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  • 1.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Boström, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Emballagenedbrytning: Framtagning av förslag till utformning av ny arbetsstation till Volvo Pentas fabrik i Vara2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AB Volvo Penta manufactures and sells motors and drive systems for marine and industrial applications. The plant in Vara is specialized within manufacturing of marine diesel engines.The plant in Vara is about to go through major changes. The reason is a merger with Volvo Penta Production (VPP) located in Gothenburg. In connection with the merger there is going to be redevelopment of the plant. The station for packaging degradation is going to move and it needs to be redeveloped because it is not an efficient neither ergonomic workstation.The purpose of this project was to develop a suggestion of a new workstation for the packaging degradation. The goal was to develop a suggestion that is more efficient and ergonomically adapted. Data was collected through a situation analysis.To fulfill the purpose the project group performed literature studies, collected data and facts. The theory that was studied focused on lean, station design and layout, work environment and ergonomics. Stakeholders, earlier studies and packaging materials were examined. The next step was benchmarking, the group visited VPP in Gothenburg, Logent AB in Skövde and Mape Sweden AB in Trollhättan. Facts were collected through observations, interviews and a workshop with operators.After that the group studied different flows for the station. The result was to move forward with a parallel flow and a U-shaped flow. Then the group used the flows to form layouts. The final result was a U-cell with the operator and material placed outside the cell. The U-cell is most suitable from a lean perspective and from an ergonomic perspective.Further, today’s station needs to change because it is classified as a risk workstation. The final suggestion for a new station is supposed to work as a guideline for Penta. The suggestion with a U-cell needs to be developed further and more delimitation also needs to be done.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Martin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Flödesförbättring för processkedja på GKN2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace is a world leading supplier of aerospace components. The Aerospace segment that Trollhättan is part of has a total of 35 plants on four continents and employs at the time of writing over 12,000 people. The products produced are made in materials that are difficult to process and the accuracy requirements are extremely high.

    The case study has been carried out at GKN in Trollhättan and aims to identify disturbances in the initial part of the process chain for the products LM2500 and 3-9C. The objective of the work will lead to proposals for action which is intended to smooth out the flow and create conditions to keep the given cycle time of eleven hours.

    Since GKN has been working with Lean production before it is also the basis for the theoretical framework. The main method of data collection was collection of data in the business system that has been supplemented with interviews and observations in the factory.

    An important part of Lean is to eliminate waste. Therefore, the eight wastages is the basic structure for the results section. Based on the chosen structure several types of waste could be identified. By analysis underpinned by theoretical framework and data collection this leads to recommended measures where the most important are:

    • Review maintenance practices when machine stop causes many hours of waiting and causes unpredictability in the production.

    • Equalize the production flow through the introduction of new operations and smooth the process times. 

    • Work towards initiating a one piece flow by separation operations that are currently carried out in the same machine.

  • 3.
    Asad, Ahmed
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Sallander, Rikard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Balansering och tidsoptimering av materialsatsning till F12-monteringen på Parker PMDE Trollhättan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In industries, the management tools of Lean Production are used to develop and streamline operations in a way to reduce waste and lead times in all processes. Parker PMDE in Trollhättan manufactures hydraulic machines. Since the 90´s, Parker has pursued business development under the management principles of Lean Production. One of the next steps in Parkers continuous improvement was to explore opportunities to develop a kitting department so that a worker could provide the assembly with the material quickly without surplus resources. In the current situation, there is an imbalance from the kitting station towards the tact times in the assembly station because it takes longer at the kitting station to pick materials for four hydraulic machines, than it takes for the assembly station to consume these kits of materials.The aim of the thesis was to develop suggestions for improvement where a worker could perform the kitting process in less than 16 minutes. The interim objectives were to do a survey of the times and activities within the kitting process. The boundaries of the project was not to examine processes outside the kitting station. The project was designed according to DMAIC methodology, which is a project model for fact-based problem solving and clear structure. The methods used in the data collection were observation and analysis of video footage applying the software called AviX Method. Video recordings were categorized as different activities in the kitting process such as transport, picking, scanner time, pre-assembly and uncategorized time. Activities that were time consuming and did not add value to the process were identified. These data measures were the basis for the solution proposals.Based on these results and using brainstorming, solution proposals were generated together with the engineers and material handlers. The solution proposals that met the objective of the project of picking a 4-set of materials in 16 minutes were: Pick by voice, Pick-by-light, Ring Scanner and Relocation of one pre-assembly operation. Pick by voice is considered to be the most appropriate solution for the company since it reduces picking times, scanning times and is a flexible system. Two more proposed solutions were developed that did not meet the objective of the project, but are considered worth investigating further based on Lean Production and ergonomic reasons. These proposed solutions consisted of changing the picking route and the installation of a magnetic lift.

  • 4.
    Brodin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Spårbarhet inom återvinningsindustrin2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor´s thesis is perfomed for the company Hoglin Recycling AB in Kungshamn, Sweden. Hoglin collects and refines cooking fat from customers in western Sweden and Småland. The refined product is then sold to a reseller. The purpose of this thesis is to find the best possible traceability system for Hoglin so that they with high security and effectivity can hold apart their two products, animal and vegetable cooking fat. With the help from literature studies, interviews and experiments the group has proposed a system for Hoglin that also could be implemented in other businesses.

    To make the barrels where the cooking fat is stored in traceable literature studies were made on different tracking methods such as barcodes, RFID and GPS. These are some of the most common methods to track products. The group used the tools screening and scoring matrix to choose which of these methods suited Hoglin the most. With these the tracking methods were individually ranked amongst each other to find the winning concept, one dimensional barcodes.

    For traceability systems to function properly it requires not only a tracking method but also a tracking system where information can be stored and used when needed. To find the most suitable type of system the group decided to compare a fully developed system with a mobile phone application. These two systems were compared against each other with the use of an SWOT-analysis. The mobile application was the most interesting one with advantages in both cost and customizability. The only problem that remained was whether the GPS in a mobile phone would be good enough for a system like this or not.

    The work resulted in a requirement specification with all the requirements needed for the traceability system, included an explanation of how it works. To give an understanding of how the application could look like it is illustrated with pictures

  • 5.
    Elisson, Niklas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Dahlberg, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Simuleringsmodell för flaskhalsidentifiering i produktionsflöde2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists at the Production Technology Centre, PTC, in Trollhättan have read about an unusual method to identify bottlenecks in industrial production. The method is called Shifting bottleneck detection and measures for how long a machine has been active. The machine with the longest active time is the temporarily bottleneck and the machine that has the total highest percentage as bottleneck during a specific period of time is the bottleneck that the company should invest their resources in.

    The purpose of this bachelor study is to demonstrate the possibilities with a bottleneck identification system. This was done through simulations in a program called Plant Simulation.

    Parallel with the study another more practical project progressed on a production line in the workshop at PTC. The production line was used as a base and all the data was gathered on this line. The data was later used to create a copy of the production line in the simulation program. It was called Basmodellen and used as base for the experiments.

    The study resulted in a manual analyze of the chosen method to identify bottlenecks. The simulation program was not capable of capturing the data required to create an automatically analyze of the shifting bottleneck detection. The result of the manual analyze indicated that the method worked as intended and was able to identify bottlenecks.

    A simple prototype was made for future work. It describes the possible stages that a program could have to get the analyze of the shifting bottleneck detection automatic. The prototype will basis for further research in shifting bottleneck detection

  • 6.
    Jacobsson, Filip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Standardiserad manuell hantering av fel- och omärkta lådor på Varner DC2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Varner distribution center in Vänersborg, Sweden, is a part of Varner Retail, which contains brands as Dressman, Cubus, Bik Bok and Volt. The distribution center in Vänersborg was opened in 2016 and will distribute goods to all of the shops included in the group spread across northern parts Europe. The purpose of the newly built distribution center is to make distribution of goods more efficient and lower costs connected to warehouse management and distribution. When the distribution center was built, processes standards was being developed. The tool used to create and manage the standards are called Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). The SOP is presented in a document including determined risks of the process, and a work instruction. Continuous development of the SOP is important to ensure that the documents are up to date and relevant for the process. This project was initiated in response to the demand of a standardized work instruction in managing one of the common failure with handling incoming boxes containing goods. If boxes do not have a bar code or has an incorrect barcode, they have to be managed separately. The automated system will not be able to determine what kind of goods the box contains otherwise. Before this report and its result was presented to Varner Distribution Center no standardized work instruction was available in the existing SOP. This report describes the work progression in developing a work instruction which will be in addition to existing SOP's. It contains description of the methodology used, existing theory, prior scientific work in the subject developing and working with a standardized working instruction. Ending the report will be recommendations for continuous improvement through implementing more standards and educating operating personnel.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Landin, Olof
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    En studie i hur järnvägens möjligheter kan appliceras inom AB Volvo: med hänsyn tagen till företagets logistikkrav2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the year of 2011, the new CEO of AB Volvo announced a major reorganization. This reorganization was a contributing factor to the start-up of this thesis.

    Volvo Group Logistics Services (VGLS) is Volvo Group’s global logistics partner, which designs, manages and optimizes all of the group's incoming and outgoing logistics flows. With the reorganization, VGLS started a project regarding responsibilities around railway flows. Within the project a demand to collect logistics requirements occurred. The aim of the thesis was to collect these logistics requirements and analyze the train's ability to meet them.

    The logistic requirements that was identified as joint within AB Volvo was for example logistics solutions in line with core values, high delivery precision, high delivery reliability and high information availability. The identification of logistic requirements was based on qualitative and quantitative methods. Interviews with survey elements are examples of methods that were used. The results are divided into two parts, possibilities with railway transports and joint logistics requirements within AB Volvo.

    Based on the results, an analysis has been made of the railway’s abilities to meet the set requirements. With the current infrastructure, we believe it is difficult for railway transports to compete with trucking. Trains can deliver a high delivery precision to a good lead time, where the right conditions exist. Our impression is that only unit/block trains currently can be compared with road transports. The disadvantage with unit or block trains is that they are volume demanding.

    The railway’s ability to be efficient from a total logistics cost perspective is individual for all flows and depends on factors within the flow. The individual efficiency derives from the nature of the goods, transport distances, infrastructural arrangements, volumes and cargo value. Thus, you can’t say that rail transport is generally more profitable than road transport. 

  • 8.
    Khalil, Joseph
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Abbas, Mohammed
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Lösningsförslag på uppbyggnad av befintlig arbetsstation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The production leadership in the factory is aware of a logistical problem. Because of priority reasons this problem has not been resolved.  At the moment there are several different reverse gears in the assembly station which are rarely ordered by the customer, therefore the need for these articles decreases in production. This means that large areas are occupied by too many reverse gears. The production area should be utilized more effectively. Volvo Penta AB is a division of Volvo AB, which develops, manufactures and markets engines and propulsion systems for recreational, marine and industrial applications. The factory in Vara is specialized in the manufacture of marine diesel engines. The factory also manufactures larger engines. The aim of the project is to change and simplify the work for the operators in the production area and the assembly station that is occupied by the reverse gears. The goal of the project is to present a proposal on how a new assembly station for the reverse gear can be designed. The station will be designed as efficiently as possible. To fulfill purpose and goals a performed data collection was executed, as well as literature studies and fact-finding. The theory treated primarily lean manufacturing, and ergonomic design of the workplace, material supply, proofing, cementing and sequencing. Data collection was conducted through a situation analysis which examined the current station. Benchmarking was carried out at Volvo Powertrain Production AB in Skövde, Swegon AB in Kvänum and Volvo Penta in Vara. Collection of facts and information was made in the form of on-site observations, interviews and workshops with employees. The process of finding solutions started with identifying requirements of the station. In order to find solutions, different types of stations were studied. The existing station was studied to examine whether changes could be made in the racking. Another idea was to move the reverse gear buffer and to introduce sequencing and cementing, alternatively to move the entire station. One alternative is to move the station, unless a better solution for the existing surface is presented. At the same time, there are possibilities to develop ergonomics and efficiency. After a benefit analysis the group went ahead with two suggestions, which were a variable cementing wagon elsewhere in the factory, or cementing at the station. These suggestions were weighed against the benefit analysis, where the benefits were valued, and the chosen alternative was cementing at the station. Our proposal is intended to be a guidance for Volvo Penta, and can be developed further as it is implemented.

  • 9.
    Koca, Serhat
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Uca, Rodem
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning av problemområden i godshanteringen vid införande av en digital truckapplikation: Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Trollhättan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring term of 2019 a thesis was carried out. The aim and goal were to identify possible problem areas on goods handling before introducing a digital truck application at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Trollhättan. The thesis will not address the implementation process of Ubertruck. No recommendations on digital design for eventual adjustments of Ubertruck throughout the thesis was suggested.

    In order to identify possible problem areas when introducing Ubertruck, the goods handling at both SIT-Trollhättan and SIT-Finspång was surveyed with the help of interviews and observation, five interviews was carried throughout this project.

    With the help of the results from the surveys, two problem areas were identified at SIT Trollhättan, lacking traceability and unnecessary transports. It was established that these problem areas occur in inventory and production. The lacking traceability in inventory is because use of a system which only indicates which inventory the goods is placed, however it does not indicate were in inventory (which shelf) it is placed. The lacking traceability in production is because there is no system for tracing the goods to the operations, therefore it is only the goods deliverer and operator who receives the goods that knows where in production the goods is located. Because of that the goods deliverer must look for goods that have undergone an operation and leads to unnecessary transport. The unnecessary transports are also due to the fact that the inventories are spread out throughout the production facility.

    Based on the result, it is considered that the aim and goal of the thesis is fulfilled to the level possible. The drawn conclusion is that the problem areas at the introduction of Ubertruck are lacking traceability and unnecessary transport, which are located in inventory and production at SIT-Trollhättan.

  • 10.
    Käpynen, Heidi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Rydell, Sandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Arbetssätt kring värdeflödesanalys för tillverkning av marina båtmotorer på Volvo Penta2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Penta has been producing boat engines since 1907 and are world leading in this seg­ment. They have today an extended range and also sell industrial power stations. Quality, safe­ty and environmental care are three core values for Volvo and together they strive to give their customers the right product with the right quality.

    Volvo has developed a production system named Volvo Production System, VPS, and one of the pillars is continuous improvements. Within this pillar you can find value stream map­ping, which is used to analyze the value stream through the process. This tool gives a wide perspective and helps to keep focus on the entire process instead of just parts of it.

    Volvo Penta in Vara has earlier done value stream mapping but without good results since they didn’t take set-up times and imbalances in account. Therefore Penta wanted a guide for how they should proceed the process in the future. For that reason this thesis work’s goal is to provide work instructions on value stream mapping for Penta.

    To approach the goal studies of value stream mapping and three interviews with com­panies were done. These factors resulted in work instructions which were tested in a case study. To develop the work instruction, operators from the process joined to give inputs and to help out in the discussions for improvements. Before the final work instruction was set, a connection to Cost Deployment were completed.

    The final results of this thesis work were a checklist with a manual, a toolbox and a note template. These tools were handed over to Volvo Penta in Vara with recommendations for future work. Some of the recommendations were that they should implement the work instruction as a standard and test it on different value streams.

  • 11.
    Ljung, Margareta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Widell, Gill
    Seafarers´ working career in a life cycle perspective: driving forces and turning points2014Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Josefin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Att arbeta proaktivt med leveransförseningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed because Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB in Trollhättan wanted to work more proactively with delivery delays at various levels in the company. They found it difficult to achieve its goals regarding delivery reliability from their suppliers and therefore it was a current issue. The study's purpose was to show how a company and its suppliers are working with delivery delays today and to offer suggestions on how they can work more proactively with this. It was a qualitative study and information was gathered primarily through semi-structured interviews. During the study, a literature study within the following areas was performed: supply chain, purchase, supplier relationships , communication and Lean.

    Parker's purchasing activities are divided into strategic purchasing, operational purchasing and ordering. When comparing the empirical data against the theory it was discovered that delivery monitoring was not included in neither job descriptions nor process maps, but the ordering personnel does it spontaneously anyway. Parker also has a routine that says everything must be raised at a material management meeting called "12:45 meeting", which is not consistent with the actual working method.

    The group examined how Parker suppliers Tunnelstam AB and Nothav AB are working with deliveries to Parker today. Tunnelstam AB has a delivery reliability to their customers of approximately 95 percent even though they only have a delivery reliability from their suppliers of approximately 80 percent. Nothav AB are working to educate their employees to enable them to work on more workstations, to thereby increase Nothav AB's flexibility and reduce the risk of delivery delays.

    During the study, four areas for improvement was identified and each area consists of a number of suggestions for improvement. Following are the four areas; delivery monitoring, standardized documentation outside "12:45 meeting", proactive approach to strategic sourcing and visit ordering personnel and suppliers. The group recommends Parker to consider all proposals for improvement because the proposals will improve Parker's ability to work proactively with delivery delays

  • 13.
    Sabelsjö, Emanuel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kunskap driver ständiga förbättringar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be a competitive and successful company over time it is not enough to have a good product. Factors such as adaption, flexibility and innovation are required to survive and be successful. In order to obtain these factors, a certain characteristic is required: the ability to learn. Calling a company for a “learning organization” is the biggest recognition that can be given. To be a learning organization, continuous improvements are required. In order to reach the level required to learn and improve, a number of steps must be passed on the road. To begin with, there must be a will. After that, skills and knowledge are required, which are then translated into actions. Of these actions, learning and improvement are then achieved. In order to reach the top, a stable foundation is required. The first step, will, is a prerequisite that must be. The next step is competence. So to be successful with continuous improvement, it is a prerequisite to have relevant knowledge. The purpose of this thesis is to identify key areas of knowledge in the work with continuous improvement and to link the knowledge with the success of the improvement work. Thus, it is thought that the results will show which areas make companies successful with the improvement work. The thesis has been done at C2 Management, a consulting company in Stockholm, which helps companies to establish continuous improvements. C2 Management uses an internet based improvement management system, System C2™. There, customers can handle all types of improvement issues such as complaints, customer opinions and deviations. As a first step in the work, a literature study was performed in which six important areas of knowledge linked to continuous improvement were identified. In addition, a case study was performed to identify the impact of the different areas on the improvement work. The case study included interviews with improvement managers on six different units within the same business. The interviews consisted of open questions and questionnaires with predefined answers, where the units were able to rank the knowledge skills in different areas. To see the units status in the improvement work, statistics from System C2™ were analyzed, as the units are customers to C2 Management. The patterns that were distinguished when the statistics and the knowledge rankings were studied is that the areas leadership and way of working are the areas that are most important to possess high competence in, in order to be successful with the improvement work. Date: May 23, 2018 Author(s): Emanuel Sabelsjö

  • 14.
    Svennungsson, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Optimering av fyllnadsgraden i containrar lastade med laminatrullar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mölnlycke Health Care is a world-leading provider of single use surgical and wound care products for costumers, healthcare professionals and patients. The company has over 7 500 employees. Mölnlycke Health Care is active in over 90 countries and has manufacturing facilities in 9 different countries. When manufacturing a product, for example the laminate reels, different parts of the production are outspread on several factories. For the flow of the laminate reels, it starts in Belgium and will finish in Thailand. This means that there are a number of transports and logistic issues impacting the production flow. The laminate reels are loaded into containers before they are shipped to Thailand. The problem with the transportation is that the company is estimating that the fill rate of the containers is approximately 50 percent, which is inefficient and waste of resources and money. The purpose of the thesis is to identify the factors that result in a low filling rate and also suggest solutions to increase the fill rate.

    To gather information about fill rate and logistics literature studies have been done. Factors that affect the fill rate have been used as the basis when information about the current situation has been gathered and analyzed. Underlying factors to the low fill rate in the container has been ranked with a FMEA as a tool based on how much the specific factor affects the fill rate. The FMEA tool was then the basis when solutions to increase the fill rate were developed by using concept combinations table and concept sieving matrix.

    The thesis resulted in ten factors that affect the fill rate, also four ideas on solutions on how to increase the fill rate where engineered. Whish are labeled I, F, G and B.

    I – Optimizes the fill rate with 34 %, saving 2.6 million Swedish crones per year in transportation costs and reduces CO2 emissions by 161 208 kg per year.

    F – Optimizes the fill rate with 43,2 %, saving 3,3 million Swedish crones per year in transportation costs and reduces CO2 emissions by 205 777 kg per year.

    G – Optimizes the fill rate with 38,5 %, saving 2.9 million Swedish crones per year in transportation costs and reduces CO2 emissions by 179 544 kg per year.

    B – Optimizes the fill rate with 39,26 %, saving 3 million Swedish crones per year in transportation costs and reduces CO2 emissions by 136 138 kg per year.

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