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  • 1.
    Andersson, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    The performance of an iced aircraft wing2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis work has been to develop and manufacture an ice layer which was to be mounted on the tip of a scaled down wing model. The iced wing should be tested in a wind tunnel and aerodynamic comparisons should be made to the same wing without ice.The development of the ice was carried out as a modified product development process. The main differences are that there is no costumer and that the actual shape and functions of the product are more or less predetermined. The challenge was to find the best way to create the ice layer and how to mount it to the wing without damaging it or covering any pressure sensors. Product development methods such as pros and cons lists and prototypes were used to solve problems before printing the plastic ice layer in a rapid prototyping machine.Wind tunnel experiments were then conducted on the wing with and without the manufactured ice. Raw data from the wind tunnel were processed and lift and drag coefficients were calculated using mathematical equations. Finally, conclusions were drawn by comparing the results from the wind tunnel tests with theory, other works as well as CFD simulations.The ice layer was successfully manufactured and it met the target specifications. The aerodynamic performance of an iced aircraft wing proved to be considerably worse compared to a blank wing. The maximum achievable lift force decreased by 22% and an increased drag force will require more thrust from the airplane.

  • 2.
    Fuente, Raquel
    et al.
    IK4-LORTEK, Ordizia, Spain.
    García de la Yedra, Aitor
    IK4-LORTEK, Ordizia, Spain.
    Beizama, Ane Miren
    IK4-LORTEK, Ordizia, Spain.
    Fernández, Erik
    IK4-LORTEK, Ordizia, Spain.
    Gorostegui Colinas, Eider
    IK4-LORTEK, Ordizia, Spain.
    Echeverria, Alberto
    IK4-LORTEK, Ordizia, Spain.
    Broberg, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Thorpe, Nigel
    Tecnitest ingenieros, Madrid, Spain.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Henrikson, Per
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems Sweden, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Development and demonstration of an automated system for limited access weld inspection by using infrared active thermography2015In: Proceedings 7th International Symposium on NDT in Aerospace, Berlin, 2015, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weld inspection for surface breaking defects detection has been traditionally performed by using NDT methods such as Fluorescent PenetrantInspection (FPI), Visual Inspection (VI) or Eddy Currents (EC). All those well known techniques have as common drawback the need of skilled operator intervention in order to analyse obtained results. In the specific case of inspection of welds with limited access, the application of those traditional methods is even more complex, thus increasing inspection time and reducing the defect detection capability. Therefore, the development of a fully automated non-contact method overcoming these limitations is desired. Active thermography (IRT) represents one of the most promising techniques for replacing traditional techniques for surface breaking defect detection in welds.This technique makes use of an excitation source in order to heat the sample undertest and an infrared camera for thermal evolution monitoring. With the combination of these excitation-monitoring techniques, heterogeneities in the heat flow caused bysurface breaking cracks can be detected. In this work, a robotic solution was developed and demonstrated for the inspection of welds with real cracks in a representative environment with limited access. The system consists of a continuous laser-line excitation source together with a FLIR SC 655 micro bolometer thermographic camera. In order to access limited areas, two different aluminium polished mirrors have been used for bothinfrared radiation monitoring and laser excitation respectively. The inspection results, analysis and comparison with traditional methods will be shown.

  • 3.
    Gupta, Mohit Kumar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Design of Low Thermal Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings by Finite Element Modelling2011In: Surface Modification Technologies XXIV: SMT24, Dresden, September 7-9, 2010 / [ed] T. S. Sudarshan, Eckhard Beyer, and Lutz-Michael Berger, 2011, p. 353-365Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental understanding of relationships between coating microstructure and thermal conductivity is important to be able to understand the influence of coating defects, such as delaminations and pores, on heat insulation in thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Object Oriented Finite element analysis (OOF) has recently been shown as an effective tool for evaluating thermo-mechanical material behaviour as this method is capable of incorporating the inherent material microstructure as an input to the model. The objective of this work was to evaluate a procedure where this technique is combined with Tbctool, a plasma-sprayed TBC like morphology generator, thus enabling development of low thermal conductivity coatings by simulation. Input parameters for Tbctool were computed from SEM images of sprayed microstructures using the image analysis software, Aphelion. Microstructures for as-sprayed as well as heat treated samples were evaluated. The thermal conductivities of the artificially generated microstructures were determined using OOF. Verification of the modelling procedure was performed by comparing predicted values by OOF with corresponding measured values using the laser flash technique. The results, although tentative in nature, indicate that the proposed simulation approach can be a powerful tool in the development of new low conductivity coatings.

  • 4.
    Hagqvist, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Heralic, Almir
    GKN Aerospace.
    Automation of a laser welding system for additive manufacturing2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering / [ed] Kazuhiro Saitou, Univ. of Michigan, IEEE, 2015, p. 900-905Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the benefits and challenges ofusing a standard robotised laser welding cell for additive manufacturing(AM). Additive manufacturing, sometimes denoted3D-printing or rapid prototyping, has lately met strong interestin several areas of society, and a variety of technologies andmaterials have been in focus. The current paper summarisesautomation efforts for AM of advanced aero engine componentsusing high power laser with welding optics as power source formelting metal wire and using an industrial robot for obtaininga 3-dimensional feature shape. The challenges are related to theprocess itself encountering high and repeated temperatures withmelting and solidification of the metal as the main players. Themajor research solutions discussed in this paper are relatedto automation issues for obtaining a stable process and tohave control of the temperatures and temperature changes thatthe metals encounter during the process. The solutions aresuccessfully implemented in an industrial laser welding cell.

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