high unemployment rates among the young population. The purpose of this study was to investigate young people’s own experiences and thoughts regarding their own situation as jobseekers in the municipality of Västervik. How do they see themselves and the situation they find themselves in? The narratives were collected in the form of 18 in-depth interviews with young men and women between the ages of 19-25, all them registered at the job center in Västervik. In the report different aspects of their situation are discussed, such as: the young people’s relation to their hometown, their thoughts on the meaning and value of work, the role of education, the economic, social and emotional consequences of unemployment, and their experiences of taking part in various programs for unemployed. The narratives we have encountered can be seen as having some general validity in the sense that many of their experiences are probably shared by other unemployed young people in other locations in Sweden, but Västervik is also a specific town with a specific history and specific conditions.The young men and women have an ambivalent relationship to their hometown. On the one hand they want to start a life in the same location, but on the other, the future there is seen as very uncertain. Many of those interviewed would like to have the kind of industrial jobs that their parents have and grandparents experienced, but which are nowadays less and less common. The norm of a fulltime job is strong among the young men and women – something which strengthens the image of the evident dissonance between their seemingly traditional dreams and intentions and the structures of possibilities the municipality and community suggest for them. Connected to this are the ways the young people must relate to the postindustrial demands of employability – which means the ability to enterprise and market oneself on a competitive market. These demands presuppose abilities that are more likely to be socialized and practiced in certain social environments rather than in others, and the majority of the young men and women interviewed have a background in aworking class environment where these values and approaches are far from selfevident.The socioeconomic marginalization that these young people experienceresults in much curtailed possibilities for a period of youthful experimentation aswell as for an expected adulthood. Being unemployed means one has difficulty ingaining the status of an adult, but due to economic shortages, there are also limits to how much they can take part in this experimental lifestyle that characterizes youth. The young men and women’s situation can thereby be seen as a grey zone; they are neither young nor adults in the normative sense. In some of the narratives the young people express critical thoughts with regard to the social conditions that their difficult situation can be related to. By extension, expressing these thoughts and stating their opinion can be strengthening and mobilizing for them, both as individuals and as a group. Insights may be gained about unemployment as a shared experience rather than as a personal failure

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  • 8.
    Andreasson, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Samuelsson, Paulina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Personlighet som prediktor för organisationslojalitet: En kvantitativ studie om sambanden mellan femfaktormodellenoch organisationslojalitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies in the field of personality have been carried out for many years where the results show that personality are important for different life outcomes. However, few studies have investigated relationships between personality and organizational commitment. Previous research shows that organizations can avoid unnecessary costs by hiring people who tend to contribute with high levels of 3 organizational commitment. Thus, our study sought to preserve investigating relationships between personality and organizational commitment. A quantitative method was used, and data collection was done through a web-based questionnaire consisting of 48 statements. The questionnaire consisted of two established instruments, the IPIP-30 and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ), which intend to measure personality dimensions and organizational commitment. A total of 155 people participated in the study (M =34 years, SD = 12, Range 18-64years, 75% women) with average period of employment in their organization of 6.5years (SD = 8.5, range 0.7-44 years). The results were partly in line with previous research where the personality dimensions of neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness have been shown to predict organizational commitment. An unexpected result in the present study was that extraversion did not show any relationship with organizational commitment. A regression analysis testified that personality could explain ≈ 20% of the variance in organizational commitment. The results contribute to increased knowledge that personality can be used as a predictor of organizational commitment. Our conclusion is that personality can be used as a predictor for finding individuals who tend to be loyal, which is an investment for organizations in order to avoid high turnover and unnecessary costs, as well as obtain individuals who tend to contribute the little extra.

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  • 9.
    Andresen, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Tomic, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    En undersökning av vilka faktorer som samvarierar med visstidsanställdas korttidssjukskrivning på en telefonbank2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of absenteeism has in recent years led to high costs for sick leave and early retirement in the public budgets. This study is based on quantitative data obtained through a designed questionnaire. The purpose of the study was to identify factors that correlate with the high short-term absence for sickness among temporary employees at a company. Previous studies have shown an association with short-term sick leave and leadership variables such as, perceived stress, motivation and tasks. The study's problem main question included these four disciplines. These were then analyzed in relation to age, sex and number of times the employee had been at home despite having been able to work. The study included temporary employees aged 18 to retirement-age. Of the 90 employees a total of 40 surveys were gathered. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to calculate the differences between groups (age and sex). Spearman’s rank correlation was used to calculate the relationship between variables. Results of the study showed that women appeared to have stayed at home more frequently than men even though they would have been able to work. The study also revealed that there was a significant difference between the variable "to stay at home despite the fact that the individual was able to work

  • 10.
    Bador, Kourosh
    et al.
    Agera Sweden ACT AB, Borås Sweden.
    Bador, Nima
    Agera Sweden ACT AB, Borås Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Partnership Interacts with the Association between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Positive Affect2016In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 768-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective well-being is a central concept of positive psychology, and is directly coupled with a high level of positive affect and a low level of negative affect. Positive affect is associated with enthusiasm, activity, hope and inspiration, while negative affect is associated with emotions such as anger, contempt, guilt, shame, fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Physical activityis crucial for both physical and mental health and is positively associated with well-being. Gender and social factors (e.g., parenthood or partnership) have complex relations with well-being and affect. In the present study we aimed to 1) examine the association between leisure-time physical activity and affect and 2) investigate whether or not social factors interact with this association. Method: The study included information from 155 Swedish university students: 64 men (mean age 23 years) and 91 women (mean age 27 years). Students were asked to estimate their usual engagement in physical activity during their leisure-time by responding to the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. They also reported the level of positive and negative emotions experienced during past weeks by completing the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule instrument. Results: In the Swedish student population leisure-time physical activity correlated only with positive and not with negative affect. Students' gender, age or whether or not they had children did not influence this association. However, this correlation differed significantly between those who lived with a partner and those who were single. Conclusion: Leisure-time physical activityis positively correlated with an overall subjective well-being, and this correlation is modifiedby the social factor of partnership

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  • 11.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    et al.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Wiciak, Izabela
    Police Academy, Szczytno, Poland.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Burnout among a group of policemen: the role of fatigue and emotions in the work context2012In: Book of Proceedings: Proceedings of the 10th European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology Conference / [ed] Jain, Aditya, Hollis, David, Andreou, Nicholas, Wehrle, Flavia, Nottingham: I-WHO, International House, Jubilee Campus , 2012, p. 125-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Policework is a profession with a high risk of operational and organizational stress at work. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of job-related affectivity and fatigue on burnout; specifically we aimed to study the relation between acute fatigue and burnout and the indirect role of emotion during work.

    We adopted the concept of burnout with two components: exhaustion and disengagement (Halbesleben & Demerouti, 2005). In this concept, exhaustion is related to the energetic aspect, and disengagement is connected to the motivational aspect. We hypothesized that acute fatigue is a precursor to burnout. According to Van Katwyk et al. (2000), psychological well-being is synonymous with work-related affectivity, and emotions are classified into four categories: high and low-arousal of pleasant emotions and high and low-arousal of unpleasant emotions. According to the theory of stress by Selye (1978), eustress and distress are assumed to be a high arousal of emotion.

    Methods: Acute fatigue was measured by the index in accordance with the Japan Society for Occupational Health. In order to investigate exhaustion and disengagement the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory was used (Halbesleben & Demerouti, 2005). Job-related affective well-being was used to assess emotions within the work context (Van Katwyk et al., 2000). Hierarchical regressions analyses were performed.

    Group: 187 policemen (28 women) filled in the questionnaires. Half of them worked in the prevention department and one-third were on duty in the criminal division. Their average work experience was 14.7 years (range 5 - 28).

    Results: Fatigue had a direct impact on exhaustion and disengagement. This first effect was 3 times stronger than the second. In the next step the emotions were entered into these separate models. We observed that a low arousal of unpleasant emotions had an indirect relation with fatigue and exhaustion. Additionally, a high arousal of positive and negative emotions (eustress and distress) mediated between fatigue and disengagement. These effects of partial mediation were large (f2 = .34 and f2 = .32 respectively).

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that a high arousal of emotions can lead to a deterioration of motivation of work, but a low arousal of negative emotions reduce energetic ability to work among policemen.

     

     

  • 12.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    et al.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Wiciak, Izabela
    Police Acad Szczytno, Dept Adm, SzczytnoPoland.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Fatigue and burnout in police officers: the mediating role of emotions2014In: Policing: an international Journal of Police Strategies and Managment, ISSN 1363-951X, E-ISSN 1758-695X, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 665-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The policing profession is associated with psychosocial hazard. Fatigue and burnout often affect police officers, and may impair the functioning of the organization and public safety. The relationship between fatigue and burnout may be modified by job-related emotions. While negative emotions have been extensively studied, the role of positive emotions at work is relatively less known. Additionally, there is insufficient knowledge about the role of the intensity of emotions. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of job-related emotions in the relationship between fatigue and burnout in police officers.

    Design/methodology/approach – In all, 169 police officers (26 women) completed a test battery that assessed acute fatigue, burnout (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory: exhaustion and disengagement), and emotions (Job-related Affective Well-being Scale).

    Findings – Acute fatigue was associated more strongly with exhaustion than with disengagement. Low-arousal negative emotions partially mediated the relationship between fatigue and exhaustion. High-arousal positive and negative emotions were partial mediators between fatigue and disengagement experienced by police officers.

    Research limitations/implications – The results show that high-arousal emotions were associated with changes in work motivation, while low-arousal negative emotions reduced energetic ability to work.

    Originality/value – This paper enhances understanding of burnout among police officers and the mediating role of emotions. The patterns of the relationships between fatigue, burnout and emotions are discussed in the context of the conservation of resources theory and the tripartite model of anxiety and depression.

  • 13.
    Berg, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Nordevik, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Uppfattningar och nöjdhet kring en HR-funktions uppgifter2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With real world research as the theoretical framework, a study was conducted as an assignment by the HR-function at Parker Hannifin AB in Sweden. Bearing in mind that there have been ambiguities concerning the roles of managers and HR-staff in previous research and that the managers’ perceptions about the HR-function affects the role of the HR, this study was conducted. This study about perceptions and satisfaction concerning the working of an HR-function aimed to highlight possible differences in customer satisfaction amongst managers based on which unit they belonged to, level of managerial position, the time they have worked as managers in the organization, and the frequency of contact with the HR-department. Moreover, the study considered whether the opinions concerning areas of improvement have changed since the last conducted research. This research was conducted through an analysis of documents and a self-produced questionnaire which was sent to all managers within Parker in Sweden. The results indicated that the same areas of improvement-needs remains, that existing documents are inconsequent in relation to each other, and that several significant differences between managers’ perceptions emerged. The HR-departments along with the different documents should tentatively become more consistent so that their roles become clearer.

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  • 14.
    Berglöv, Jonna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Två arbetslag inom förskolan och deras syn på trivsel och arbetstillfredsställelse: En kvalitativ studie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns lite forskning kring förskollärares upplevelse av trivsel och arbetstillfredsställelse och därför syftade den här studien till att undersöka det hos förskollärare från två nybildade arbetslag. Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ ansats med en tematisk analysmetod genom halvstrukturerade intervjuer och öppna observationer. Resultatet visade att aspekter som påverkade positivt var känsla av upprymdhet i att gå till arbetet, glädje i att vara med barnen och trygghet i arbetslagen. Aspekter som påverkade negativt var stress, tidsbrist och frustration över saker de inte kunde kontrollera. Deras arbetsmiljö skulle förbättras om de negativa aspekterna reducerades och om de fick göra de förändringar de önskade. Exempel på förändringar var att de ville ha mer tid till planering, mindre barngrupper och större budget.

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    Två arbetslag inom förskolan och deras syn på trivsel och arbetstillfredsställelse: En kvalitativ studie
  • 15.
    Bergqvist, Douglas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Warsame, Adam
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Informellt lärande och Organisationsengagemang2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hög personalomsättning bekostar organisationer många problem som följd av att en anställd väljer att lämna. Informellt lärande och organisationsengagemang är två fenomen som är betydande för att minska personalomsättningen.

    Material och metod: Frågeformuläret (bestod av instrumenten Organizational Commitment Questionnaire; LPW) har används för att undersöka sambandet mellan informellt lärande och organisationsengagemang. 130 respondenter från 7 företag besvarade frågeformuläret som innehöll 56 frågor och respondenterna åldersspann var mellan 19-63 år. Studien använder sigav en kvantitativ metod för att samla in data och för att kunna analysera den insamlade datan användes IBM SPSS Statistics (version 27). Pearson korrelationsanalys användes för attundersöka sambandet mellan informellt lärande och organisationsengagemang och detta efterföljdes med regressionsanalys för att se sambandet kvarstår. Kontrollvariabler som förekom i korrelationsanalysen var följande ålder, högsta utbildning, anställningsform,personalansvar, arbetslivserfarenheter och hälsotillstånd. Kontrollvariablerna anser författarna av denna studie vara relevanta för arbetsgivare som tar del av studien.

    Resultat: Ett medelstarkt positivt korrelation (r = .37), hittades mellan informellt lärande och organisationsengagemang även efter att sambandet har kontrollerats för stress, kön, ålder, högsta utbildning, anställningsform, arbetslivserfarenheter och hälsotillstånd i en regressionsanalys.

    Slutsats: Arbetstagare som lär sig i arbetsplatsens har ett högt organisationsengagemang men även att arbetstagare som är mycket engagerade i sin organisation tenderar också att lära sig bättre på arbetsplatsen. Genom att undersöka det informella lärandet och organisationsengagemanget kan man successivt arbeta för en arbetsplats som ständigt strävar efter att behålla sina anställda.

  • 16.
    Berndtsson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Björn, Wilma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Blir vi attraherade av likheter eller olikheter i personligheten?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is humanely for people to be attracted to each other, since it's essential for every person to feel love and solidarity. This study examines if it's similarities or dissimilarities in our personalities that creates attraction between people. The present study is a quantitative inquiry that examines attraction between the participants and their ideal partners using the PEN-model, which is based upon the personality traits psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism and Lie Scale. The questionnaire based on EPQR-A (Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire), with 42 items and three background questions, was used to collect data through the internet via email, Facebook and through a QR-code on University West campus. The study reached a number of 276 participants from the age of 17 to the age of 78. The participants identified as men (N = 68), women (N = 205) or 'other' (N = 3). Findings showed that there are statistically significant correlations that indicates that similarities of the personality traits extraversion and neuroticism attract. The result corresponds with the theories and previous research. In conclusion, the study shows that similarities between people arise attraction, which also answers the research question: Is it similarities or dissimilarities that arise attraction between people?

  • 17.
    Blomgren, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Sixtensson, Johanna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Könsskillnader i personlighetsdrag utifrån Big Five2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Big five är en personlighetsteori som säger att det finns fem olika personlighetsdrag; neuroticism, extraversion, tillmötesgående, samvetsgrannhet samt öppenhet. Viss tidigare forskning har visat att kvinnor har högre grad av personlighetsdragen samvetsgrannhet, tillmötesgående och neuroticism i Big Five än vad män har. I denna studie undersöks det om detta stämmer in på den svenska befolkningen med frågeställningen: Finns det könsskillnader i personlighetsdrag hos den svenska befolkningen? Studien har tagit del av datamaterial ur SOM- undersökningen (2018) där personlighetsdragen i Big Five mättes med den etablerade enkäten BFI-10. Antal kvinnor i studien var 936 och antal män var 853. Med IBM SPSS statistics analyserades resultatet med fem stycken t-test. Resultatet visade på könsskillnader på fyra av fem personlighetsdrag samt att män hade högre grad av samtliga personlighetsdrag än kvinnor. Detta resultat stämmer till viss del överens med tidigare forskning där könsskillnader mellan personlighetsdrag konstaterats men kvinnors nivåer gentemot mäns inom personlighetsdragen sett annorlunda ut. Anledningen till att resultatet i studien går lite åt ett annat håll kan vara för studierna är gjorda i olika länder samt att SOMundersökningen (2018) har en större svarsandel av äldre personer än yngre.

  • 18.
    Blomqvist Storm, Evelina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Edvartsen, Andreas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Arbetsbelastning och personlighet: En sambandsstudie om högstadielärares upplevda arbetsbelastning och personlighetsdrag2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Grundskollärare är ett yrke där hög upplevd arbetsbelastning är vanligt. Negativa följder kring den mentala hälsan kan uppstå hos arbetare som erfars högarbetsbelastning. För att ta reda på varför upplevd arbetsbelastning ser olika ut hos individer formulerades ett syfte att undersöka sambandet mellan upplevd arbetsbelastning och personlighet hos högstadielärare i Sverige. Syftet preciserades med frågeställningen: Hur samvarierar upplevd arbetsbelastning med personlighetsdrag hos högstadielärare i Sverige?

    Metod: En kvantitativ enkätundersökning genomfördes där 113 högstadielärare från kommunala skolor runt om i Sverige besvarade ett frågeformulär där mätinstrumenten Quantitative Workload Inventory (QWI) och IPIP-30 användes för att bestämma deltagarnas upplevda arbetsbelastning respektive personlighetsdrag. All data analyserades i programmet IBM SPSS Statistics version 28.

    Resultat: Ett svagt positivt samband återfanns mellan upplevd arbetsbelastning och neuroticism, välvillighet respektive samvetsgrannhet trots kontroll för bakgrundsvariabeln antal arbetstimmar i veckan. Extraversion och öppenhet hade inget signifikant samband med upplevd arbetsbelastning hos högstadielärarna i undersökningen.

    Diskussion: Ju högre nivåer av arbetsbelastning individen upplever desto högre nivåer av personlighetsdragen neuroticism, välvillighet och/eller samvetsgrannhet har individen enligt studiens resultat, respektive ju lägre nivåer av upplevd arbetsbelastning individen erhåller desto lägre nivåer av neuroticism, välvillighet och/eller samvetsgrannhet har denne.

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  • 19.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Music and risk in an existential and gendered world2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound at gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. These behaviours are as threatening to young people’s health as more traditional risk behaviours. Testing boundaries and risk taking are fundamental aspects of young people’s lives and the processes of developing their identities. There is, however, a need to balance reasonable risk taking and risks that can damage health. The aim of Study I was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men/143 women). The adolescents’ behaviour in different traditional risk situations correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, and judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgement regarding noise exposure. Another finding was that young women judge risk situations as generally more dangerous than young men, although they behave in the same way as the men. We suggest that this difference is a social and culture based phenomenon which underlines the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as often as those with occasional tinnitus. The aims of study II were to illuminate  the complexity of risk behaviour, the meaning and purpose of adolescent risk-taking in both a traditional sense (e.g. smoking and drug use) and in noisy environments (e.g. discotheques and rock concerts), in relation to norms and gender roles in contemporary society. In total, 16 adolescents (8 men/8 women, aged 15-19) were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviewees’ responses revealed social reproduction of gender and class. Main themes of the phenomena for both genders emerged: Social identity and Existential identity of risk taking. The descriptive sub themes, however, which together formed the general structure, were rather diverse for men and women. The incorporation of social and existential theories on gender as basic factors in the analysis of attitudes towards risk-taking behaviours is considered to be of utmost importance. Likewise, research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour and similarly, the theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.

                 Study III aims to increase the knowledge about young women’s and men’s risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men). The Australian instrument ARQ, developed by Gullone et al, was used with additional questions on hearing risks [1] and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behaviour scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. The factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender and there were differences in factor structures between genders among Swedish adolescents. The results are discussed from a gender and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behaviour needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence. The aim of Study IV was to investigate possible gender differences regarding psychometric scales measuring risk perception in noisy situations, attitudes towards loud music, perceived susceptibility to noise, and individual norms and ideals related to activities where loud music is played. In addition, the purpose was to analyze whether these variables are associated with protective behaviour, e.g. the use of hearing protection. A questionnaire was administered to a Swedish sample including 543 adolescents aged 16 to 20. The result revealed significant gender differences for all the psychometric scales. Furthermore, all psychometric measures were associated with hearing protection use in musical settings. Contrary to previous studies, gender did not solely contribute to any explanation of protective behaviour in the analysis. One conclusion is that although gender does not contribute solely to the explanation of protective behaviour, gender may affect psychological variables such as risk perception, attitudes and perceived susceptibility and these variables may in turn be valuable for decision-making and protective behaviour in noisy situations. Although women tend to be more ’careful’ psychologically, they nevertheless tend to behave in the same way as men regarding actual noise-related risk-taking.

     

  • 20.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Widén, Stephen E.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences Swedish Institute for Disability Research Örebro University, Sweden..
    University teacher and student judgments on misleading behavior in study situations2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with teachers' and students' judgments of misleading (e.g. cheating or plagiarism) behaviors during examinations. The data was collected at a university in Sweden using a questionnaire presenting specific behaviors to bejudged. In total, 253 individuals completed the questionnaire. The teachers, incontrast to the students, tended to judge the behaviors presented as more serious. There was, however, plenty of variation in the judgments made by both teachers and students. Although the teachers, on average, tended to judge the behaviors as more serious, about 20% of the students were found to judge the behaviors as more serious than the average teacher. It was also found that about 20 % of the teachers judged the scenarios as less serious compared to the average student judgments. This indicates a lack of agreement among teachers and students on the definition of misleading behavior. Subjective opinions seem to play a more important role for judgment than having actual knowledge about the rules and regulations stating what misleading behaviors really are inacademic work.

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  • 21.
    Bornstein, Marc H
    et al.
    Child and Family Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Bethesda, MD, USA..
    Putnick, Diane L
    Child and Family Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Bethesda, MD, USA..
    Lansford, Jennifer E
    Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan..
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
    Bombi, Anna Silvia
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Pschology, Italy..
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Macau, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA..
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA..
    Malone, Patrick S
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA..
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya..
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA..
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Rome University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy..
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Italy..
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Mixed blessings: parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.2017In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 880-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life.

    METHODS: We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants.

    RESULTS: Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different associations with child functioning. Studying both parent and child views of religiousness and parenting are important to understand the effects of parental religiousness on parents and children.

  • 22.
    Bowen, Erica
    et al.
    University of Worcester, Institute of Health and Society, United Kingdom.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Meeting adolescents 'where they're at': the use of technology to prevent violence and abuse in adolescent romantic relationships2017In: Eliminating gender-based violence / [ed] A. Taket & B.R. Crisp (red), Abingdon: Routledge, 2017, p. 54-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Brevestedt, Emelie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Beroende av datorspel: Är barn och unga med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar en riskgrupp för att utveckla ett datorspelsberoende?2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer gaming has increased significantly in recent years and on average children and young people spend more than 3 hours a day playing computer games. Computer game addiction is a new diagnosis that in 2018 was classified as a disease by the World Health Organization and goes under the name "gaming disorder" as there is currently no correct Swedish translation. In many cases computer gaming does not mean anything problematic, but for some children and young people, a computer game addiction can develop. Several studies have examined the risk factors that are linked to computer game addiction and where neuropsychiatric disabilities are seen as a risk factor for developing a computer game addiction.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to increase knowledge about the diagnosis of computer game addiction and to bring forward knowledge about whether neuropsychiatric disabilities such as ADHD and AST are possible risk factors for developing a computer game addiction. The purpose is further to investigate whether it is precisely neuropsychiatric disabilities that are the main risk factor or whether there are surrounding and interacting factors that affect children and young people with neuropsychiatric disabilities to a greater degree of risk of becoming addicted.

    Method: The study was conducted as a literature review where 12 quantitative scientific articles were included. Searches were mainly made in the database APA PsycINFO. The articles were reviewed and evaluated.

    Results: Based on the issues on which the work is based, results showed that children with neuropsychiatric disabilities are more likely to be addicted to computer games. Results also show that there are other interacting factors that affect the degree of computer game addiction in children with neuropsychiatric disabilities.

    Conclusion: Computer game addiction is a relatively new area of research, but an area that is constantly increasing and needs to be monitored. More and more children are playing computer games and some of these children end up in a computer game addiction. This literature study shows an interaction between neuropsychiatric disabilities and an increased degree of computer game addiction while there are several other interacting factors such as gender, age, mental illness, and difficulties in social interaction. Children with neuropsychiatric disabilities have a need to create social networks and vent their hyperactivity, and by playing computer games, these needs can be met. Computer games give children the opportunity to, despite difficulties in social interaction, get a network of peers in similar interests without having to be exposed to what is difficult. Difficulties with computer games are that several of the computer games that exist are endless and the player therefore finds it difficult to stop playing as it constantly means new rewards and success. This in turn leads to other parts of a player's life no longer being as important and the child being hidden away in an anonymous world. It is of the utmost importance to pay attention, prevent and work for a healthy and fun time on the internet where you can take advantage of all the good things that exist but in limited forms. 

  • 24.
    Buchanan, Christy M
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, (USA).
    Zietz, Susannah
    Duke University (USA).
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Durham, (USA).
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University (USA).
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Rome, (ITA).
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University (USA).
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Liu, Qin
    Chongqing Medical University (CHN).
    Long, Qian
    Duke Kunshan University (CHN).
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University (KEN).
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma “La Sapienza” (ITA).
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University (USA) and King Abdulaziz University (SAU).
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University (THA).
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Department of Psychology, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Medellín 050001, (COL).
    Yotanyamaneewong, Saengduean
    Department of Psychology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (THA).
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University (PHL).
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University and Emirates College for Advanced Education (ARE).
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Neapel, (ITA).
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Child and Family Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Bethesda, MD, (USA).
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau (MAC).
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002, (USA).
    Typicality and trajectories of problematic and positive behaviors over adolescence in eight countries.2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 991727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine the predictions of a storm and stress characterization of adolescence concerning typicality and trajectories of internalizing, externalizing, and wellbeing from late childhood through late adolescence. Using data from the Parenting Across Cultures study, levels and trajectories of these characteristics were analyzed for 1,211 adolescents from 11 cultural groups across eight countries. Data were longitudinal, collected at seven timepoints from 8 to 17 years of age. Results provide more support for a storm and stress characterization with respect to the developmental trajectories of behavior and characteristics from childhood to adolescence or across the adolescent years than with respect to typicality of behavior. Overall, adolescents' behavior was more positive than negative in all cultural groups across childhood and adolescence. There was cultural variability in both prevalence and trajectories of behavior. The data provide support for arguments that a more positive and nuanced characterization of adolescence is appropriate and important.

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  • 25.
    Böckman, Pontus
    et al.
    Vetenskap och folkbildning VoF.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet.
    Katz, Dan
    VoF.
    Malmaeus, Fredrik
    Primärvården Göteborg.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala universitet.
    Skoruppa, Björn
    Göteborg.
    Wolf, Li
    Göteborg.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    DN Debatt. ”Pseudovetenskap frodas i vården och på universiteten”2020In: Dagens NyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Börresen, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Bytyqi, Andiona
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    En kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan personlighet och arbetsengagemang2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's organizations, it is often expected that employees should be proactive, take initiative, and take responsibility for their development and to perform at a high level. Therefore, it is essential that employees have a high level of work commitment in order to meet the organization's expectations. Research has shown that personality traits correlate with work engagement. The purpose of the study is thus to investigate the relationship between personality traits and work commitment in a Swedish context. In this quantitative cross-sectional study surveys were used to collect data from a convenience sample. A total of 123 people in the range 20 to 69 years answered all questions. The measuring instruments used were the Big Five Inventory (BFI-44) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). Data were analyzed and presented in a correlation table and a regression table. There was a strong statistically significant and positive correlation between conscientiousness and work commitment even after controlling for informal learning, gender, age and state of health. This may be due to the fact that employees who are goal-oriented and responsible are also more involved in the work. With the help of the personality trait of conscientiousness, it is thus possible to predict employees' work commitment.

  • 27.
    Carlsbogård, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Semmelhofer, Vilde
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Big Five och organisationslojalitet: En kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan individens personlighet och organisationslojalitet2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on organizational commitment has recently increased, as the phenomenon is an important factor that is added to the aspect of retaining staff. Research calls for studies on the relationship between organizational commitment and personality, as personality plays an important role in predicting an individual's choices and preferences in a work context. Our study aims to build further on the previous research, through a question that aims to investigate whether the relationship between the different personality traits within the Big Five and organizational commitment is shown. The study is conducted through a quantitative method where the data collection took place via a questionnaire consisting of 50 questions. The survey was based on the validated instruments IPIP-30 and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) which intended to measure personality and organizational commitment respectively. In our study, 187 respondents participated, where the most representative age group was in the range of 18-30 years. The gender distribution consisted of a majority of women, at 68.6%. The results suggest that certain personality traits were associated with organizational commitment. Extraversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness show a significant relationship with organizational commitment. Agreeableness and openness showed no significant relationship with organizational commitment. In the study's regression analysis, it can be shown that 13,7% of the variance in organizational commitment can be explained by personality within the Big Five. Our conclusion is that personality is an important factor for organizations to consider in the work of keeping personal. It is based on the results of how certain personality traits show relationships and can predict organizational commitment.

  • 28.
    Chang, Lei
    et al.
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Lu, Hui Jing
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA; Institute for Fiscal Studies, London, UK.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA ; King Abdulaziz University.
    Chen, Bin-Bin
    Fudan University Department of Psychology, Shanghai, China..
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples Federico II, Department of Humanistic Studies, Napoli, Italy..
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno, Kenya.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Department of Special Education, Zarqa, Jordan; Counseling, Special Education, and Neuroscience Division, Emirates College for Advanced Education, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Rome University La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology , Rome, Italy .
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Department of Psychology, Bogota,Colombia.
    Yotanyamaneewong, Saengduean
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    External environment and internal state in relation to life-history behavioural profiles of adolescents in nine countries2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1917, article id 20192097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The external environment has traditionally been considered as the primary driver of animal life history (LH). Recent research suggests that animals' internal state is also involved, especially in forming LH behavioural phenotypes. The present study investigated how these two factors interact in formulating LH in humans. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1223 adolescents in nine countries, the results show that harsh and unpredictable environments and adverse internal states in childhood are each uniquely associated with fast LH behavioural profiles consisting of aggression, impulsivity, and risk-taking in adolescence. The external environment and internal state each strengthened the LH association of the other, but overall the external environment was more predictive of LH than was the internal state. These findings suggest that individuals rely on a multitude and consistency of sensory information in more decisively calibrating LH and behavioural strategies.

  • 29.
    Chang, Lei
    et al.
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Lu, Hui Jing
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Applied Social Sciences, China.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Chen, Bin Bin
    Fudan University, Department of Psychology, Shanghai, China.
    Tian, Qian
    Fudan University, Department of Psychology, Shanghai, China.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan .
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Rome University La Sapienza, Faculty of Psycholog , Rome, Italy .
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Medellín, Colombia.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Environmental harshness and unpredictability, life history, and social and academic behavior of adolescents in nine countries.2019In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 890-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety is essential for life. To survive, humans and other animals have developed sets of psychological and physiological adaptations known as life history (LH) tradeoff strategies in response to various safety constraints. Evolutionarily selected LH strategies in turn regulate development and behavior to optimize survival under prevailing safety conditions. The present study tested LH hypotheses concerning safety based on a 6-year longitudinal sample of 1,245 adolescents and their parents from 9 countries. The results revealed that, invariant across countries, environmental harshness, and unpredictability (lack of safety) was negatively associated with slow LH behavioral profile, measured 2 years later, and slow LH behavioral profile was negatively and positively associated with externalizing behavior and academic performance, respectively, as measured an additional 2 years later. These results support the evolutionary conception that human development responds to environmental safety cues through LH regulation of social and learning behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

  • 30.
    Clausén Gull, Ingela
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (SWE).
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Norman, Åsa
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (SWE).
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (SWE).
    Olsson, Tina M.
    Department of Social Work, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, (SWE) School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (SWE).
    Neighborhood conditions in a Swedish context: Two studies of reliability and validity of virtual systematic social observation using Google Street View2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, p. 1-16, article id 1020742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The goal of these studies was to investigate the reliability and validity of virtual systematic social observation (virtual SSO) using Google Street View in a Swedish neighborhood context.

    METHODS: This was accomplished in two studies. Study 1 focused on interrater reliability and construct validity, comparing ratings conducted in-person to those done using Google Street View, across 24 study sites within four postal code areas. Study 2 focused on criterion validity of virtual SSO in terms of neighborhoods with low versus high income levels, including 133 study sites within 22 postal code areas in a large Swedish city. In both studies, assessment of the neighborhood context was conducted at each study site, using a protocol adapted to a Swedish context.

    RESULTS: Scales for Physical Decay, Neighborhood Dangerousness, and Physical Disorder were found to be reliable, with adequate interrater reliability, high consistency across methods, and high internal consistency. In Study 2, significantly higher levels of observed Physical Decay, Neighborhood Dangerousness, and signs of garbage or litter were observed in postal codes areas (site data was aggregated to postal code level) with lower as compared to higher income levels.

    DISCUSSION: We concluded that the scales within the virtual SSO with Google Street View protocol that were developed in this series of studies represents a reliable and valid measure of several key neighborhood contextual features. Implications for understanding the complex person-context interactions central to many theories of positive development among youth were discussed in relation to the study findings.

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  • 31.
    Danemo, Björn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Schultz, Tobias
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    En kritisk granskning av riskstyrningsprocessen på Reinertsen Sverige AB: en kvalitativ studie ur projektledarna på Reinertsen Sverige AB perspektiv.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's petroleum industry companies work systematically with risk management to prevent major accidents; despite this major accident have occurred on several occasions in the history of petroleum industry. Many of these accidents are derived from deficiencies in companies' risk management. The purpose of this study is to do a critical research on Reinertsen Sverige AB through the project managers' perspective, and to understand how communications and group dynamics produce conditions for the risk management process. Semi-structured interviews were used on five project managers to gather data which was used in a thematic analysis. Results indicated that project managers experienced variations in the collective engagement which confines the project team possibilities to implement an effective risk management. Results also indicated the need for implications training in risk management which can be affected by lack of education and experience of installations offshore. Project managers also indicated deficiencies in the communication with platforms which affect the risk management. This study clarifies three main areas which have direct impact on the deviancies and are evolvable, group dynamics, communication and experience.

  • 32.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    et al.
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Godwin, Jennifer
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Universidad San Buenaventura,Consultorio Psicologico Popular, Medellín, Colombia.
    Yotanyamaneewong, Saengduean
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan; Emirates College for Advanced Education.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples Federico II, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Rome University La Sapienza, Faculty of Psycholog , Rome, Italy .
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA ; King Abdulaziz University.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Chaos, Danger, and Maternal Parenting in Families: Links with Adolescent Adjustment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries2019In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 22, no 5, article id e12855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current longitudinal study is the first comparative investigation across Low- and Middle- Income Countries (LMICs) to test the hypothesis that harsher and less affectionate maternal parenting (child age 14 years, on average) statistically mediates the prediction from prior household chaos and neighborhood danger (at 13 years) to subsequent adolescent maladjustment (externalizing, internalizing, and school performance problems at 15 years). The sample included 511 urban families in six LMICs: China, Colombia, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed consistent associations between chaos, danger, affectionate and harsh parenting, and adolescent adjustment problems. There was some support for the hypothesis, with nearly all countries showing a modest indirect effect of maternal hostility (but not affection) for adolescent externalizing, internalizing, and scholastic problems. Results provide further evidence that chaotic home and dangerous neighborhood environments increase risk for adolescent maladjustment in LMIC contexts, via harsher maternal parenting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Drewitz, Nicolaj
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Linnarsson, Amanda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Personlighet och Förtroende: Finns det något samband?: En kvantitativ studie om förtroende för en regering2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett högt förtroende för politiska institutioner bland befolkningen är viktigt för både individers välbefinnande och för att samhället ska fungera väl. Förtroendet för politiska processer är nödvändigt för världsekonomin och för demokratin. Det finns mycket forskning om befolkningens tillit till politiska institutioner i relation till deras personlighetsdrag. Författarna känner dock inte till någon tidigare forskning på hur personlighetsdrag och förtroendet för någon regering i Sverige samvarierar. Studien ämnade därför att undersöka förtroendet för den sittande regeringen i Sverige 2018 i relation till personlighetsdragen i femfaktormodellen, med SOM-undersökningen från 2018 som datamaterial. Urvalet av undersökningsdeltagare gjordes slumpmässigt av registerdata från Skatteverkets folkbokföringsregister. 1540 respondenter inkluderades i den multipla linjära regressionsanalysen. 5000 bootstrapiterationer användes vid kontroll för bakgrundsvariablerna inkomst och utbildning. Resultatet visade ett svagt positivt samband mellan agreeableness och förtroendet för den dåvarande sittande regeringen i Sverige. Övriga dimensioner i femfaktormodellen blev inte signifikanta. Studien tyder på att personer som skattade högt på agreeableness i femfaktormodellens personlighetstest tenderade att ha högre förtroende för den regering som satt under insamlingsdataperioden.Behovet av en gemensam konceptualisering av både begrepp och mätmetoder inom forskningsområdet diskuteras.

  • 34. Drysdale, Maureen
    et al.
    Ward, Lisa J.
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Zaitseva, Elena
    Sheri, Dressler
    Comparing the Attributes of Students in Cooperative Education or Work-Integrated Learning Programs in Four Countries2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies, the internalization of markets, and higher numbers of university graduates have led to greater competition for employment and greater needs for higher-order employment skills, practical experience, and a strong sense of competence. An increasing number of students are turning to work-integrated programs of learning (WIL) –where they can gain the necessary skills to enhance their future employment and career prospects.

    The aim of this international project was to examine the relationship between work-integrated learning and the psychological variables believed to play a role for success in the transition to the labour market.

    Students from four countries (Canada, Sweden, England, and the USA) completed the same online questionnaire measuring self-concept, self-efficacy, hope (goal-setting, goal achievement), procrastination, motivation, study skills, and work ethic. Results indicated there were many attitudes and behaviours shared by WIL and non-WIL students in the four countries – however there were also significant differences that shed light on WIL outcomes and/or the type of students who select WIL, regardless of where they reside. WIL students appear to have a stronger math self-concept and problem-solving self-concept. Non WIL students appear to have more confidence to attain academic and career goals, but it decreases by the end of their studies. On the other hand, confidence increases substantially for WIL students. Gender effects and achievement differences between the two groups will also be discussed. In summary, Students in WIL programs –regardless of where they reside -appear more similar than different.

  • 35.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, HJordan .
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples, Department of Psychology, Italy .
    Lei, Chang
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, Macau .
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    University of Dheli, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, India .
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth .A
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology,Cyprus .
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Kenya .
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma, Department of Psychology, Italy .
    Skinner, AnnT.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Tapanya, Somabt
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Thailand .
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, France .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, Philippines .
    Interaction of reward seeking and self-regulation in the prediction of risk taking: A cross-national test of the dual systems model2016In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1593-1605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether these relations differ as a function of age and culture. To compare across cultures, we conduct 2 sets of analyses: 1 comparing individuals from Asian and Western countries, and 1 comparing individuals from low- and high-GDP countries. Results indicate that reward seeking and self-regulation have largely independent associations with risk taking and that the influences of each variable on risk taking are not unique to adolescence, but that their link to risk taking varies across cultures. © 2016 American Psychological Association.

  • 36.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA ; King Abdulaziz University.
    Icenogle, Grace
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    Lady Irwin College, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, LUniversity of Delhi, India.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Rome University La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology , Rome, Italy .
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology, Cyprus.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Department of Psychology, Bogota,Colombia.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Department of Special Education, Zarqa, Jordan; Counseling, Special Education, and Neuroscience Division, Emirates College for Advanced Education, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Takash, Hanan M. S.
    Hashemite Univ, Queen Rania Fac Childhood, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples Federico II, Department of Humanistic Studies, Napoli, Italy..
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Correction: Age Patterns in Risk Taking Across the World (vol 47, pg 1052, 2018)2019In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 835-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the original publication, the legends for Figs 4 and 5 were incorrect, such that each regression line was mislabeled with the incorrect country. Below are the correctly labeled countries. The authors apologize for any confusion or misinformation this error may have caused.

  • 37.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University,Department of Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, USA and King Abdulaziz University.
    Icenogle, Grace
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    University of Delhi, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, New Delhi, India..
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA..
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology, Kallipoleos, Cyprus..
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA..
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma, La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Roma, RM, Italy.
    Skinner, Anne T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, Metro Manila, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University and Emirates College for Advanced Education, Al Zafranah, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Takash, Hanan M. S.
    Hashemite University, Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, Zarqa, Jordan..
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Department of Psychology, Caserta, CE, Italy .
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology,Zhuhai Shi, China..
    Age patterns in risk taking across the world2018In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1052-1072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological data indicate that risk behaviors are among the leading causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consistent with this, laboratory-based studies of age differences in risk behavior allude to a peak in adolescence, suggesting that adolescents demonstrate a heightened propensity, or inherent inclination, to take risks. Unlike epidemiological reports, studies of risk taking propensity have been limited to Western samples, leaving questions about the extent to which heightened risk taking propensity is an inherent or culturally constructed aspect of adolescence. In the present study, age patterns in risk-taking propensity (using two laboratory tasks: the Stoplight and the BART) and real-world risk taking (using self-reports of health and antisocial risk taking) were examined in a sample of 5,227 individuals (50.7% female) ages 10-30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 Western and non-Western countries (China, Colombia, Cyprus, India, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the US). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) risk taking follows an inverted-U pattern across age groups, peaking earlier on measures of risk taking propensity than on measures of real-world risk taking, and (2) age patterns in risk taking propensity are more consistent across countries than age patterns in real-world risk taking. Overall, risk taking followed the hypothesized inverted-U pattern across age groups, with health risk taking evincing the latest peak. Age patterns in risk taking propensity were more consistent across countries than age patterns in real-world risk taking. Results suggest that although the association between age and risk taking is sensitive to measurement and culture, around the world, risk taking is generally highest among late adolescents

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  • 38.
    Dåderman, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lindgren, May
    Lund University.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The prevalence of dyslexia and AD/HD in a sample of forensic psychiatric rapists2004In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 371-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of dyslexia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) (DSM-IV) is markedly increased among those who are sentenced for criminal offences. The aim of the study was to identify developmental disabilities, dyslexia and AD/HD among severely disturbed men in forensic psychiatric care, and to study the co-occurrence of such disabilities, with the objective to discuss the importance of the diagnoses in forensic psychiatry. The participants were 10 males who had committed rape on adult women, and included two murder-rapists, one of which had murdered more than one victim (i.e. a serial murderer). All had been assigned to special long term forensic psychiatric care, based predominantly on a psychodynamic ground. In order to be identified as having dyslexia, a participant’s performance on at least three out of four tests of academic skills had to be markedly below the expected level (more than two stanine steps), given the participant’s non-verbal intellectual capacity and considering the length of his education. AD/HD was investigated by studying the participants’ forensic psychiatric files and by a clinical interview. Seven of the 10 participants met the DSM-IV criteria for dyslexia, and six of them met the DSM-IV criteria for AD/HD. Four participants had AD/HD and dyslexia, three had AD/HD but no dyslexia, and two had dyslexia but no AD/HD. Only one participant had neither dyslexia nor AD/HD. The participants with dyslexia performed well in tests assessing non-verbal reasoning, visuo-spatial capacity and visual memory. Although the generalization of the results from 10 rapists is severely limited, the results indicate the importance of assessing dyslexia as well as AD/HD in people who are admitted for forensic psychiatric assessment. The lack of correct diagnoses may negatively influence the choice of appropriate forensic psychiatric care. Early assessment of those disorders might have a positive influence on the psychological development and socialization process in people with dyslexia and/or AD/HD.

  • 39.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    The work-family interface: Job demands, work engagement and turnover intentions of Polish nurses2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A conflict between one's professional life and one's family life may lead to lower well-being both at work and home. Most nurses are women who have traditionally reconciled their professional life with family life. One aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the work-family conflict (WFC),the family-work conflict (FWC), and the perception of job demands (quantitative workload and interpersonal conflicts at work). We intended also to examine the components of work engagement (vigour, dedication, and absorption) and turnover intentions. Another aim was to determine whether the variables that we examined are important for turnover intentions. This study comprised Polish registered nurses. The following instruments were used:Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales (Netemeyer, Boles, &McMurrian, 1996), the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale and Quantitative Workload Index (Spector & Jex, 1998), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale(Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006), and measures of turnover intentions (intention to leave the present workplace and intention to leave the nursing profession). The score on the scale to measure WFC was positively related to perceived workload and to both turnover intentions, while negatively related to vigour. The WFC was experienced significantly more intensively than FWC. The perception of differences in mean scale scores of job demands had a moderate effect on the FWC and WFC, while differences in mean scale scores of vigour had a strong effect on the WFC. WFC, quantitative workload and a low level of dedication were significant predictors of the intention to leave the present workplace, while the level of job demands was a significant predictor of theintention to leave the nursing profession. The results are interpreted and discussed using Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory.

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  • 40.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Colli, Daniel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The significance of the sense of coherence for various coping resources in stress situations used by police officers in on-the-beat service2014In: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, ISSN 1232-1087, E-ISSN 1896-494X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPolice officers meet many stressors as part of their occupation. The psychological resource "sense of coherence" (SOC) protects against ill-health, but its impact on coping resources for stress situations has not been studied in the population of police officers. Different approaches to investigate the significance of SOC for different outcomes have been identified in literature, leading to some difficulties in the interpretation and generalization of results. The aim was therefore to explore SOC and the coping resources, and to examine the significance of SOC for various coping resources for stress using different models in a sample of Swedish police officers providing on-the-beat service.

    Materials and MethodsOne hundred and one police officers (age: mean = 33 years, SD = 8; 29 females) were included, and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-29) and the Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) were used. The dependent variable in each regression analysis was one of the coping resources: cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual/philosophical, physical, and a global resource. Global SOC-29 and/or its components (comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness) were investigated as independent variables.

    ResultsAll CRI and SOC-29 scores except for that of spiritual/philosophical resources were higher than those of reference groups. Manageability was the most important component of SOC for various coping resources in stress situations used by police officers.

    ConclusionA deeper study of manageability will give useful information, because this component of SOC is particularly significant in the variation in resources used by police officers to cope with stress. Salutogenesis, the origin of well-being, should be more in focus of future research on workplaces with a high level of occupational stress.

  • 41.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Det har blivit populärt att vara psykiskt sjuk i Kalifornien: konsekvenser av den nya lagen Three-strikes and you're out law2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, no 51-52, p. 6038-6039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of the new Three-strikes and you're out law, the law which first came into effect on 1994, was to protect innocent members of the community. A person convicted of his or her third conviction after two prior serious convictions under Three-strikes will typically receive a sentence of no less than 25 years to life in state prison. This law is well-known in California among criminals, especially repeat offenders and many of them left the state. The rate of homicides in the state has decreased by 50%. Many repeat offenders remained in California and continued to commit new crimes. Before Three-strikes was enacted, it was very uncommon for forensic psychiatrists to see criminals malingering symptoms of mental illness in any but the most serious of cases of murder or rape. Since the implementation of the new law, it has been found malingering to be much more common. Hundreds of patients at state mental hospitals fake insanity to avoid prison, costing taxpayers far more than the cost of incarceration in a prison. The most common types of malingers are discussed.

  • 42.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Developing courses in quantitative methods for undergraduate psychology students: teaching facilitated by experimental exercises with work-related elements2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2016, p. 3-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers need to develop and implement effective teaching methods when educating students who come to the university through “broadened recruitment”, that is, students with parents without higher education, and also older students who want to supplement their previous university education. These groups have, at least theoretically, more practical experiences and possible poorer study outcomes.

     

    University West tops the list of Swedish universities in the percentage of students with parents without higher education. In addition, during recent years, unemployment in the region around University West increased (by about 75%). This fact leads to a higher percentage of older students with work-related experience. These rapid changes have put us who teach methods and statistics before the question of how to teach more effectively, so that a high “throughput” can be maintained in combination with a constantly decreasing number of teaching hours. Broadening participation and high throughput: how can we make it happen?

     

    This study was an attempt to implement “learning by doing”, an activity-based teaching method where theory, practice, reflection and action are combined. In their learning of experimental methods and statistics, students at University West were expected to integrate their past and present working skills in an experiment that simulated two work-related situations (applying for employment as a manager, and applying for leave of absence from prison). In a three-group experiment, an attempt was made to manipulate the applicant’s degree of empathy, which was then measured with the IRI scale. Collected data were used in statistics education, and results were discussed with students. In subsequent knowledge tests, the proportion of the grade “fail” was low. Course evaluations reflected a high degree of student satisfaction.

     

    Therefore, the use of “learning by doing” in the teaching of statistics, which is normally considered to be difficult to understand and apply, is recommended in order to increase motivation to learn statistics.

  • 43.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Differences between severely conduct-disordered juvenile males and normal juvenile males: the study of personality traits1999In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 827-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits among a group of 47 severely conduct-disordered (C-D) juvenile males from four Swedish national correctional institutions for serious offences were studied. The Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-I), including an impulsivity scale from the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy (IVE) inventory, and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales (SSS) form V, were administered to the C-D juveniles. The scores from the KSP for this group were compared to scores from a presentative group of 82 normal juvenile male subjects from the Swedish longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA). Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated between the KSP scales and scales from the EPQ-I, and between the SSS and scales from the EPQ-I and KSP inventories. The C-D juveniles displayed notably higher scores than the mean normal scores on psychopathy-related personality scales. The present results are consistent with earlier findings concerning personality dimensions in adult criminal psychopaths: high scores on impulsivity and sensation seeking, and low scores on conformity reflected in low socialization and high psychoticism.

  • 44.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Fallet Thomas Quick: ”Bortträngda” minnen och hans diagnoser2016In: Diagnoser / [ed] Kurt Almqvist, Stockholm: Axel och Margaret Ax:son Johnsons Stiftelse , 2016, 1. ed., p. 55-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Hur kan ett arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL) synliggöras inom ämnet psykologi?2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan, 2016, p. 1-2Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte med denna presentation är att tydliggöra hur vi inom ämnet psykologi synliggör AIL, genom att beskriva resultaten från genomförda studier inom ett samverkansprojekt med aktörer från arbetslivet och akademin. Resultat från detta projekt ledde till ett nyligen avslutat verifieringsprojekt, finansierat av Innovations Kontor Väst, Chalmers. Båda projekten kommer att presenteras. Exempel ges på hur dessa psykologiska forskningsprojekt kunnat bidra till implementeringen av AIL i psykologiundervisning.

    Syfte med projektet ”Studier om en ny svensk ledarskapsmodell som bygger på teorin om ledarintelligens” var att utveckla en praktiskt tillämpbar ledarskapsmodell som bygger på Ronthys teori (2006, 2013) om ledarskapets intelligens. Detta gjordes genom att validera teorin bland chefer och ledare i ett samarbete mellan forskare inom akademin och externa aktörer (organisationer och företag). Teorin är sprungen ur Ronthys erfarenheter av att undervisa och att handleda omkring 4 000 chefer i utvecklingssamtal.

    Ett flertal examensarbeten har skrivits inom projektet, och några har resulterat i konferenspresentationer och i vetenskapliga publikationer. Genom sitt deltagande i projektet får våra studenter kontakter med ansvariga i kommuner, företag och organisationer, och ökar därigenom sina möjligheter att bli anställda. De får även bättre förståelse av arbetslivets villkor och kan på ett djupare sätt diskutera sina resultat, och får därmed bättre studieresultat. Genom examensarbeten bedrivs en reflexionsdrivande undervisning, där studenter lär sig vad det kan innebära att vara chef eller ledare i ett arbetsliv som är i förändring. Allt detta kräver eftertanke: ”Vem är jag?”, ”Vad vill jag jobba med?”. Studenterna får även en närmare relation till yrken och verksamheter utanför akademin, samt utvecklar sin yrkeskompetens genom att reflektera kring användningen av testmetodik.

    Slutsatsen är att AIL kan synliggöras i såväl psykologisk forskning som undervisning på samma sätt som AIL synliggörs i andra ämnen, exempelvis pedagogik eller informatik.

  • 46.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women.

    Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations.

    Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children.

    Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations.

    Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

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  • 47.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Work-family interference: Occupational demands, work engagement and turnover intentions in nurses2015In: PSYSOC-2015 Abstracts Book, 2015, p. 26-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how to manage incompatible professional and non-professional demands has attracted attention from both scholars and practitioners in recent decades. One aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the work-family conflict (WFC), the family-work conflict (FWC), and the perception of job demands (quantitative workload and interpersonal conflicts at work). We intended also to examine the components of work engagement (vigour, dedication, and absorption) and turnover intentions. Another aim was to determine whether the variables that we examined are important for turnover intentions. This study comprised 98 nurses (mean age 41, SD = 6 years). The following instruments were used: Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales, the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale and Quantitative Workload Index, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and measures of turnover intentions. The score on the scale to measure WFC was positively related to perceived workload and to both turnover intentions, while negatively related to vigour. The FWC was positively related to absorption. The WFC was experienced significantly more intensively than FWC. The perception of differences in mean scale scores of job demands had a moderate effect on the FWC and WFC, while differences in mean scale scores of vigour had a strong effect on the WFC. WFC, quantitative workload and a low level of dedication were significant predictors of the intention to leave the present workplace, while the level of job demands was a significant predictor of the intention to leave the nursing profession. The results are interpreted and discussed using Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources theory. Health organizations should develop guidance and counselling to promote good and efficient work with decent working conditions and a happy family life for nurses.

  • 48.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hellström, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Interrater Reliability of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Results on Multiple Analysis Levels for a Sample of Patients Undergoing Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation2018In: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 234-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scores from the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R) are used to support decisions regarding personal liberty. In our study, performed in an applied forensic psychiatric setting, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for absolute agreement, single rater (ICCA1) were .89 for the total score, .82 for Factor 1, .88 for Factor 2, and .78 to .86 for the four facets. These results stand in contrast to lower reliabilities found in a majority of field studies. Disagreement among raters made a low contribution (0%-5%) to variability of scores on the total score, factor, and facet level. For individual items, ICCA1 varied from .38 to .94, with >.80 for seven of the 20 items. Items 17 (“Many short-term marital relationships”) and 19 (“Revocation of conditional release”) showed very low reliabilities (.38 and .43, respectively). The importance of knowledge about factors that can affect scoring of forensic instruments (e.g., education, training, experience, motivation, raters’ personality, and quality of file data) is emphasized.

  • 49.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Hellström, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Psychopathy Assessment with PCL-R has High Interrater Reliability if Conducted Without Bias2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scores of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) are used to support decisions regarding personal liberty. There is increasing concern about its interrater reliability in applied contexts, where low reliabilites have been obtained. We report a study in which 12 forensic psychiatric staff raters assessed 43 male offenders for psychopathy using the PCL-R. These ratings were compared with those obtained at a second occasion from separate interviews utilizing similar file data by an independent researcher, experienced as an expert for the defense. Intraclass correlation coefficients were high; .89 for the PCL-R total scale, .82 for Factor 1, and .38 – .94 for individual items. These results stand in contrast to the considerably lower reliabilities found in recent field studies, mainly conducted within adversary judicial systems. In such contexts, ratings may be biased. Interrater reliability of PCL-R is likely be increased if raters utilize similar data. 

  • 50.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund (SWE).
    Hallberg, Angela
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Skog, Sandra
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Hellström, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (SWE).
    Leading with a cool head and a warm heart: trait-based leadership resources linked to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement2022In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaders of today need to achieve well in terms of task performance, perceiving low stress, and having high levels of work engagement. One may ask whether trait-based leadership resource factors can be identified and how such resource factors might relate to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement. Our aim was to test the hypothesis, derived from Hobfoll’s motivational Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, that there are trait-based leadership resource factors, which are differentially correlated to the leaders’ task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement. Leaders (N = 344) aged from 23 to 65 years (M = 49, SD = 8.6; 58% women) completed an online questionnaire including measures of task performance, perceived stress, work engagement, personality traits, trait emotional intelligence, empathy, performance-related self-esteem, compassionate and rational leadership competence, and coping resources for stress. Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four trait-based leadership resource factors. With Bonferroni adjustment, and controlling for sex, age, number of years in the current managerial position, self-deceptive enhancement, and impression management, only Rational Mastery was significantly positively correlated with task performance. Rational Mastery, Efficient Coping, and Modesty were negatively correlated with perceived stress, and all factors except Modesty, but including the fourth (Good-Heartedness) were positively correlated with work engagement. Organizations striving for sustainable work conditions should support trait-based leadership, which depends not only on a task-oriented resource such as rational mastery, but also on human-oriented resources such as efficient coping, modesty, and good-heartedness, all of them being differentially related to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement.  

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