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  • 1.
    Alizadeh-Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Jensen, Anna O.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Optimization of deformation monitoring networks using finite element strain analysis2018In: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i. e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point. © 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Ahl, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Täktverksamhet: En undersökning av beslut om avgifter och nedsättning2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att utreda huruvida det råder en konsekvent hantering av tillsynsavgifter och ifall beslut om nedsättning tas på lika grunder. Tanken var att rapporten skulle kunna påvisa om verkligheten avspeglar lagstiftningen.

    Grunden till denna studie är frågeställningarna;

    1. Hur beslutar tillsynsmyndigheter om tillsynsavgifter?

    2. I vilken utsträckning beviljar tillsynsmyndigheter nedsättning av tillsynsavgiften?

    3. I vilken utsträckning begär verksamhetsutövare nedsättning av tillsynsavgiften?

    Begreppet täkt definieras som arbetsföretag vilket primärt syftar till att nyttiggöra det uttagna materialet. Detta sker antingen genom direktförsäljning eller i övrig verksamhet inom det egna företaget. Arbetet handlar endast om tillståndspliktiga täkter och i Sverige finns det omkring 2300 sådana igång. Tillsynsavgiften för täkterna ligger på omkring 800 kronor per timme och i snitt läggs det enligt våra intervjuer tio timmar tillsynstid per täkt och år. Det sammanlagda beloppet på tillsynskostnader i Sverige ligger således på drygt arton miljoner kronor.

    Arbetet inleds med en teoridel där läsaren ges möjlighet att få en djupare förståelse för täkter, tillsynsavgifter, nedsättning och de lagrum som skall följas i samband med detta. Teorin grundas på litteraturstudier och samtal med sakkunniga. Följt av teorin kommer en undersökning som valdes att utföras genom intervjuer med ett visst antal kommuner, Länsstyrelser och verksamhetsutövare. Sammanställningen av intervjuerna blev grunden för det avslutande resultatet och de slutsatser som kunde tas av undersökningen.

    Resultatet av arbetet visar på att tillsynsmyndigheter fattar beslut om tillsynsavgifter och nedsättning på olika sätt och grunder. För att få en mer likvärdig hantering av frågorna skulle en tydligare och mer konkret lagstiftning behöva arbetas fram. Vi kunde också fastslå att Naturvårdsverket som har en tillsynsvägledande roll i sammanhanget inte verkar nå ut till de tillsynsansvariga då de flesta av dem inte vet om att Naturvårdverket tillhandahåller detta stöd. Det är många frågor som väcks efter att ha fullbordat denna studie och listan på förslag till framtida arbete kan därmed göras lång

  • 3.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bosson, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära lägen: En kartläggande och jämförande studie av hur kommuner och Länsstyrelser tillämpar lagstiftningen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    2009/2010 a new concept was brought into Environmental code and Planning and Building Act, which was countryside development in areas close to shores (LIS). This amendment was motivated by that areas which have a low degree of exploited land area and high access to seaside areas would get an opportunity to reliefs in coastal protection regulations, in order to be able to offer attractive areas for living and establishing different activities within the municipality. Since the amendment came into force the main responsibility for approval of exceptions from costal protection regulations is on the county. The county administrative board main responsibility is to keep an eye on the granted approvals of the municipalities. The amendments in the Planning and Building Act resulted in the possibility for the municipalities to present areas in with a relief in coastal protection regulations, as a part of the comprehensive plan, an addition to the comprehensive plan or an extensive version for a part of the comprehensive plan.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare how the legislation about LIS is applied, by studying 44 municipalities including the documents of comments from the county administrative board. The first part of the study is the quantitative part which contains collecting and compile information and statistics in which the study will be founded. The study also contains a qualitative part of analyzing the results obtained in the quantitative part.

    Overall the study shows that there is a disagreement between the municipalities and the county administrative board regarding costal protection regulation. The conclusion is based on the results from the study presenting the comments from the county administrative board to the municipalities during the final examine before the comprehensive plan is adopted by the municipal council. The results in the study show a pattern in the most frequent comments from the county administrative board compiled. The most common comment from the county administrative board is that the municipality has not fulfilled the purpose of the legislation about LIS. Furthermore, the municipality has not considered national interests in the municipal areas meant for LIS. The study shows that different political ideology has an influence on the execution of the legislation about LIS in municipalities. The results in the study show that the political ideology has an impact on the numbers of areas which the municipalities present as LIS. As a matter of fact, the impact of political ideology is greater than the impact of geographical similarities between two municipalities, according to the results in the study.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thyrsson, Alicia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Marklov för trädfällning & skogsplantering: Kravets omfattning och utbredning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In community planning, there are many regulations that can be made to control land use and a detail development plan is an instrument that Sweden's municipalities have access to in order to do so. In a detail development plan, the municipality may specify properties that will apply in an area, such as the protection of trees, whish this study is about. To protect trees a plan regulation is required in the plan indicating what is applicable. In the Planning and Building Act 9 chap. 12 § it is stated that the municipality in a detail development plan may decide that a land permit is required for felling trees and for afforestation. An application for a permit to felling trees and / or afforestation shall be sent to the municipality, which will examine whether the application is to be granted or refused. Entering a land permit for felling trees in the detail development plan protects trees that may otherwise be cut down without the municipality's knowledge.

    The survey aims at examining the extent to which the municipalities of Sweden use the opportunity to decide on land permits in a detail development plan. Furthermore, the municipality's motive for the protection of trees is investigated and if it is done otherwise than with the plan regulation, and whether there has been any change in how the municipalities regulate trees in 2017 compared to 1990, when the detail development plan had recently been introduced. This has been done with both qualitative and quantitative methods to get a versatile and complete study.

    The results show that the municipalities used the plan regulation for land permit for felling trees in 60 of the detail development plans in 2017. To ensure protection of trees municipalities use other methods than land permit, for example a Plan regulation to protect trees. The motives given by the municipalities to protect trees vary widely and there are ecological, social and aesthetic reasons. In the comparison of detail development plans from 2017 and 1990, differences have been observed. More plans in 2017 with land permit for felling trees have been observed as well as more and more varied motivations. Plan regulation about afforestation has been found only once in a total of 1 353 detail development plans.

  • 5.
    Berglund, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Thörnqvist, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Detaljplan med enskilt huvudmannaskap för allmänna platser: planering kontra genomförande2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har vi utrett om genomförandet av allmänna platser inom detaljplanelagda områden med enskilt huvudmannaskap utförts i enlighet med kommunens intentioner. Studien baserades på elva detaljplaner inom tre kommuner i Västra Götalandsregionen där planhandlingar granskats och jämförts med de förrättningar som skett på områdena. Slutligen besiktigades också områdena för att se hur det blev i verkligheten. Granskningen visade att kommunernas intentioner har följts överlag men avvikelser förekommer. Vi kom fram till att enskilt huvudmannaskap kan vara en fungerande lösning för att säkerställa kommunens intentioner om de använder sig av planbestämmelser för att reglera utformningen av allmänna platser i detaljplan.

    En kortare studie av aktuell lagstiftning visar att kommunerna får använda sig av planbestämmelser på allmän plats vid enskilt huvudmannaskap i samma grad som kommunen skall använda sig av dessa vid kommunalt huvudmannaskap.

    Med ett kommittédirektiv som bakgrund, där det b.la. skall utredas hur tillgängligheten till allmänna platser med enskilt huvudmannaskap skall vara, har vi under besiktningen av områdena också undersökt hur tillgängligheten faktiskt var. Besiktningen visade att tillgängligheten till de allmänna platserna varierade mellan de kommuner vi granskade.

    En enkätundersökning visar att lantmäterimyndigheterna anser att samarbetet med kommunerna är för dålig p.g.a. bristande resurser. Lantmäterimyndigheterna har som utgångspunkt att följa planbestämmelser gällande utformning av allmänna platser. Det förekommer att lantmäterimyndigheterna förbiser prövning av väsentlighet och båtnad i de fall detaljplan ligger till grund för förrättningen.

    Övriga slutsatser vi dragit från arbetet är att naturområden som skall vara allmänt tillgängliga ej bör ingå i en gemensamhetsanläggning då väsentlighetsvillkoret enligt Anläggningslagen, AL kan ifrågasättas. Vi kom också fram till att anläggningsbesluten bör utformas mer utförligt för att tydliggöra kostnader och ansvar för fastighetsägare i framtiden.

  • 6.
    Berntsson, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Halldin, Josefin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Ägarlägenheter på Öckerö: erfarenheter kring förvaltningsfrågor2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har det sedan maj 2009 varit tillåtet att bilda ägarlägenheter. En ägarlägenhet är en typ av fastighet som är avgränsad både horisontellt och vertikalt och avsedd att innehålla endast en bostadslägenhet. Ägarlägenheten ägs som vilken fastighet som helst och kan därmed fritt hyras ut, pantsättas, belånas och överlåtas.Några av de första att satsa på den nya bostadsformen var det kommunala bostadsbolaget på Öckerö, Öckerö Bostads AB. Bolaget startade 2009 projekteringen av ett nytt bostadsområde som omfattades av 5 huskroppar om totalt 50 ägarlägenheter på Breviksängar. Öckerö Bostads AB styckade av 50 ägarlägenheter varav de sålde 30 av lägenheterna och behöll 20 lägenheter för uthyrning. Det är kombinationen bolagsägande och privat ägande men också hur förvaltningen har fungerat som har undersökts och analyserats. Både lekmannaperspektivet och fackmannaperspektivet har belysts.En anledning till att bolaget valde att sälja 30 av de 50 ägarlägenheterna var för att bolaget ville delfinansiera de 20 hyreslägenheterna och på så sätt hålla hyresnivån för en nyproducerad lägenhet på en rimlig nivå. Att hyresrätterna delfinansieras med försäljning av ägarlägenheter leder till att bostadsbolaget kan erbjuda hyresgästerna en lägre hyra jämfört med om hela projektet hade varit hyresrätterBlandningen av hyresrätter och ägarlägenheter upplevs av de flesta som positiv. Vissa av ägarlägenheternas ägare anser dock att hyresgästerna inte är lika rädda om området som ägarlägenhetsägarna. Ser man till de grannelagsrättsliga reglerna är det däremot mer säkert att bo bredvid en hyresgäst än att bo bredvid en ägarlägenhetsägare eftersom en hyresgäst kan avhysas om denne orsakar störningar i boendet medan en ägarlägenhetsägare inte kan avhysas även om denne orsakar störningar.Öckerö Bostads AB hade också en integrationstanke om att blanda olika typer av människor och familjekonstellationer på Breviksängar, därför blandades hyresrätter och ägarlägenheter i samtliga hus, detta är dock svårt att införliva på Öckerö på grund av att hyrorna och kostnaden för en ägarlägenhet fortfarande är relativt höga.Samfälligheter och gemensamhetsanläggningar bildades för att tillgodose ägarlägenheternas gemensamma behov. Alla ägarlägenheternas ägare, både privata ägare och bostadsbolaget, ingår i Norra Breviks samfällighetsförening som förvaltar samfälligheterna och gemensamhetsanläggningarna. Denna gemensamma förvaltning upplevs till stor del ha fungerat bra. Att Öckerö Bostads AB representeras i styrelsen är bra dels för att bolaget representerar hyresgästerna, men också för att Öckerö Bostads AB har kunskap om fastighetsförvaltning. Det finns dock ägarlägenhetsägare som anser att Öckerö Bostads AB inte skall vara med i styrelsen.Bland de som äger sina ägarlägenheter har det uppstått oklarheter från kring bolagets olika roller. En gränsdragning mellan bolagets roll som byggherre och bolagets roll som fastighetsägare bör vara tydligare för att undvika missförstånd, speciellt viktigt är det innan garantitidens utgång för att inte blanda ihop byggherrefrågor och föreningsfrågor.

  • 7.
    Ekberg, Mattias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Jansson, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Konsekvenser av bristande kvalitet i registerkartans gränsredovisning i skogsmark2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvalitetsbristerna i registerkartan är ett välkänt problem och Lantmäteriet arbetar ständigt för att uppdatera kartan och hitta en lösning på detta problem som är ekonomiskt försvarbar. Trots detta arbete så är bristerna stora på många håll, speciellt på landsbygden och inom skogsmark.

    Denna rapport behandlar konsekvenserna av registerkartans gränsredovisning i skogsmark. Arbetet har skett genom en fältstudie där två fastigheters utmärkta gränser kontrollmättes mot registerkartans angivna gränser. En beräkning av det teorietiska skogsvärdet som hamnar i gränszonen mellan registerkartans gräns och den på marken utmärkta gränsen.

     En schablonmässig beräkning bedömt på hela Sveriges årliga avverkningsareal som ligger inom den gränszon som påverkas av registerkartans brister har gjorts och värdet av virkesvolymerna inom detta gränsland har beräknats.

    En Litteraturstudie har genomförts på den litteratur som berör ämnet. Enkätundersökningar till sakkunniga inom skogsnäringen och samtal med andra sakkunniga personer har skett för att få en inblick i hur registerkartans brister påverkar.

    Skogsnäringen vill inte se detta som ett stort problem som påverkar deras arbete. Även fast fel uppstår p.g.a. brister i deras kartmaterial och utrustning. De vill hellre peka på att gränserna många gånger är för dåligt underhållna av fastighetsägarna och att lantmäteriets prissättning gör att man hellre riskerar att göra fel än att få gränsen bestämd.

  • 8.
    Elmersson, Åsa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Grafström, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Småhusbyggande i marknadssvaga Götalandskommuner: En studie i hur mycket det byggs och hur det finansieras2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige räknas till blandekonomierna. Blandekonomin har sin utgångspunkt i marknadsekonomin men staten reglerar marknaden till viss del. Detta gäller också för bostadsmarknaden. Så utgångspunkten är således att marknaden ska styra priset på småhus genom tillgång och efterfrågan. Det är ena sidan. Den andra sidan är regleringarna. När det kommer till bostäder är det till exempel bolånetaket och amorteringskravet. Bolånetaket utgår från bedömt marknadsvärde. Är det ett begagnat hus räknas som regel försäljningspriset som marknadsvärde medan det i de fall det är ett helt nytt hus görs en förhandsvärdering inför byggnationen. Maximalt kan 85 procent av marknadsvärdet belånas, med fastigheten som säkerhet, för att finansiera ett husköp eller en nybyggnation. På attraktiva marknader är detta sällan något problem eftersom marknadsvärdet på nybyggnationerna oftast är högre än kostnaderna för att bygga huset. Men hur är det då i områden där det inte är så, utan där produktionskostnaderna istället ofta är högre än det förväntade marknadsvärdet? Rent teoretiskt borde det inte kunna byggas småhus i dessa områden med annat än att de som bygger satsar eget kapital och/eller lägger ner mycket eget arbete. Är det så verkligheten ser ut eller lånar bankerna trots allt ut pengar? Och byggs det några småhus överhuvudtaget i dessa områden? Med breda penseldrag har detta undersökts. Urvalet för studien är de femton kommuner i Götaland med lägst Tobins q-värde, det vill säga hade sämst relation i kvoten marknadspris på en befintlig bostad genom den totala produktionskostnaden för en likartad bostad ur Boverkets lista för år 2012. I studien har bygglovsstatistiken i undersökningskommunerna och jämförelsekommunerna studerats. Rapporten visar att det relativt sett byggs färre småhus i de undersökta kommunerna. I de femton undersökta kommunerna med svaga bostadsmarknader är medianvärdet 0,20 beviljade bygglov per tusen invånare. Motsvarande siffra för de tio mest folkrikaste kommunerna i Götaland är 0,69, nästan 3,5 gånger mer under samma år. Studien har också undersökt den teoretiska lönsamheten på de platser där bygglov utfärdats i de studerade kommunerna. En teoretisk produktionskostnad har antagits och en modell skapats för att kunna massvärdera samtliga bygglov med hjälp av taxeringsvärden. Resultatet med den här modellen ger att i 87 procent av fallen går det inte med säkerhet att säga att nybyggnationen är ekonomiskt lönsam vid färdigställandet. Slutligen har studien även undersökt hur nybyggnationerna finansieras genom att inteckningsbeloppen för varje nybyggt småhus har granskats. Av de nybyggnationer där interimistiskt slutbesked eller slutbesked har erhållits visar det sig att 20 procent av nybyggnationerna inte har några inteckningar alls och således har finansierats på annat sätt än genom lån med huset som säkerhet. Bedöms istället, utifrån datamaterialet, den teoretiska produktionskostnaden i förhållande till ett uppskattat marknadsvärde är knappt 50 procent av dessa nybyggnationer helt bankfinansierade. Således är cirka 30 procent av nybyggnationerna sannolikt delvis bankfinansierade. Även tecken på övervärdering av nya bostäder har uppmärksammats.

  • 9.
    Engblom, Tove
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Gunnarsson, Lisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lovet på landet: En rättsdogmatisk studie av 9 kap. 6 § PBL2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the older planning and building act was replaced in 2011 by todays planning and building act, the paragraph regulating permits exempt buildings actions received some linguistic updates. The updates where intended to simplify and update the interpretation. Any changes in the countryside in how this was supposed to be interpreted was not intended. This thesis examines how multiple Swedish municipalities interpret the permits exempt buildings according to 9 chap. 6 § planning and building act. The examination was done with a survey sent to all Swedish municipalities, which was then put together and the results where compared. To be able to decide if the municipalities have been making correct interpretations this thesis have also made a thorough legal examination of the law and preliminary work.

    9 chap. 6 § planning and building act is a complicated paragraph and cannot be interpreted without reading the preparatory work. Unfortunately, just reading the propositions to the planning and building act is not enough. The preparatory work for older planning and building act must also be read to fully grasp the meaning of the law. The paragraph has gone through multiple updates since 1987, therefor the information has been spread out.

    The permits exempt buildings in this paragraph is aimed at property owners owning houses with one or two families in the countryside that want to erect a small extension for the house or a complimentary building adjacent to the main building. The condition is that there is a house on the property and that the building is of a complementary nature to not dominate over the actual main house. The property owner does not need to report to or consult with the municipality but is rather supposed to judge if the rules are applicable for them self.T

    hat the average citizen, without basic legal education, is supposed to be able to interpret a complicated paragraph like this is troublesome. The consequence of a misjudgement is expensive. Unfortunately, there is not a lot of guidance to be had from the municipalities since our survey shows that almost all Building Department are making incorrect decisions based on interpreting the paragraph incorrectly.

    This thesis shines a light on the problem with assigning a complicated paragraph to be interpreted by the property owners. Furthermore, allowing the municipalities to make their own regulations regarding the interpretation of the law, without accountability to superior government agencies does not make the problems fewer. Our conclusion with this thesis results in that better guidance and stricter demands on the municipalities must be enacted to not place too big of a responsibility on the individual citizen.

  • 10.
    Forsberg, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Olausson, Lisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Gemensamhetsanläggning: Fastighetsrättsliga problem när mark försvinner på grund av erosion2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gothenburg City is in a big development phase where a lot will happen the next years to meet the City’s future need. The old shipbuilding industry in Eriksberg has been transformed into a flourishing residential area belonging to a popular place to settle in the city. Many of the public areas in Eriksberg are attended by the property owners as jointly-owned facilities. The fact that the houses are located next to the sea makes the area attractive but at the same time it also means a climate which effect the environment. In the area it is high risk of erosion and today has the ground in some places erode away and given damage on jointly-owned facilities.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the legal implications when the ground under a joint-owned facility eroding away. The problem is new and to keep joint-owned facility as an attractive way to corporate for common needs and develop areas next to water it is of interest to investigate in this problem. In order to investigate the legal implications has a case study been done, where the legal method mainly has been used. The case study has been made over Eriksberg where the problem first was highlighted. The result of the study is a product of subjective interpretation of the authors. Legal case and former studies concerning the subject strengthens the author's interpretation and the study's credibility.

    The study shows that the conditions surrounding a joint-owned facility should be properly investigated in order to assess the legal implications. The study has resulted in significant aspects to investigate the question is whether there is any agreement about positive achieve-ments, where the line between construction and real estate are and how the land under the facility is built. In order to prevent future disputes about the problem requires a strict work process in the establishment of joint-owned facilities and clear construction decision. The study concludes that the positive achievements of the easement should be avoided and that the neighbour law rules should apply to the parties involved in a joint facility. This means that there is a responsibility to prevent nuisance to their neighbours. Failure to follow the law is an obligation to be accountable for the damage suffered. A municipality has a responsibility to control land use in the most appropriate manner, the neglect from this municipality can be held liable for damages. Swedish surveying authority has a responsibility to act and advise in the selection of land and its principal responsibility.

  • 11.
    Haag, Isabelle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Halldin, Pernilla
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Äldre fastighetsindelningsbestämmelser i konflikt med stadsutveckling och förtätning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many people consider the best way to get rid of the housing shortages is to densify the city in existing neighborhoods, as there is already some operational service and infrastructure available. An obstacle to this densification may be existing plans with property division provisions which lock the cadastral and require extensive plan work to be removed. Many municipalities chose to actively remove property division provisions just before the amendment of the law that took effect with new Planning and Building Act in 2011, which made the repeal more complicated. The municipality of Gothenburg did not actively remove these and now they have about 5000 old and new plans with property division provisions.

    The purpose of this study has been to get a picture of the factors and motives that make it possible to rethink plans with property division provisions. To achieve this, we needed to analyze legislation with preliminary work and the considerations made in Gothenburg on plan requests for cancellation of such provisions. It has also resulted in a survey of areas in Gothenburg. The study is legal-judged and implemented with interactive induction.

    As there have been frequent changes in legislation in attempting to simplify the planning process for the cancellations of property division provisions, to take less time and demand less resources, the study has determined to what extent simplification of the planning process results in a more efficient process. Resource efficiency for municipalities and shorter process time for individuals are the result of a more effective planning process but may also jeopardize legal certainty as neighbors' right to conduct their action is restricted. These aspects have been studied in parallel with the Case Study in Gothenburg and result in more legislative simplifications should be introduced with great caution in order not to jeopardize legal certainty.

    The outcome of the Case Study in Gothenburg, where plan requests were studied, will include a survey of priority areas. They are considered to be a priority as a result of the cancellation of the property division provisions would lead to several new residential lots. These areas consist of properties divided into three categories, where category one is areas that should primarily be a priority for removing the property division provisions in and then categories with areas that constitute second and third priority. The lots are subject to property division provisions, are placed within priority development area and are not affected by cultural programs. These criteria proved to be decisive for the outcome of the plan requests. In addition to this, the residential lots have high values and are of such size that there is possible to make it into two lots.

  • 12.
    Hjalmarsson Nielsen, Theres
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Eriksson, Viktor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Fastighetsreglering: Köp eller överenskommelse som grundhandling vid överföring av hel fastighet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige ombildas fastigheter genom fastighetsreglering. Ett område av eller en hel fastighet kan föras över till en annan fastighet. Bestämmelserna om fastighetsreglering finns i fastighetsbildningslagen och framförallt i kapitel 5. För att överlåta en hel fastighet med hjälp av fastighetsreglering krävs att den frivilligt överlåts, det kan göras med ett köp enligt JB 4 kap eller ett medgivande enligt FBL 5:18. Medgivande lämnas nästintill uteslutande genom att parterna ingår en överenskommelse. Köp och överenskommelse är två grundhandlingar som kan användas för att uppnå samma ändamål, överföring av hel fastighet. Det finns skillnader som medför att valet av grundhandling ger konsekvenser fastighetsrättsligt. I detta examensarbete beskrivs och jämförs skillnaderna och en kvantitativ undersökning har genomförts för att se i vilken utsträckning köp respektive överenskommelse vid frivillig marköverföring av hel fastighet används. Undersökningen syftar också till att se om det finns några mönster och särdrag vad gäller ändamål och erlagd köpeskilling/ersättning beroende på vilken grundhandling som använts i förrättningen. Förrättningsakter i Lantmäteriets databas Arken söktes fram och granskades. Sökkriterierna som användes var att det i förrättningarna skulle ha skett fastighetsreglering där en fastighet överförts i sin helhet och därmed avregistrerats. Undersökningen genomfördes på de förrättningar som registrerats under år 2014 i de 19 kommuner som bildade före detta Älvsborgs län som idag ingår i Västra Götalands län. Inom tidsintervallet och området hade 631 förrättningar med åtgärd fastighetsreglering gjorts varav 86 matchade sökkriterierna. Av de 86 förrättningarna var det 69 som genomfördes med köp och 17 med överenskommelse som grund. Köp var överlägset den vanligaste grundhandlingen och förekom i fyra fall av fem. Flertalet fastighetsregleringar handlade om jord- och skogsbruksfastigheter som överfördes till andra fastigheter med samma ändamål, de fastighetsregleringarna grundades nästintill uteslutande på köp. Vid förrättningar där kommuner och Trafikverket var sakägare sågs en ökad användning av överenskommelser.

  • 13.
    Ishida, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, Jessica
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommer kommunernas plan- och bygglovsarbete att svämma över i framtiden?: Klimatförändringar och bostadsbyggande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att kartlägga och utreda det juridiska ramverk som kommunerna ska följa samt undersöka praktisk tillämpning hos tre kommuner. Studien ska även belysa eventuella svårigheter i planarbetet och ge en kunskapsöversikt. I denna studie analyseras främst plan- och bygglagens innebörd och hur den kan användas vid anpassning till klimatförändringarna vid plan- och bygglovsarbete. Som komplement intervjuas plan- och bygglovshandläggare i tre kommuner samt en planhandläggare på länsstyrelse i Västra Götalands län.

    Klimatförändringarna är ett faktum, och som en följd kommer bland annat vattennivåerna att fortsätta stiga i landet. Klimatforskningen består av prognoser som dock är behäftade med ett viss mått av osäkerhet. På grund av klimatförändringarna har det skett tillägg i plan- och bygglagens 2 kapitel för att kommunerna måste ta hänsyn till framtida översvämningsrisk vid fysisk planering. Det är därmed inte endast dagens förhållanden som ska beaktas vid planläggning och lovgivning. Det finns en stor mängd rekommendationer och riktlinjer som kommunerna har att förhålla sig till och som kan underlätta arbetet för att följa de regelverk som gäller. Att anpassa den fysiska planeringen till framtida klimatförändringar bör påbörjas nu, eftersom byggnadernas livscykel sträcker sig långt in i framtiden.

    Kommunerna kan arbeta fram specifika dokument som är anpassade efter deras förutsättningar och karterade risker för att underlätta sitt arbete i frågan. Det finns en mängd skeden i plan- och bygglovsprocesserna och det är viktigt att en samverkan finns mellan dem, för att det ska bli ett helhetsperspektiv. Det är en viktig förutsättning för att uppnå en hållbar bebyggd miljö. Eftersom klimatförändringar inte stannar vid kommungränser är det lämpligt att kommunerna samverkar i frågan. Samtliga aktörer behöver en aktuell och bra kunskapsgrund för att underlätta arbetet med översvämningsrisker.

    Lagtext och riktlinjer är tydliga med hur kommunerna ska arbeta, detta kan vara enkelt att genomföra om det finns oexploaterad mark, men vid anpassning till befintlig bebyggelse och infrastruktur uppstår problem. I och med intervjuerna framkom komplexiteten med att tillämpa lagtext i realiteten. En av de tre kommunerna har ändrat i befintliga detaljplaner för att klimatanpassa. Två av tre har egna översvämnings-program vilket är goda exempel på integrering av klimatarbetet. Det finns ingen rättspraxis idag, men det finns motsvarande situationer där kommunens ansvar vid lämplighetsprövningen ifrågasatts.

  • 14.
    Ivarsson, Maja
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Sandahl, Rosalie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Ternevall, Hanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Detaljplan med enskilt huvudmannaskap: En granskning av planering och genomförande2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien omfattar konsekvenserna av detaljplaneläggning med enskilt huvudmannaskap för allmänna platser. Regeringen anser att det behöver göras en översyn över bestämmelserna för genomförande av detaljplaner. Enligt Boverket används enskilt huvudmannaskap mycket oftare än vad som bör ske enligt lag. Detta leder till att det som borde vara allmänna kostnader läggs över på fastighetsägarna. Denna problematik har väckt vårt intresse för ämnet.

    En litteraturstudie har gjorts av Anläggningslagen och Plan- och bygglagen med fokus på enskilt huvudmannaskap. Vi har även granskat 15 detaljplaner med enskilt huvudmannaskap från planering till genomförande. Detta har vi gjort genom att studera detaljplanekartan, plan- och genomförandebeskrivning, aktuella förrättningsakter samt besiktning av områdena. Ett frågeformulär har skickats ut till samtliga 49 kommuner i Västra Götalands län med frågor gällande enskilt huvudmannaskap.

    Vi har kommit fram till att enskilt huvudmannaskap används i en större utsträckning än vad lagen avser. Utformningen av de allmänna platserna har till största delen blivit enligt kommunens intentioner, presenterade i plan- och genomförandebeskrivningen. Dock har vi sett att allmän plats natur i vissa områden lämnats oreglerad.

    Vi har även sett att kommunen inte har reglerat utformningen särskilt utförligt i planbestämmelserna på plankartor då de presenterat omfattande intentioner i plan- och genomförandebeskrivningen.

  • 15.
    Jakobsson, Sara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Fastighetsindelningsbestämmelser: en implementeringsstudie av bestämmelser i nya PBL2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the new Planning and Building Act (PBA), which came into force on 2 May 2011, it became possible to account for provisions on property division in a detailed developmentplan in the same way as was done in a property regulation plan in the former legislation.The property regulation plan then ceased as a separate plan. The purpose of the provisionswas to simplify the process and only have one planning process instead of two. Theprovisions on property division allow for a more detailed regulation of the detaileddevelopment plan, but also means a duty to conduct an investigation already in planningwork according law terms that is outside the PBA.The purpose of this work was to contribute new empirical evidence regarding how and towhat extent the Swedish municipalities have applied the provisions on property division,and the importance the implementing officers at the local authorities had for theimplementation. By applying an implementation perspective, the intention is to provide anew perspective on the application of planning and building act. The aim was to investigate and answer my questions and by that further develop this newfoundknowledge in the form of a proposal for a methodology for implementing thelegislation. Since this thesis work was performed at Halmstad Municipality Planning Office,the idea was that the end product will be a user-friendly tool for them in the application ofthe provisions on property division. Method disclosure resulted in a flow chart and achecklist.A case study method was used where the implementation of the provisions on propertydivision was the “case” that was studied and the analysis consisted of 290 municipalities inSweden. Data was obtained from a web based survey among the country's municipalities.It is only just over a year ago, new PBA entered into force and it is still early to draw anyconclusions about the regulatory impact. My conclusions are that the municipalities do notuse the provisions as much. The majority of the provisions introduced concerns propertydivision and joint facilities. The cadastral authority plays a key role in the application of theprovisions, it is usually the cadastral authority which examines that the provision isconsistent with law terms outside the PBA. And in those few cases they have developedroutines it is prepared by the cadastral authority. The implementing officers at the local authorities affect the implementation mainly in twoways. Firstly, by the users not fully understanding the provisions. The consequence of thisis that necessary testing of conditions is not done or that the municipalities do not applythe provisons at all. Second, in that it is unclear which the users of the legislation actually is. This means that the implementation process at the local level will be interpreted in light ofdifferent professional perspectives, such as architects, physical planners, engineers andplanners with a variety of outcomes. To some extent the users are affected by culture andtradition how the municipality previously worked with real estate plan.

  • 16.
    Johannesson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Rosenkvist, Agnes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära lägen: Länsstyrelsernas och kommunernas tillämpning av lagstiftningen2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att kartlägga och analysera hur lagstiftningen gällande landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära lägen (LIS) tillämpas, genom att studera länsstyrelserna i Sverige och kommunerna Mariestad, Färgelanda, Munkedal och Mellerud. Möjligheten för kommunerna att kunna peka ut LIS-områden i översiktsplanerna har funnits sedan 1 februari 2010 och det är länsstyrelsernas uppgift att bevaka att inte strandskyddets syften motverkas på ett oacceptabelt sätt.

    Ett antal länsstyrelser i Sverige har tagit fram råd för hur kommunerna ska gå till väga vid utpekandet av LIS-områden. Dessa råd skiljer sig något åt, både vad gäller omfattning och innehåll. Vi tror dock att flera av skillnaderna kan bero på att länsstyrelserna omedvetet har uttryckt sig olika och att det i slutändan är möjligt att en prövning, oavsett länsstyrelse, skulle ge samma resultat.

    Det är tydligt att det finns en intressekonflikt mellan strandskyddets syften och LIS. Länsstyrelserna betonar, i sina råd, vikten av långsiktig planering hos kommunerna och att utpekandet av LIS-områden inte ska göras lättvindigt. De kommuner som vi har studerat har pekat ut ett förhållandevis stort antal LIS-områden, varav ett flertal är belägna vid Vänern. Vid Vänern råder utvidgat strandskydd och dessutom ska LIS användas restriktivt där om det råder ett högt bebyggelsetryck.

    Kommunernas planering ser olika ut och har olika detaljeringsgrad, vissa har tagit fram detaljerade tematiska tillägg till översiktsplanen medan någon har arbetat fram ett översiktligt tematiskt planeringsunderlag. Av länsstyrelsens yttranden framkommer kritik mot flera av LIS-områdena, som gäller alltifrån detaljer till hela LIS-områdens lämplighet. Kritiken beaktas i olika utsträckning av kommunerna, men vad gäller LIS-områden som länsstyrelsen anser olämpliga väljer oftast kommunen att behålla dessa. Detta, i kombination med kommunernas sätt att beskriva och motivera LIS-områdena, gör att vi ibland ifrågasätter hur stora möjligheterna är till genomförande, åtminstone inom en överskådlig tid.

  • 17.
    Johansson, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Stefansson, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Rättighetshantering vid bildandet av 3D fastigheter: med fallstudie Karlatornet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D real estate enable buildings to be divided into multiple real estates for different purpose and with different ownership. 3D real estates are created through a cadastral procedure according to Swedish law. When establishing a new 3D real estate there are specific requirements that has to be fulfilled so the purpose of the real estate is adequate. This means that all the real estate rights has to be acquired at the time of the cadastral procedure. The rights can be obtained through jointly-owned facilities or easements. Stairwells, hallways and the buildings core are a few examples where rights may have to be acquired. The purpose of this study is to map how creating a 3D real estate can be done and how the real estate rights is acquired in the cadastral procedure. Furthermore, it examines how rights can be managed and sustainable. How developers and cadastral engineers are cooperating to accomplish a sustainable management is also part of purpose of this study. This study examines what possibilities there are for 3D real estate's according to the Swedish law. To examine how the Swedish law is applied in reality, we studied ten cadastral procedure reports from four different municipalities. Interviews have been done with two experienced cadastral engineers and two developers who has been working with projects where 3D real estates were present. The purpose of the interviews was to acquire answers from questions that arose when the cadastral procedure reports were studied and how the developers and cadastral engineers cooperation works. The study shows the different possibilities of creating 3D real estates. How the cadastral procedure is done is based on the unique conditions between the projects, what way of work the cadastral engineer use, how experienced the developers are and if consultants has been used. To make sure that the management of the jointly-owned facilities can be done in a sustainable way they have to be formed to be adequate both from the beginning and even for future needs. The tower Karlatornet is a unique project where around 20 different real estate owners will share the building. Planning and cooperation between the cadastral engineers and the developer is an important part to make sure the project will work. Avoiding more details than what is needed in the jointly-owned facilities to enable future adjustments is a must in a project like this. The study show four different solutions on how the rights can be obtained. To let the core of the building and the foundation be a part of the jointly-owned facilities and the jointly-owned land may not be of essential importance but the conclusion is that they should be included for a simplified future management.

  • 18.
    Karlsson, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Magnusson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Plan- och bygglagens krav på detaljplanebestämmelser: En granskning i Skåne län2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities have the opportunity to regulate the use of land- and water areas with a detailed development plan. The restrictions of the plan are legally bound after the plan becomes final and the Planning and Building Act, chapter four regulate what a plan may include. The chapter is exhaustive, which means that only what is listed in the chapter may be regulated. The chapter also gives the restrictions clarity requirements. In the Planning and Building Act is also to be read that to plan land- and water areas is an affair that only can be done by the municipalities which gives them a planning monopoly.     

    In cases where the municipality uses provisions in a plan that doesn’t have support in the Planning and Building Act chapter four means that the current legislation is not followed. This can lead to that the credibility of the legal system decreases and also give the property owners difficulties in interpreting the meaning of the provisions.    

    Previous work has shown that the municipality uses plan provisions that are extended beyond the current legislation and in this work further 279 plans get examined to investigate whether they include unclear provisions or provisions without support in law.  

    The provisions in this study which is considered incorrect have been categorized into four different categories according to the manner in which they are considered to be deficient. One category consists of provisions that lack legal support and three categories consist of provisions that are unclear in different ways.

    The result of this survey shows that nearly half of the examined detailed development plans contain one or more provisions which don’t meet the legal requirements for clarity or are not among the enumerated provisions of the Planning and Building Act chapter four. The study also shows that unclear plan provisions are more frequent than the plan provisions that lack legal support.

    Boverket argues that the erroneous provisions shall be deemed invalid but even so, the presence of them could have consequences. The reasons for their occurrence can be many and a number of different solutions can be found, among other things, enhanced examination and reference to legal texts on the plan by each used provision.  

  • 19.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Clusters, Networks and Creativity2011In: Handbook of Creative Cities / [ed] David Emanuel Andersson, Åke E. Andersson, Charlotta Mellander, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 81-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Anderson, William
    Univeristy of Windsor, UK.
    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Infrastructure Measurement and Management – An Introduction2007In: Management and Meas­urement of Infrastructure. Performance, Efficiency and Innovation / [ed] Karlsson, C., W.P. Anderson, B. Johansson & K. Kobayashi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping Universty, Jönköping International Business School.Anderson, William, P.Universty of Windsor, UK.Kobayashi, KiyoshiKyoto Univetsity, Graduate School of Management.
    Management and Measurement of Infrastructure. Performance, Efficiency and In­nova­tion2007Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Karlsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Laga kraft vinning för lovärenden enligt PBL (2010:900)2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each municipality in Sweden must have a local building committee. The committee consists of elected politicians responsible for managing the permit process related to construction, dem-olition and ground processing. The committee manages the permit process by delegating the entire task or parts of it to employed officials. If there is no delegation the officials will write a suggested decision to be reviewed and decided by the committee.

    This essay investigates construction-, demolition- and ground processing permit where the of-ficials and the local building committee differ in their decisions and the assessment which led to these decisions. The examination included studies of four municipalities in the county of Västra Götaland: two smaller, Färgelanda and Munkedal municipalities, and two larger, Trollhättan and Uddevalla. The investigation consisted of two parts. One examination of the permit protocols, and a series of interviews with officials. During 2015 there were 1386 cases of permits within the four municipalities. 23 of these were cases of the committee not deciding in accordance with the proposition of the officials. A number of errors were also found, such as there not being a stated reason for the decision, or lack of any clear legal reference. This raises the question of whether or not the rule of law is followed during these circumstances.

    After consulting with Ulrika Nolåker from Byggutbildarna, the issues were expanded further when it was discovered that more errors occur during the municipal management of the con-cerned parties and the announcements of the cases. In order to receive further guidance, knowledge and information on how to interpret the laws handling concerned parties and an-nouncements, contact was made with Ulf Jensen and Eidar Lindgren, professor in real estate science at Högskolan Väst, and lecturer of real estate sciences at Kungliga Tekniska Högsko-lan, respectively.

    The conclusions of the examination is that the building committee puts a lot of responsibility on the officials through delegations. The cases when there is no delegation and the case is decided by the committee are few. The reasons why the proposition and the final decision not always matches is due to different factors such as different knowledge or different assessments. Neither the committee nor the officials are consistent with the law referencing in the decisions. The municipality cannot guarantee that every concerned party have been given the chance to give their opinion, when some of them use what’s called "silent agreement". Only three of the cases has the municipality received and opinion from every concerned party. None of the cases has been announced in the correct time and two has not been announced at all.

  • 23.
    Karlsson, Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    En studie av Lantmäteriets beaktande av strandskyddet och samråd i fastighetsbildning för bostadsfastigheter inom strandskyddsområden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lantmäteriet decided during 2017 to cancel principle consultation with Länsstyrelsen (county administrative board). The goal was to shorten the time for each case and reduce the number of unnecessary consultations. The purpose of this paper was to examine how frequently consultation takes place for residential properties in areas of protection of the Swedish shoreline. To examine this subject a mapping of this type of residential properties were made for Västra Götalands län. This study has been in cooperation with Plan- och bygg avdelningen (The Department of Community Planning and Building) for county administrative board in Västa Götalands län. The data underlying this study consists of cases that have been sent to this department during 2017. In the examination of this study a mapping of this type of properties has been made. The reason for this is to examine how frequently at consultation have taken place with county administrative board or the specific county.

    The mapping showed that there was more of this type of cases in some parts of Västra Götalands län in 2017.

    The study showed that consultation took place in 31 % of the cases for this type of properties in protective shoreline areas. It also showed that in 23 % of the cases no consultation took place and/or the protection was not taken into account. The result of the study showed that cadastral surveyors decide for them self without consolation in 46 % of the cases. The study showed an indication that this subject has to be further resourced, not only in this part of Sweden but in all of Sweden.

  • 24.
    Kopka, Mathias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kartläggning av dagvattenhantering i detaljplaner: en studie av tre kommuner inom Skåne2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with exploitation in new areas the storm water management is an essential matter to deal with to always avoid causing damage on the environment. Storm water is momentarily existing water masses that runs off hardened surfaces, examples of storm water is snow, rain and hail. Hardened surfaces are roofs, walls and other constructions. Storm water symbolizes that it is temporary existing, therefore does not lakes count as storm water because it is permanent.

    In natural conditions rainwater penetrates green areas, but when it falls on hardened surfaces for example storm water cannot penetrate a car road, then it starts flowing along the road in a quicker pace then it normally would do in green areas.

    The purpose of this study is partially to get an overall image of how storm water and storm water in zoning plans. And to compare survey storm water information from zoning plans in the three communes in Skåne county and to produce altitude maps for the chosen communes.

    To get additional knowledge about storm water a lot of time has been been laid on literature studies. The study has chosen 20 random zoning plans from each municipality that has been taken directly from their map portal. To get a realistic answer as possible in the study zoning plans older than 1995 are excluded.

    In the municipal of Malmö, it shows that 85 % of the zoning plans contains information about the management of storm water. Second is Lund where it contains information about storm water management in 55% of the zoning plans. Helsingborgs zoning plans only have 40 % of the zoning plans that contains information about storm water management.

    To get a clearer image the author produced simplified altitude maps that shows how the altitude levels causes problems and where the development is mostly concentrated. After looking on Malmös altitude map it gets clear why they need to be in the leading edge of storm water management, their altitude levels are less than ideal.

  • 25.
    Lans, Lisen
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Stridh, Karolina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Byggstopp 2013?: Vilken betydelse och påverkan har kontrollansvarig2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om ett byggstopp skulle kunna inträffa 2013, på grund av införandet av det nya begreppet kontrollansvarig. För att få en realistisk bild av frågeställningen genomfördes intervjuer och en enkätundersökning.

    Problematiken uppstod när den nya plan- och bygglagen (2010:900) (PBL) trädde i kraft den 2 maj 2011. Då infördes det nya begreppet kontrollansvarig för att stärka kontrollen och kvaliteten i byggprocessen. Lagen kräver certifierade kontrollansvariga och detta har gett upphov till vissa problem.

    Enligt Boverkets statistik gällande certifierade kontrollansvariga, kan man konstatera att det finns en risk att det uppstår en brist på sådana framöver. Nuvarande antalet certifierade är cirka 1500, dock uppskattar Boverket behovet till 4000 – 8000, för att undvika ett byggstopp. Baserat på dessa siffror, skulle det från och med idag behöva certifieras 15-30 kontrollansvariga per dag fram till 1 januari 2013.

    Med anledning av denna problematik skapades övergångsregler, som endast gäller fram till den 1 januari 2013. Våra respondenter upplever dock inte lilla antalet certifierade som finns idag, som ett så stort dilemma med tanke på övergångsreglerna som löper fram till och med årsskiftet 2012/2013.

    För att undvika ett byggstopp krävs att antalet kontrollansvariga ökar radikalt i den närmaste framtiden eller att en ändring av lagen, i detta avseende, sker. I studien presenteras dels olika förslag som framkommit under intervjuer samt vår uppfattning hur problemet skulle kunna lösas. En av de viktigare lösningarna skulle kunna vara en kombination av att införa arbetsansvarig samt en lättnad på kravet för vilka byggnader som kräver kontrollansvarig. En lättnad på kraven är endast möjligt om man i stället låter ansvarsbördan falla på entreprenören genom arbetsansvarig. Vidare framhävs byggnadsinspektörers, entreprenörers, kontrollansvariga och andra sakkunnigas åsikter i olika frågor som hjälpt oss komma fram till vår slutsats. Respondenternas svar tillsammans med övrig bakomliggande information har hjälpt oss fastställa en viktig slutsats; om ingenting händer kommer med all säkerhet ett byggstopp att inträffa.

  • 26.
    Lund, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Vallebrant, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lagen om allmänna vattentjänster: Avgränsning av verksamhetsområden i 6 §2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, the Public Water Services Act came in to effect. According to the sixth paragraph in this law, all municipalities shall arrange water supplies and sewerage in a "wider context" if it is necessary with respect to human health or the environment. But sometimes, municipalities choose not to connect certain areas to the operational area even though they should do so according to the sixth paragraph in the Public Water Services Act. These areas are commonly referred to as § 6 areas which means that these areas fulfill the condition "wider context" in the Public Water Services Act, but are outside the operational area. What does it mean that the municipalities shall ensure water supply and sewerage in a "wider context"? The term "wider context" is not defined in the legal text, but preparatory work to the law states that 20 to 30 properties can be seen as a guideline. This amount can be reduced if there are special reasons for it. But how do the municipalities interpret the term? This is the first question that this study answers. The second question that has been answered is why the municipalities choose to not connect some certain areas to the operational area, despite the fact that the conditions for "wider context" in the sixth paragraph are fulfilled. The study concerns the following municipalities: Lerum, Lysekil, Svenljunga, Skövde and Vänersborg. In order to gain information and to find answers to the questions, a combination between legal methodology, a quantitative and a qualitative method has been used. The municipalities VA-plans, which are guiding for municipal VA planning, have been reviewed and interviews have been conducted to supplement the VA-plans and provide a deeper understanding of municipal decisions. The study shows that it varies from municipality to municipality how the term "wider context" is interpreted as the number varies from eight to twenty properties included. Some of the municipalities also use the terms "assembled dwellings" and "assembled built environment" from the Planning and Building Act (2010:900). As for the second issue, there is a connection between how the municipalities have assessed these areas. The reason why some areas not are connected to any operational area is because they have a low priority based on a need and possibility assessment.

  • 27.
    Maars, Hampus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Thomsson, Patric
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    När ”påbörjas” en detaljplan?: en kartläggande studie om begreppet ”påbörjad”2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    1st of January 2015 some changes were made in the Planning and Building Act. This was made because of the Swedish government wanted to make the planning process easier. The law changes include the planning process and the development contracts for detailed development plans. The transitional provisions, however, made a reservation to regulate the situations in which older legislation would be used. The regulation is that older legislation should be used if the detailed development plan were initiated prior to 1 January 2015. The purpose of this study is to investigate when a detailed development plan is initiated.  The study is based on current legislation and its application, this will be investigated using various methods. To interpret the law about the concept, legal dignity approach has been used through different interpretation methods. In order to gain an understanding of how the law is applied, a legal sociological approach has been used. This was done by conducting a questionnaire survey, where all the municipalities in Sweden were asked how they interpret the concept.  This has shown that the term is unclearly defined, as evidenced by the varying answers received from the municipalities in the survey. However, the majority of municipalities interpret the concept "initiate" according to the definitions that the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning and the government have formulated. What is also evident from the study is that the differences in the different legislation are large and that the municipality's conditions change significantly depending on when a detailed plan is "initiated". The study also shows that the units within the municipality interpret the term in a generally similar manner. The result of the legal interpretation and compilation of the survey shows that National Board of Housing, Building and Planning and the government's definitions of "initiated" detailed development plan are unclear. And that the existing definitions are in need of clarification for the application of these transitional rules by similar municipalities.  

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kan exploateringsavtal bli för gamla?: En rättsdogmatisk och rättssociologisk studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Land development agreements can be established between a municipality and a developer in order to regulate rights and obligations to accomplishing detailed development plans when the municipality does not own the land to be exploited. The agreements are based on civil contract rights and on the principles such as contractual freedom and contractual obligation.

    Several factors may complicate the establishment and accomplishment of a land development agreement. The agreement regulates juridical as well as technical questions and typically has a relatively long term. Several parties with different interests are also involved in the process which means that activities and decisions need to be coordinated. For these reasons, accomplishment of the land development agreement can be a protracted process and parties may not fulfil their obligations in time.

    The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate whether obligations in land development agreements can expire due to a long period of times passed and if there have been any problems or controversies in connection to this. To achieve the aim of the study, laws and literature have been studied and a survey has been sent to all 290 Swedish municipalities, where answers were received from 122 municipalities.

    The juridical study proves that more or less all obligations in land development agreements can expire due to statue of limitation. Moreover, two relatively new verdicts from the Swedish supreme court show that obligations can expire already before statue of limitation occurs due to one party neglecting to enforce the obligations of the other. Furthermore, later occurred circumstances can, as a consequence of long time elapsed, result in adjustment or annulment of obligations provided that the circumstances reach the level of excessiveness described in Contracts Act 36 §.

    The result of the survey indicates that there is uncertainty among Swedish municipalities around the question of whether land development agreements can expire due to a long period of time passed. Approximately 33% of the respondents deem that the agreements can expire due to a long time passed while 39% deem the contrary. Further, the survey shows that only a few of the municipalities experienced troubles with a protracted exploitation process. Also, in those cases, there has not been any major controversy between the municipality and the developer over the issue of whether the land development agreement is current or not.

  • 29.
    Regnér, Susanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Wasberg, Johanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Implementering av stadsgrönska och ekosystemtjänster i urbana miljöer: från start till mål2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the process chain for implementing urban greenery and ecosystem services in urban environments. This is done from the time the assignment is given by the government to the relevant authority, the continued work there, on to the work out at the municipalities and other relevant actors.

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that we humans receive indirectly and directly by nature. We are dependent on the ecosystems continuing to produce services that are vital to human health, well-being and for our entire existence. Commonly work and careful use of our resources are needed to ensure ecosystem services. Preserving, developing and innovating urban and green areas can result in great social benefits and integrating ecosystem services into physical planning is a step in the right direction.

    Two stagegoals were developed in 2018, where one goal means that the municipalities should have access to a developed method regarding the integration of urban greenery and ecosystem services in urban environments by 2020. The second goal means that a majority of the municipalities must use and integrate urban greenery and ecosystem services by 2025 at the latest, in planning, construction and management.

    The study result is based on how far the municipalities have come to work on the two stagegoals, as well as Boverkets work behind the developed method and with reaching out with the information to the municipalities and other concerned. The result also includes the work in conjunction with Naturvårdsverket when the assignment would take place in collaboration with them. This has been done with both qualitative and quantitative methods, through interviews and questionnaires.

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