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  • 1.
    Abdulla, Zine
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Varför blir inte detaljplanelagd mark för bostadsändamål bebyggd?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Boverket's housing market survey 2018, which is a result of a national survey of the housing market in Sweden, there is a deficit in housing in 243 of Sweden's 290 municipalities. In order to meet increased demand for housing, increased housing construction is needed. Detailed development plans govern the rights, construction rights, which indicate what and to what extent property owners can build land. Detailed development plans are the legally binding documents that are established and adopted by municipalities in order to determine, among others, the use of land and water areas. There are several reasons for housing shortage and one is that Sweden's population continues to increase, both due to natural population growth and because of immigration. A growing population entails, for instance, an increase in housing demand, which in turn places demands on the housing market. The demand and supply of housing need to match each other. Another reason is that today it is the private sector that accounts for the majority of housing supply. The private sector does not have the responsibility that municipalities have in terms of meeting the residents' housing needs. The private actors intend to make a profit. Consequently, privately owned construction and housing companies build when it is economically beneficial and not just because there is a housing requirement. Due to the fact that there are still housing shortages in most municipalities, which is problematic, it is interesting to investigate which factors are important for housing construction.

    Current detailed development plans for housing purposes were studied. The detailed development plans that had not been implemented were used as starting material during interviews with relevant actors.

    The purpose of the study was to try to find out what factors affect the fact that detailed development plan land for housing purposes is not built.

    The study's results show that among the factors it is primarily the market situation, high business activity and recession, which affect whether housing construction is going to start or not. There are also factors such as construction law handling times that affect how soon a residential building can get started.

    The conclusion of the study was, among other things, that the market situation seems to be the most influential factor and because the market is governed by profit-dependent players, supply and demand will not always meet. Other conclusions that were drawn were that what is being built is not what is requested and that the building permits take longer than is required by plan- och bygglagen.

  • 2.
    Ahonen, Patricia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Heimdal, Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Samordnat planförfarande: en förenkling?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The coordinated planning procedure regulates how consultation, announcement and review can be simplified and coordinated with a case that is examined according to the Road Act or the Rail Construction Act. A coordinated planning procedure was introduced in the Planning and Building Act on 1 January 2015. Previously, the procedure has been regulated as a simple procedure. The simple procedure was introduced in the new Planning and Building Act in 2011 after investigations and preparatory work found that a simpler planning process is needed to streamline construction and speed up social development. The opportunity for simplification should also help to avoid double work and double testing. In order to apply the procedure, certain requirements are set. If the requirements are met, the municipality can skip consultations and, in some cases, also use the environmental impact assessment that is produced in the road or railways plan. When amending the Road Act and the Railway Construction Act in 2013, the corresponding simplification and coordination provisions were also introduced in these. However, the study shows that the Swedish Transport Administration cannot simplify the consultation in the same way as the municipalities and that it is difficult for the Swedish Transport Administration to make use of an environmental impact assessment that has been produced by the municipality. The study is based on answers from surveys sent out to municipalities and the Swedish Transport Administration as well as interviews. The answers from the surveys show that the knowledge of the procedure is very low both at the municipality and at the Swedish Transport Administration. A few respondents indicate that they have used the procedure and have different views on the advantages and disadvantages of the procedure. From the study we have found that coordinated planning is difficult to apply, which means that it is rarely used. The study shows that more general coordination is used as the parties see advantages in sharing investigations and in some cases also trying to hold joint consultations in order to increase public understanding and avoid double messages. It can be stated that the municipal planning process and the planning process for state infrastructure differ both in process and time, which is the main reason why coordinated planning procedure sounds nice but is difficult to apply.

  • 3.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH.
    Optimisation of Lilla Edet Landslide GPS Monitoring Network2015In: Journal of Geodetic Science, ISSN 2081-9919, E-ISSN 2081-9943, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the year 2000, some periodic investigations have been performed in the Lilla Edet region to monitor and possibly determine the landslide of the area with GPS measurements. The responsible consultant has conducted this project by setting up some stable stations for GPS receivers in the risky areas of Lilla Edet and measured the independent baselines amongst the stations according to their observation plan. Here, we optimise the existing surveying network and determine the optimal configuration of the observation plan based on different criteria.We aim to optimise the current network to become sensitive to detect 5 mm possible displacements in each net point. The network quality criteria of precision, reliability and cost are used as object functions to perform single-, bi- and multi-objective optimisation models. It has been shown in the results that the single-objective model of reliability, which is constrained to the precision, provides much higher precision than the defined criterion by preserving almost all of the observations. However, in this study, the multi-objective model can fulfil all the mentioned quality criteria of the network by 17% less measurements than the original observation plan, meaning 17%of saving time, cost and effort in the project.

  • 4.
    Andersen Engstrand, Matilda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommuners uppföljning av åtaganden i exploateringsavtal2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Land development agreement is an agreement for the implementation of a detailed plan that regulates the financial and practical issues required for implementation. The parties involved are the municipality, as a planning authority, and a private property owner who wishes to develop their property, a developer. The Contract Act and the Freedom of Contract are basically at hand, but the contents of the development agreement are regulated to some extent in the Planning and Building Act. The municipality as an authority must also relate to the public law, such as the Local Government Act, the Public Procurement Act and the EU state aid rules.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate to what extent, and with what methods, the municipalities are working on monitoring commitments in development contracts. Material has since been collected through surveys to all of Sweden's municipalities and in-depth interviews with two selected municipalities.

    80 replies were received on the questionnaires. It showed that 68.8% did not consider themselves to have a routine for general follow-up of commitments in land development contracts. The majority of those who considered themselves to have a routine stated "project leader follows up" or "continuous follow-up" as the current routine. On specific issues concerning follow-up of property formation and financial security, the municipalities considered to a greater extent routine for follow-up. Real estate development stated that the municipalities were able to secure by applying for a settlement themselves in cases where it was a municipal matter. Financial security ensures the municipalities primarily by requiring security before signing contracts, or the project manager is responsible for the follow-up.

    With detailed development plans where the property owners build and maintain the publically accessible places, some municipalities felt that there was more to follow up, some that less follow-up takes place.

    The two interviewed municipalities described how the project manager's routine for follow-up can work and that they both work actively with follow-up.

    The conclusion is that some municipalities are actively working on follow-up of commitments, but that there are a lot of shortcomings. Some municipalities do not seem to work actively with the follow-up. Among these municipalities are many of those who write zero or very few agreements annually, but also several municipalities that write many agreements annually.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Ahl, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Täktverksamhet: En undersökning av beslut om avgifter och nedsättning2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att utreda huruvida det råder en konsekvent hantering av tillsynsavgifter och ifall beslut om nedsättning tas på lika grunder. Tanken var att rapporten skulle kunna påvisa om verkligheten avspeglar lagstiftningen.

    Grunden till denna studie är frågeställningarna;

    1. Hur beslutar tillsynsmyndigheter om tillsynsavgifter?

    2. I vilken utsträckning beviljar tillsynsmyndigheter nedsättning av tillsynsavgiften?

    3. I vilken utsträckning begär verksamhetsutövare nedsättning av tillsynsavgiften?

    Begreppet täkt definieras som arbetsföretag vilket primärt syftar till att nyttiggöra det uttagna materialet. Detta sker antingen genom direktförsäljning eller i övrig verksamhet inom det egna företaget. Arbetet handlar endast om tillståndspliktiga täkter och i Sverige finns det omkring 2300 sådana igång. Tillsynsavgiften för täkterna ligger på omkring 800 kronor per timme och i snitt läggs det enligt våra intervjuer tio timmar tillsynstid per täkt och år. Det sammanlagda beloppet på tillsynskostnader i Sverige ligger således på drygt arton miljoner kronor.

    Arbetet inleds med en teoridel där läsaren ges möjlighet att få en djupare förståelse för täkter, tillsynsavgifter, nedsättning och de lagrum som skall följas i samband med detta. Teorin grundas på litteraturstudier och samtal med sakkunniga. Följt av teorin kommer en undersökning som valdes att utföras genom intervjuer med ett visst antal kommuner, Länsstyrelser och verksamhetsutövare. Sammanställningen av intervjuerna blev grunden för det avslutande resultatet och de slutsatser som kunde tas av undersökningen.

    Resultatet av arbetet visar på att tillsynsmyndigheter fattar beslut om tillsynsavgifter och nedsättning på olika sätt och grunder. För att få en mer likvärdig hantering av frågorna skulle en tydligare och mer konkret lagstiftning behöva arbetas fram. Vi kunde också fastslå att Naturvårdsverket som har en tillsynsvägledande roll i sammanhanget inte verkar nå ut till de tillsynsansvariga då de flesta av dem inte vet om att Naturvårdverket tillhandahåller detta stöd. Det är många frågor som väcks efter att ha fullbordat denna studie och listan på förslag till framtida arbete kan därmed göras lång

  • 6.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Boström, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Emballagenedbrytning: Framtagning av förslag till utformning av ny arbetsstation till Volvo Pentas fabrik i Vara2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AB Volvo Penta manufactures and sells motors and drive systems for marine and industrial applications. The plant in Vara is specialized within manufacturing of marine diesel engines.The plant in Vara is about to go through major changes. The reason is a merger with Volvo Penta Production (VPP) located in Gothenburg. In connection with the merger there is going to be redevelopment of the plant. The station for packaging degradation is going to move and it needs to be redeveloped because it is not an efficient neither ergonomic workstation.The purpose of this project was to develop a suggestion of a new workstation for the packaging degradation. The goal was to develop a suggestion that is more efficient and ergonomically adapted. Data was collected through a situation analysis.To fulfill the purpose the project group performed literature studies, collected data and facts. The theory that was studied focused on lean, station design and layout, work environment and ergonomics. Stakeholders, earlier studies and packaging materials were examined. The next step was benchmarking, the group visited VPP in Gothenburg, Logent AB in Skövde and Mape Sweden AB in Trollhättan. Facts were collected through observations, interviews and a workshop with operators.After that the group studied different flows for the station. The result was to move forward with a parallel flow and a U-shaped flow. Then the group used the flows to form layouts. The final result was a U-cell with the operator and material placed outside the cell. The U-cell is most suitable from a lean perspective and from an ergonomic perspective.Further, today’s station needs to change because it is classified as a risk workstation. The final suggestion for a new station is supposed to work as a guideline for Penta. The suggestion with a U-cell needs to be developed further and more delimitation also needs to be done.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bosson, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära lägen: En kartläggande och jämförande studie av hur kommuner och Länsstyrelser tillämpar lagstiftningen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    2009/2010 a new concept was brought into Environmental code and Planning and Building Act, which was countryside development in areas close to shores (LIS). This amendment was motivated by that areas which have a low degree of exploited land area and high access to seaside areas would get an opportunity to reliefs in coastal protection regulations, in order to be able to offer attractive areas for living and establishing different activities within the municipality. Since the amendment came into force the main responsibility for approval of exceptions from costal protection regulations is on the county. The county administrative board main responsibility is to keep an eye on the granted approvals of the municipalities. The amendments in the Planning and Building Act resulted in the possibility for the municipalities to present areas in with a relief in coastal protection regulations, as a part of the comprehensive plan, an addition to the comprehensive plan or an extensive version for a part of the comprehensive plan.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare how the legislation about LIS is applied, by studying 44 municipalities including the documents of comments from the county administrative board. The first part of the study is the quantitative part which contains collecting and compile information and statistics in which the study will be founded. The study also contains a qualitative part of analyzing the results obtained in the quantitative part.

    Overall the study shows that there is a disagreement between the municipalities and the county administrative board regarding costal protection regulation. The conclusion is based on the results from the study presenting the comments from the county administrative board to the municipalities during the final examine before the comprehensive plan is adopted by the municipal council. The results in the study show a pattern in the most frequent comments from the county administrative board compiled. The most common comment from the county administrative board is that the municipality has not fulfilled the purpose of the legislation about LIS. Furthermore, the municipality has not considered national interests in the municipal areas meant for LIS. The study shows that different political ideology has an influence on the execution of the legislation about LIS in municipalities. The results in the study show that the political ideology has an impact on the numbers of areas which the municipalities present as LIS. As a matter of fact, the impact of political ideology is greater than the impact of geographical similarities between two municipalities, according to the results in the study.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Jennie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Collby, Ida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Planprocessen utifrån ett gentrifieringsperspektiv: En studie med gentrifiering i fokus för fyra stadsdelar i Göteborg2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gentrification is a concept for the process of change that occurs in a neighborhood where people with high economic status move into an area that has previously been dominated by people with low socio-economic status. The process takes place step by step and affects, among other things, the economic, social, physical and cultural impression in the district. The concept itself is not well mentioned in urban planning or by politicians. Instead, they choose to use words such as integration in their work as it leaves a positive impression. The gentrification process can eventually give positive effects to a neighborhood if it generates growth and contributes to increased service in the area. However, the negative side of the gentrification process is more talked about. The negative effects are characterized by consequences for the residents in an area where the rents increase and they can no longer afford to live. The reason for the price increase and the fact that people are forced to move can be a consequence of the rebuilding and new construction run by the municipality and developers. The phenomenon occurs worldwide, but due to the extensive degree of development within the City of Gothenburg, the study will be based on the municipality. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the City of Gothenburg relate to the concept of gentrification and to what extent they work with its sanctions when they add new detailed plans for an area. The study is also meant to investigate the municipality's position on the concept as well as whether it is conscious or unconscious decisions that make, which in turn can lead to the re-enactment of the detailed planning area. In order to delimit the study, four areas were chosen in Gothenburg with similar conditions where a new detailed plan has gained legal force and exploitation is either started or completed. A qualitative method was used for reading material and interviews were held with the municipality and an developer to gain insight into the thinking about the design of the detailed plans and the exploitation. After completing the study, we have found that gentrification is a loaded concept, which means that politicians and urban planners also do not want to know it. In connection with the interviews carried out for the study, there was a lack of knowledge about the concept's existence, but a strong belief that their particular project would generate a positive gentrification effect for the area they project. Some interviewees also reported for some type of conscious gentrification when they felt that an increased population and variety of population groups could contribute to something positive despite the possible risk of gentrification in the exploited area.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thyrsson, Alicia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Marklov för trädfällning & skogsplantering: Kravets omfattning och utbredning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In community planning, there are many regulations that can be made to control land use and a detail development plan is an instrument that Sweden's municipalities have access to in order to do so. In a detail development plan, the municipality may specify properties that will apply in an area, such as the protection of trees, whish this study is about. To protect trees a plan regulation is required in the plan indicating what is applicable. In the Planning and Building Act 9 chap. 12 § it is stated that the municipality in a detail development plan may decide that a land permit is required for felling trees and for afforestation. An application for a permit to felling trees and / or afforestation shall be sent to the municipality, which will examine whether the application is to be granted or refused. Entering a land permit for felling trees in the detail development plan protects trees that may otherwise be cut down without the municipality's knowledge.

    The survey aims at examining the extent to which the municipalities of Sweden use the opportunity to decide on land permits in a detail development plan. Furthermore, the municipality's motive for the protection of trees is investigated and if it is done otherwise than with the plan regulation, and whether there has been any change in how the municipalities regulate trees in 2017 compared to 1990, when the detail development plan had recently been introduced. This has been done with both qualitative and quantitative methods to get a versatile and complete study.

    The results show that the municipalities used the plan regulation for land permit for felling trees in 60 of the detail development plans in 2017. To ensure protection of trees municipalities use other methods than land permit, for example a Plan regulation to protect trees. The motives given by the municipalities to protect trees vary widely and there are ecological, social and aesthetic reasons. In the comparison of detail development plans from 2017 and 1990, differences have been observed. More plans in 2017 with land permit for felling trees have been observed as well as more and more varied motivations. Plan regulation about afforestation has been found only once in a total of 1 353 detail development plans.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Carmesund, Julia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Handläggningstiden vid bygglov: En studie kring kravet i PBL 9:272015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With Swedish planning and building act (PBL) of 2011 a new demand was adopted for handling time before permits and advance rule, called PBL 9:27. Following PBL 9:27 an application for permits shall be processed promptly and the applicant shall be informed of the decision within ten weeks from the moment a complete application has been submitted to the local building committee. Previously this demand had not been included into Swedish law. The purpose of this demand was to speed up the handling time and to reduce differences in handling time between municipalities. When this demand was adopted a decision was made not to connect it with any form of sanction, should the demand not be met. The argument being that a more effective handling time would be met even without sanctions. Following several notifications to the legal ombudsman one may conclude that in several cases, municipalities do not meet the demand for a handling time within ten weeks. While there are no sanctions connected to the demand municipalities, may without any risk, take as much time they fell needed for the handling of each case. Thereby one of the key purposes of PBL 9:27, that is, reduced differences in handling time between municipalities is counteracted.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether handling time in building permit cases are in compliance with PBL 9:27. In order to answer this question building permit cases were examined thoroughly in seven municipalities in Västra Götaland County. The study has focused cases from 2014 and cases pertaining to construction of buildings. The collected information was compiled in one data matrix for each municipality. Beside of the information compiled in the data matrix each municipality answered a questionnaire focusing workload. The purpose of the questionnaire was to relate the results from the investigation of handling time to a possible explanation, that is, the workload of employees during 2014.

    Out of 436 examined cases 44 did not meet the demand of handling tie within ten weeks, or approximately 10 % of the cases. Of these 44 cases that did not meet PLB 9:27, 32 were real estates that were located within areas regulated by detailed municipal plans and twelve were located outside of planned areas. Out of the 32 real estates located within planned areas 13 accounted for a minor deviance from the detailed municipal plan while 19 were in compliance with the detailed plan and

    regulation areas.

    The results indicate that municipalities need to speed up their handling time for building permit cases regulated by PBL 9:27. An additional result of this study is that several municipalities have flaws in relation to documentation of significant dates. Also, municipalities tend to make different assessments of when an application is considered complete. This study suggests that clearer guidelines are adopted pertaining to documentation of cases and the demands for how to assess if an application is complete.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Martin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Flödesförbättring för processkedja på GKN2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace is a world leading supplier of aerospace components. The Aerospace segment that Trollhättan is part of has a total of 35 plants on four continents and employs at the time of writing over 12,000 people. The products produced are made in materials that are difficult to process and the accuracy requirements are extremely high.

    The case study has been carried out at GKN in Trollhättan and aims to identify disturbances in the initial part of the process chain for the products LM2500 and 3-9C. The objective of the work will lead to proposals for action which is intended to smooth out the flow and create conditions to keep the given cycle time of eleven hours.

    Since GKN has been working with Lean production before it is also the basis for the theoretical framework. The main method of data collection was collection of data in the business system that has been supplemented with interviews and observations in the factory.

    An important part of Lean is to eliminate waste. Therefore, the eight wastages is the basic structure for the results section. Based on the chosen structure several types of waste could be identified. By analysis underpinned by theoretical framework and data collection this leads to recommended measures where the most important are:

    • Review maintenance practices when machine stop causes many hours of waiting and causes unpredictability in the production.

    • Equalize the production flow through the introduction of new operations and smooth the process times. 

    • Work towards initiating a one piece flow by separation operations that are currently carried out in the same machine.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Studie av nyblivna skogsägares värdering vid köp av sina fastigheter2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensjobb handlar om skogsköparens resonemang och värderingsåsikter om sin köpta skogsfastighet. Jag har tagit reda på hur köparna resonerar med hjälp av intervjuer gjorda via telefon. Utbildningen jag gått är lantmäteriingenjörsprogrammet (120p) på högskolan i Trollhättan. Genom att sammanställa alla intervjuer och dra slutsatser av dessa hoppas jag kunna bidra till förståelse för vad man tycker är viktigt som skogsköpare i västra Götaland. Resultaten hoppas jag ska kunna få en praktisk betydelse för arbetet med värdering och försäljning/köp av rena skogsfastigheter.

  • 13.
    Asad, Ahmed
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Sallander, Rikard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Balansering och tidsoptimering av materialsatsning till F12-monteringen på Parker PMDE Trollhättan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In industries, the management tools of Lean Production are used to develop and streamline operations in a way to reduce waste and lead times in all processes. Parker PMDE in Trollhättan manufactures hydraulic machines. Since the 90´s, Parker has pursued business development under the management principles of Lean Production. One of the next steps in Parkers continuous improvement was to explore opportunities to develop a kitting department so that a worker could provide the assembly with the material quickly without surplus resources. In the current situation, there is an imbalance from the kitting station towards the tact times in the assembly station because it takes longer at the kitting station to pick materials for four hydraulic machines, than it takes for the assembly station to consume these kits of materials.The aim of the thesis was to develop suggestions for improvement where a worker could perform the kitting process in less than 16 minutes. The interim objectives were to do a survey of the times and activities within the kitting process. The boundaries of the project was not to examine processes outside the kitting station. The project was designed according to DMAIC methodology, which is a project model for fact-based problem solving and clear structure. The methods used in the data collection were observation and analysis of video footage applying the software called AviX Method. Video recordings were categorized as different activities in the kitting process such as transport, picking, scanner time, pre-assembly and uncategorized time. Activities that were time consuming and did not add value to the process were identified. These data measures were the basis for the solution proposals.Based on these results and using brainstorming, solution proposals were generated together with the engineers and material handlers. The solution proposals that met the objective of the project of picking a 4-set of materials in 16 minutes were: Pick by voice, Pick-by-light, Ring Scanner and Relocation of one pre-assembly operation. Pick by voice is considered to be the most appropriate solution for the company since it reduces picking times, scanning times and is a flexible system. Two more proposed solutions were developed that did not meet the objective of the project, but are considered worth investigating further based on Lean Production and ergonomic reasons. These proposed solutions consisted of changing the picking route and the installation of a magnetic lift.

  • 14.
    Augustsson, Angelica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Albertsson, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Lantmäterier i Norden: Dess centralorganisationer och det nordiska samarbetet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to highlight similarities and differences between the different central organizations for surveying in the Nordic counties. The Nordic cooperation’s will be examined to gain a deeper understanding for the cooperation between the countries.

    Denmark’s organization is consisted by several boards. Those who perform cadastral proce-dure are private operators who report changes in property to the boards for registration. The organization is complex and difficult to get an overview of. The central organization of Finland is large and extensive, with multiple devices, areas and departments controlled by directors. The organization is owned by the state where both cadastral procedure and cadastre is within the central organizations responsibility. The central organization of Norway is owned by the state, with few work areas and specializations. They handle maps, cadastre and registration. It is Jordsifteretten who perform major ordinances and municipalities perform the minor. They are investigation whether the cadastral procedure should be private in order to develop and improve the surveying process in the country. Sweden like Finland has a central organization owned by the state who is handling cadastral procedure and cadastre. The organization is built in a number of different divisions that manage registration of property, cadastre and geodesy. In addition to the government offices are also municipal offices. In both the central organizations and in the countries different surveying associations are Nordic cooperation’s. Both seek to strengthen communion and enable exchange of expertise between the counties.

    The central organizations of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are different from each other, but there are still some similarities. The possibility to create an organization that works across the countries in common, is limited by national legislation. A unified central organization will therefore not be formed, nor is it the purpose of the Nordic cooperation’s. By mapping the central organizations an overview is created of the variations between the countries. But despite these differences succeed to get similar results in terms of surveying operations in the Nordic countries.

  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Emmy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Svensson, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Små och okomplicerade projekt inom infrastrukturplanering: En studie i hur Trafikverket använder typfall 12015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial planning of land and water is an important part of a community’s structure and development. Community planning is a democratic process, regulated by several laws and it’s contributing to a sustainable living environment from a social, ecological and economic perspective.

    Trafikverket (The Swedish Transport Agency) is the authority in Sweden which is responsible for infrastructure planning. According to the Swedish Road Law and Railway Law, the one intending to build new infrastructure, must establish a road or railway plan, which often is a long and costly process. In January 1, 2013 changes were introduced in to the law to exclude small and uncomplicated projects from the formal planning process, to create a more effective infrastructure planning system. These small projects were given the name type case 1 (typfall 1), in the planning system of Trafikveket.

    The purpose of the study is to examine how the changes in the law from 2013 have been used in the planning process by Trafikverket. The study intends to investigate which type of project the law changes has applied on and how they conform with the intentions that they should be small and uncomplicated. It will also investigate how the changes are received and perceived by those involved in infrastructure planning.

    The methods used to answer the questions is document study and focused interviews. The documents study includes all the planned projects from Region Väst (Western Region) from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014. The interviews were conducted with project managers and consultants who all have experience in the planning of small and uncomplicated projects.

    The results shows that Trafikverket mainly uses the new changes in the law to build bus stops, left fields and roundabouts, and it has been applied to significantly more road projects than railway projects. The projects is varying in size since the new guidelines have been interpreted in different ways.

    The conclusion is that changes in the law have contributed to a more efficient planning process. The project managers overall have a positive attitude to implement smaller projects without a formal plan, but the guidelines on witch background material needed for a project should be more clear.

  • 16.
    Berglund, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Thörnqvist, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Detaljplan med enskilt huvudmannaskap för allmänna platser: planering kontra genomförande2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har vi utrett om genomförandet av allmänna platser inom detaljplanelagda områden med enskilt huvudmannaskap utförts i enlighet med kommunens intentioner. Studien baserades på elva detaljplaner inom tre kommuner i Västra Götalandsregionen där planhandlingar granskats och jämförts med de förrättningar som skett på områdena. Slutligen besiktigades också områdena för att se hur det blev i verkligheten. Granskningen visade att kommunernas intentioner har följts överlag men avvikelser förekommer. Vi kom fram till att enskilt huvudmannaskap kan vara en fungerande lösning för att säkerställa kommunens intentioner om de använder sig av planbestämmelser för att reglera utformningen av allmänna platser i detaljplan.

    En kortare studie av aktuell lagstiftning visar att kommunerna får använda sig av planbestämmelser på allmän plats vid enskilt huvudmannaskap i samma grad som kommunen skall använda sig av dessa vid kommunalt huvudmannaskap.

    Med ett kommittédirektiv som bakgrund, där det b.la. skall utredas hur tillgängligheten till allmänna platser med enskilt huvudmannaskap skall vara, har vi under besiktningen av områdena också undersökt hur tillgängligheten faktiskt var. Besiktningen visade att tillgängligheten till de allmänna platserna varierade mellan de kommuner vi granskade.

    En enkätundersökning visar att lantmäterimyndigheterna anser att samarbetet med kommunerna är för dålig p.g.a. bristande resurser. Lantmäterimyndigheterna har som utgångspunkt att följa planbestämmelser gällande utformning av allmänna platser. Det förekommer att lantmäterimyndigheterna förbiser prövning av väsentlighet och båtnad i de fall detaljplan ligger till grund för förrättningen.

    Övriga slutsatser vi dragit från arbetet är att naturområden som skall vara allmänt tillgängliga ej bör ingå i en gemensamhetsanläggning då väsentlighetsvillkoret enligt Anläggningslagen, AL kan ifrågasättas. Vi kom också fram till att anläggningsbesluten bör utformas mer utförligt för att tydliggöra kostnader och ansvar för fastighetsägare i framtiden.

  • 17.
    Berntsson, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Halldin, Josefin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Ägarlägenheter på Öckerö: erfarenheter kring förvaltningsfrågor2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har det sedan maj 2009 varit tillåtet att bilda ägarlägenheter. En ägarlägenhet är en typ av fastighet som är avgränsad både horisontellt och vertikalt och avsedd att innehålla endast en bostadslägenhet. Ägarlägenheten ägs som vilken fastighet som helst och kan därmed fritt hyras ut, pantsättas, belånas och överlåtas.Några av de första att satsa på den nya bostadsformen var det kommunala bostadsbolaget på Öckerö, Öckerö Bostads AB. Bolaget startade 2009 projekteringen av ett nytt bostadsområde som omfattades av 5 huskroppar om totalt 50 ägarlägenheter på Breviksängar. Öckerö Bostads AB styckade av 50 ägarlägenheter varav de sålde 30 av lägenheterna och behöll 20 lägenheter för uthyrning. Det är kombinationen bolagsägande och privat ägande men också hur förvaltningen har fungerat som har undersökts och analyserats. Både lekmannaperspektivet och fackmannaperspektivet har belysts.En anledning till att bolaget valde att sälja 30 av de 50 ägarlägenheterna var för att bolaget ville delfinansiera de 20 hyreslägenheterna och på så sätt hålla hyresnivån för en nyproducerad lägenhet på en rimlig nivå. Att hyresrätterna delfinansieras med försäljning av ägarlägenheter leder till att bostadsbolaget kan erbjuda hyresgästerna en lägre hyra jämfört med om hela projektet hade varit hyresrätterBlandningen av hyresrätter och ägarlägenheter upplevs av de flesta som positiv. Vissa av ägarlägenheternas ägare anser dock att hyresgästerna inte är lika rädda om området som ägarlägenhetsägarna. Ser man till de grannelagsrättsliga reglerna är det däremot mer säkert att bo bredvid en hyresgäst än att bo bredvid en ägarlägenhetsägare eftersom en hyresgäst kan avhysas om denne orsakar störningar i boendet medan en ägarlägenhetsägare inte kan avhysas även om denne orsakar störningar.Öckerö Bostads AB hade också en integrationstanke om att blanda olika typer av människor och familjekonstellationer på Breviksängar, därför blandades hyresrätter och ägarlägenheter i samtliga hus, detta är dock svårt att införliva på Öckerö på grund av att hyrorna och kostnaden för en ägarlägenhet fortfarande är relativt höga.Samfälligheter och gemensamhetsanläggningar bildades för att tillgodose ägarlägenheternas gemensamma behov. Alla ägarlägenheternas ägare, både privata ägare och bostadsbolaget, ingår i Norra Breviks samfällighetsförening som förvaltar samfälligheterna och gemensamhetsanläggningarna. Denna gemensamma förvaltning upplevs till stor del ha fungerat bra. Att Öckerö Bostads AB representeras i styrelsen är bra dels för att bolaget representerar hyresgästerna, men också för att Öckerö Bostads AB har kunskap om fastighetsförvaltning. Det finns dock ägarlägenhetsägare som anser att Öckerö Bostads AB inte skall vara med i styrelsen.Bland de som äger sina ägarlägenheter har det uppstått oklarheter från kring bolagets olika roller. En gränsdragning mellan bolagets roll som byggherre och bolagets roll som fastighetsägare bör vara tydligare för att undvika missförstånd, speciellt viktigt är det innan garantitidens utgång för att inte blanda ihop byggherrefrågor och föreningsfrågor.

  • 18.
    Berntsson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    A study on the quality of the NKG2015 geoid model over the Nordic countries2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The NKG2015 (Nordic Geodetic Commission) geoid model is the most recent official geoid model over the Nordic countries. There has been no previous research published on the quality of this model, therefore, this study may be a valuable contribution to the research in this area. It is important to be aware of the limitations and quality of the geoid model used when measuring heights. If the quality of the geoid is not known, the quality of the measured heights will also be uncertain. This might cause problems when the measured heights are used in projects where great precision is vital.

    Measured GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems)/levelling data has been compared to the computed geoid heights from the NKG2015 geoid model at the corresponding points to investigate the quality of this model. The misclosures between the geoid height, obtained from the GNSS/levelling data and the geoid heights from the NKG2015 geoid model have been analysed by statistical methods. The normality of the misclosures is tested, and the analysis is performed on unfiltered and filtered misclosures with confidence intervals (CIs) of 95% and 99.7% to remove probable outliers. Trends in the misclosures are removed with a least-squares detrending method.

    The result of the study shows that filtering the misclosures generally makes them more normally distributed, but this is not the case for all countries. Detrending the misclosures improves the normality in most cases. In this process, a corrective surface with a specified number of parameters is fitted to the misclosures to remove trends. The topography of each country is very important when deciding which corrective surface that should be used in the detrending process. Countries with rough topography such as Norway has greater uncertainty in its heights and needs a corrective surface with more parameters than flatter countries such as Denmark. There are some estimates for the errors for the GNSS/levelling data which are not all in agreement with the misclosures. The GNSS/levelling error in Finland is greater than it should be.

    The given, estimated errors of the NKG2015 geoid model are 10 mm for Sweden and Denmark, 22 mm for Norway and 12 mm for Finland. These errors are reasonable, but not in perfect agreement with the given errors of the GNSS/levelling measurements in relation to the misclosures. Based on the assumption that the GNSS/levelling errors are correct, confidence intervals of the geoid error can be estimated. These estimated intervals are 0-6.5mm for Sweden, 1.8-5.2mm for Denmark, 14.8-17.7mm for Norway and 0-0mm for Finland. The confidence interval for Finland is not realistic because it is based on the assumption that the GNSS/levelling error is correct.

  • 19.
    Blom, Roger
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Höglund, Annika
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konsekvensredovisning vid detaljplanering: En studie av planer enligt nya PBL2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Community planning is often based on changes and development of the physical environment which local residents may have different opinions on. To achieve acceptance of a change it is important that concerned feel involved in the process and that the information is clear and understandable even for those who are not proficient in the area. Within the process of developing a detail plan a description shall specify the organizational, technical, financial and real estate law actions necessary for its intended implementation. To make it possible for concerned property owners to be able to read and understand how they are affected by a detail plan the description must be clear and comprehensible explain the intended implementation consequences. The purpose of this study is to find out the extent to which impact description of implementation issues exist and if the requirements of Swedish planning and building act (PBL) from 2011 can be considered fulfilled. The PBL Committee noted in 2005 that the description of the implementation of detail plans is often weak or lacking. The introduction of a new PBL May 2, 2011 aimed to strengthen the status of the implementation issues. In the study the extent of the descriptions was examined with respect to organizational, technical, financial and real estate law issues as well as if the description is done summarily or per property. The study includes 84 detail plans from Västra Götaland and Stockholm County who were in the examination phase during weeks 14 and 15, 2014. There were 19 questions created to provide a picture of the application of PBL 4:33 §. A number of categories were created for these questions to classify the content of the plan descriptions. The result shows a large variation in the extent of the content in the plan descriptions. An average value of how common it is with insufficient content of description (in applicable cases) in each division gives the following result:

     Organizational issues: 49 %

     Technical issues: 30 %

     Economic issues: 68 %

     Real estate law issues: 13 %

    The study also shows that "per property" reporting occurs in a very limited extent. With the above results, it is doubtful if many of the detail plans meet the legal requirements of description and could withstand a judicial review

  • 20.
    Blomberg, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Söderqvist, Linnea
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Andelstalsfördelning för gemensamhetsanläggningar i tredimensionella fastigheter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently no common way of apportioning participatory shares in joint facilities in 3D property formation. One reason is that 3D property formation is relatively new and previously used only to a limited extent, but today it is becoming more common as cities are densified and growing in height. This leads to a more complex property formation with more common spaces and facilities. The purpose of this thesis is to create a model for apportioning participatory shares that can be used in 3D-based facility procedures for joint facilities with the purpose of elevator. The idea is that the participatory shares should be easy to understand, while at the same time experiencing fairness by the property owners as well as giving a general picture of reality. The method that is used to obtain the calculation models is statistics on the number of journeys in lifts, as well as surveys of areas and visitors to different types of properties. Further methods used are discussions with several surveyors and analysis of collected materials and results. The model developed uses the “tonkilometermetoden” as a basis. In the same way as “tonkilometermetoden”, the apportioning is divided into two steps to obtain a transport number and then a length number. The transport number corresponds to the number of elevator trips a property generates and is calculated using models depending on the type of activity in the property unit. The work generates calculation models for property units with the purpose of housing, office, restaurant, preschool and dentist. For other types of property units there is only an indicative discussion. The length number is determined by the floors used by the property unit. The model for the length number leads to two proposals for how the length number can be calculated and differentiated with respect to the floor, with a linear curve or an exponential curve. The two solutions are compared and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The transport number and length number are then used together to obtain the participatory share that the property unit receives.

  • 21.
    Borg, Louise
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ekosystemtjänster i kommunal planering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018 the meaning of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services should be general knowledge and integrated into economical standpoints, political considerations and other decisions where relevant and reasonable. This is one of the milestone targets that the Swedish government decided in 2012. We know today that only parts of this target will be reached. This study includes a survey regarding the concept of ecosystem service in Sweden, all the local authority comprehensive planning, and an examination of three housing projects in Stockholm’s county where ecosystem services were the focal point during the comprehensive planning. In the first part of the study, which concentrates on surveying the concept of ecosystem services, it can be shown that 116 of 290 municipalities have been using the concept in their local authority comprehensive planning. Furthermore, the concept is used more often than not during the last three years in local authority comprehensive planning. In the second part of the study the outline planning was examined, plan handlings and implementation contracts from projects in Täby, Nacka and Haninge municipality. The research was based on text analysis and on-site inspection. The results from the research showed that the municipalities have a high ambition regarding working with ecosystem services, and that there exist a correlation between the visions in the local authority comprehensive planning and regulations in the detailed developed plan. In the agreement the developers are bound to work according to implementation contracts and sustainability program which regulate the considerations of ecosystem services. The concept of ecosystem services is used to show which benefits we humans receive from nature’s work. We are dependent on continual ecosystem services, which are also essential to the public health and wellbeing. Joint effort and a considerate use of ecosystem services is needed to keep them intact. It can result in large profit for society to preserve, develop and recreate nature and green areas in population centers. To integrate ecosystem services in the physical planning is a step in the right direction. The local authority comprehensive planning show the direction for the municipality’s community planning, and the outline of the future physical structure, it also serves to guide upcoming detailed development plans and building acts. The local authority comprehensive planning plays a key part in the ecosystem services future, since its importance can be illustrated within. To reach the visions of the local authority comprehensive planning and the opportunity to actualize it in the detailed development plan is required. To secure the continued functionality of the ecosystem services, a clear and purposive legislation is required. An increase in knowledge and awareness of ecosystem services is essential, and everyone must see their part in the in our common responsibility and work toward a sustainable society.

  • 22.
    Borgmalm, Tomas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Schüllerqvist, Ola
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Bygglovets giltighetstid: Och hanteringen av justeringar efter bygglovsbeslut2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How long a building permit is valid is regulated in the Swedish planning and building act (PBL) 9:43. The validity of the permit is defined as the actual works with the building must be commenced in two years and ended in five years. The main question in this study is about the difficulty in assessing whether the actual works with the building has been commenced. There are few law cases that define the meaning of "commenced", which probably means that municipalities make different interpretations of the issue. Another question the study addresses is how changes in building permits are handled after the permit has become valid. Reasonably it happens that developers need to make adjustments of the building permit during the actual construction.

    The aim of this study is to examine how municipalities interpret PBL 9:43 with respect to the term "commenced" and how the building permits limitation of two years is complied with. Furthermore, the purpose is to give a description of the legal basis of what is meant by "commenced" in the current legislation. The study also intends to investigate whether PBL provides the ability to adjust the building permit during the time of the construction, and how municipalities deal with such cases in practice.

    The study is based on a legal analysis that aims to describe the legal grounds surrounding the building permit and especially the rule in PBL 9:43. To examine how the two-year period is complied, a quantitative survey of 500 building permit documents in six municipalities was completed. A questionnaire was sent out to 75 municipalities to provide answers to questions about the municipalities interpretations of "commenced" in PBL 9:43 and how adjustments of building permits are being handled.

    The outcome of the legal analysis shows that work with a building's foundation is probably a requirement that is needed for the work to be assessed as "commenced". The questionnaire survey reveals large differences in how municipalities interpret "commenced" in PBL 9:43. It also shows that half of the municipalities do not perform any active controls of the building permit's two year limitation. The investigation reveals that it is common that developers make adjustments during the time of construction and that most municipalities deal with it within the existing building permit. The investigation of building permits shows no case where starting clearance was given after the two year limitation.

    We conclude that a clarification of the legislation would likely provide a more uniform assessment of "commenced" in the municipalities. Likewise, it is unclear what support PBL provides considering adjustment after the building permit has become valid.

  • 23.
    Brodin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Spårbarhet inom återvinningsindustrin2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor´s thesis is perfomed for the company Hoglin Recycling AB in Kungshamn, Sweden. Hoglin collects and refines cooking fat from customers in western Sweden and Småland. The refined product is then sold to a reseller. The purpose of this thesis is to find the best possible traceability system for Hoglin so that they with high security and effectivity can hold apart their two products, animal and vegetable cooking fat. With the help from literature studies, interviews and experiments the group has proposed a system for Hoglin that also could be implemented in other businesses.

    To make the barrels where the cooking fat is stored in traceable literature studies were made on different tracking methods such as barcodes, RFID and GPS. These are some of the most common methods to track products. The group used the tools screening and scoring matrix to choose which of these methods suited Hoglin the most. With these the tracking methods were individually ranked amongst each other to find the winning concept, one dimensional barcodes.

    For traceability systems to function properly it requires not only a tracking method but also a tracking system where information can be stored and used when needed. To find the most suitable type of system the group decided to compare a fully developed system with a mobile phone application. These two systems were compared against each other with the use of an SWOT-analysis. The mobile application was the most interesting one with advantages in both cost and customizability. The only problem that remained was whether the GPS in a mobile phone would be good enough for a system like this or not.

    The work resulted in a requirement specification with all the requirements needed for the traceability system, included an explanation of how it works. To give an understanding of how the application could look like it is illustrated with pictures

  • 24.
    Bryntesson, Markus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Rasheed, Nihro
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Omprövningsförrättningar enligt AL 43 §: En studie där omprövningar utvärderas med hänsyn till kvalifikationsgränser I AL 35 §2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to have facilities, which are common for some properties, functioning in a purposive manner for several users, the concept of joint facilities are established in Sweden. In ordinary cases in order to manage the joint facilities is to organise a joint property management association by co-owners of the properties. After the establishment of a joint facility, a need for changes or adjustments of that could arise. To implement these changes, a new cadastral adjudication procedure, under § 35 AL, can be applied, where the adjudication of the joint facility is re-exercised there.

    In order to perform a reconsideration for an adjudication, one of the three criteria of § 35 AL should be met. In order to have the permission to modify the issue as a cadastral procedure again, the material criteria of AL 5-11 §§ need to be met as well. The goal of this project is to study the different criteria of AL § 35 and new cadastral procedure adjudications from the archives of the municipal cadastral authority. The main purpose of this work is to assess to what degree the new cadastral procedure adjudications apply and fulfil any criterion in AL § 35.

    Those three criteria governing whether it is possible to perform a new cadastral procedure, regarding a joint facility, are changed circumstances, a clear need and a deadline stated in the previous cadastral procedure. The actual definitions of the first two criteria are not clear from the law, and therefore there is a difficulty for cadastral surveyors to assess and apply AL § 35.

    In our study, 2.5% of total number of the analysed acts do not or doubtfully fulfil any criterion of AL § 35. In 15% the new cadastral procedures some unclear issues are seen, which put a question mark in front of the work of the cadastral surveyors in using and applying the paragraph, but the acts were done in any case.

    The results of this project show that most of the assessed cases fulfil one of the necessary criteria, but despite this there are clear shortcomings in how AL § 35 is applied. It is often difficult for cadastral surveyors to know how this paragraph is assessed and applied, and which trial to apply for each criterion. Clearer and better explanations of these criteria can contribute to a more accurate and efficient cadastral procedure reconsiderations.

  • 25.
    Börjesson, Sofie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Wikman, Emelie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Geografiska informationssystem som analysverktyg av kommunal planering: En studie om markinnehav i Kungälv-, Lysekil- & Skövde kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1900, a large population increase has occurred in Sweden, which has led to the importance of strategic planning for society's continued development. The latest municipal reform, of 1970-71, led to larger municipalities with increased responsibility. Municipalities now started to work actively with community planning issues and no legal differences were to remain. Today, municipal development occurs at different rates, partly depending on geographical location and resources, but also because there is no regional mechanism that controls how municipalities are working with land issues. In connection with "Väröfallet, in 1963, attention was drawn to the fact that physical planning was eclipsed by economic interests. After that event, people became aware of environmental issues and fear of environmental damage on earth increased. During the time of "Väröfallet" municipalities began working more actively with environmental issues, but it was not until 1999 that the government adopted 15 goals to regulate environmental quality which later, in 2005, became 16 goals. Environmental quality objectives are regulated by "Miljöbalken". The objectives were to promote sustainable development and national interests to protect biodiversity. The purpose of this study is to compare the landholdings of three municipalities and how the use of them has been affected since the last municipal reform. The methods used in the study are qualitative and quantitative. The quantitative section consists of a concrete mapping program, ArcMap, which provided map data from each municipality as well as a previous study course. Map production is an important step in analyzing what the landholdings looks like as well as the distribution of national interests within the municipalities. The qualitative part of the study consists of interviews with municipal representatives who informed us about the facts surrounding land issues and planning strategy. The study also investigates whether there is a regional system that controls the way in which they work. The result of the produced maps shows urban land holdings, national interests as well as private landowners of importance. Part of the result is an analysis of the area on the maps made using GIS tools to show how much municipal land and industrial land covered by national interests. Another part of the result is to visually see local conditions for future development.

    The maps were analyzed using GIS tools to measure similarities, differences and local conditions for future development. Summary local governments should actively work with GIS tools as an aid in the control of land use. Through GIS, municipalities can keep updated and see how changes in the municipality take place over time. The conclusion of the study is that local governments must work strategically to develop a sustainable society

  • 26.
    Carlson, Freddie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Zurowetz, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommuners förhållningssätt till regeln om reduktion av bygglovsavgiften: en studie av fyra kommuner inom Västra Götaland2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Planning and Building act (PBL) was rewritten in 2011. A new requirement was added for the local authorities to handle building permits within ten weeks from when the applications were completed. However there were no sanctions added against the local authorities if they were to exceed the deadline of ten weeks. Several investigations performed by, for example Boverket, show that the local authorities have difficulties meeting the deadline. JO has several times, since the readjustment in 2011, complained to local authorities of their unreasonable processing time.

    In 2016 the government gave Boverket an assignment to investigate if the local authorities are meeting the deadlines and to propose a sanction system for the building committees, if they exceed the ten weeks. The purpose of the assignment was to improve the local authorities' processing time and to make the building process more effective. The report from Boverket showed that 81 percent of the local authorities handle a majority of the building permits within the deadline and that the processing time has improved every year since the Planning and Building act was rewritten in 2011. It was stated in the report from Boverket, that a reduction of the building permit fee was the most suitable penalty to use against the local authorities for a time violation.

    The reduction of the building permit fee was introduced in PBL on the first of January 2019, and was stated in paragraph 12:8 a. The penalty is structured so that every started week that exceeds the deadline, the building permit fee will be reduced by a fifth. In this study it has been analysed what impact the rule has had on four local authorities and how they interpret the rule. The study has been limited to and is only focused on building permits that are outside of the detailed plan, with minor deviance from the detailed plan and building permits for major buildings. The study is based on interviews with the manager in the department of building permit in four different local authorities located in Västra Götaland. Three of the local authorities were chosen based on size of population and the fourth was chosen to represent a local authority that has major seasonal accommodation. Before every interview the interviewees have been given an interview guide, and during the interviews the same basic questions have been asked with an opportunity to ask in-depth follow-up questions.

    The result showed that 12:8 a will not have a significant impact on the local authorities and therefore will not result in a more effective building process. The reason for this is that the new regulation is only a small part in the bigger picture and has a lack of deadlines in other parts of the building process. This will lead to local authorities simply moving resources to the area that has a deadline, while other steps of the process will not be as prioritized. The conclusion from these findings show that the whole building process should be looked over. The rules within PBL should be better aligned with each other and also with other laws. The guidance that Boverket gives to the local authorities should also be clearer, since local authorities can interpret the law differently. Overall, the 12:8 a paragraph will not have a big impact on the building process. The purpose of PBL on a simpler Planning and Building act continues to be sidestepped.

  • 27.
    Carlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Lindesson, Julia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Är det skäligt?: En studie kring skäl vid överklagade bygglov2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the current housing crisis, part of the social debate has been focused on streamlining the building permit process, and more specifically the ability to appeal a building permit. Proposals that emerged in the legislative history is to limit what and who has the right to appeal a building permit decision and the possibility to charge for the appeals. As the legislative history is only based on general statistics there is a lack of knowledge about what the complainant confided as reasons for the appeal. Nor is there any recognition on the grounds that wins the greatest success with the provincial government by matters referred back or canceled.

    The purpose of the study is to create a better understanding about the contested building permits and the function the provincial government fills as the appeal court. The main objective is to investigate the reasons behind the contested building permits, and investigate which of the arguments that have the greatest success for the complainants. To fulfill the purpose three questions were answered. What are the reasons invoked by the appellant? With what the reasons cancels and remits the provincial government municipal decisions? To what degree do the reasons cited by the complainant correspond with the reasons the provincial government cancels or refers cases?

    A quantitative content analysis was applied together with the legal method to interpret and classify the reasons. A statistical method has been used to compile and present the results. A total of 274 contested decision documents were reviewed and resulted in 197 documents considered as representative for the study. The review resulted in 77 categories of reasons cited by the complainants.

    The most common reasons were: significant inconvenience, the measure is contrary to the local plan, city- and landscape, cultural heritage and good overall effect is adversely affected, the neighbor hearing has not occurred, that there have been shortcomings in the documents and frivolous reasons.

    By far the most common reasons for the cancellation was that the measure is contrary to local plan and was not considered to be a little deviation. The most common reasons for the provincial government to remit cases were that the neighbor hearing had not occurred and that the building committee failed in its justification of the decision. Reasons cited by the complainant and the provincial governments reasons for the suspension or referral was consistent in 47% of the cases.

    Overall, the biggest success factors to cited reasons involving measures who is contrary to local plan or defects in the building committees' handling of building permits. As a whole the provincial government are considered to play an important role as a regulator and should therefore not be excluded from the instance chain.

  • 28.
    Dawid, Nahren
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Melvinsdotter, Lena
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Att skydda natur och kulturhistorisk bebyggelse enligt plan- och bygglagen och miljöbalken2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated five districts in the Region Västra Götaland that are working with the protection of natural- and cultural historically interesting settlements within municipal planning through zoning, area regulations, natural-/cultural reserves. At a total, ten plans have been studied, from the municipalities of Alingsås, Göteborg, Härryda, Kungälv and Partille. Five of the plans in this study are formed according to the Planning and Building Act (1987:10), and five of the plans under the Environmental Code ( 1998:808). The municipalities have in most cases sought to conserve, protect and/or develop wildlife, heritage-/ recreational values and outdoor recreation opportunities for the public. The study has been subject to two elements; current plan documents have been examined and interviews were conducted with the administrator in charge for each planning.

    This study shows that there is a vagueness in how the choice of planning method was made and that the municipalities have not considered various alternatives of zoning. The results show that the municipalities mainly use the instrument for detail planning when zoning and that the knowledge of the different alternatives for planning differs between both the officials and the politicians. The officials in this study perceive that politicians do not know much about the various plan forms and that it is the officials that plan and prepare proposals for the politicians. The study finds that the political interest of aim is essential in the creating of preserving plans. If the politicians do not want to protect areas through zoning, nor will resources intended for it be allocated.

    The results show that natural- and cultural reserves provide the best protection for conservation. By the preservation regulations, the municipality can clearly set bans and other restrictions of usufruct/the right of disposition for both party concerned as well as the public. The sanctuary decisions are also demands that there should be a management plan, which is not regulated by law for zoning or area regulations. A reserve decision is also more difficult to repeal compared to zoning and area regulations

  • 29.
    Ekberg, Mattias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Jansson, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Konsekvenser av bristande kvalitet i registerkartans gränsredovisning i skogsmark2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvalitetsbristerna i registerkartan är ett välkänt problem och Lantmäteriet arbetar ständigt för att uppdatera kartan och hitta en lösning på detta problem som är ekonomiskt försvarbar. Trots detta arbete så är bristerna stora på många håll, speciellt på landsbygden och inom skogsmark.

    Denna rapport behandlar konsekvenserna av registerkartans gränsredovisning i skogsmark. Arbetet har skett genom en fältstudie där två fastigheters utmärkta gränser kontrollmättes mot registerkartans angivna gränser. En beräkning av det teorietiska skogsvärdet som hamnar i gränszonen mellan registerkartans gräns och den på marken utmärkta gränsen.

     En schablonmässig beräkning bedömt på hela Sveriges årliga avverkningsareal som ligger inom den gränszon som påverkas av registerkartans brister har gjorts och värdet av virkesvolymerna inom detta gränsland har beräknats.

    En Litteraturstudie har genomförts på den litteratur som berör ämnet. Enkätundersökningar till sakkunniga inom skogsnäringen och samtal med andra sakkunniga personer har skett för att få en inblick i hur registerkartans brister påverkar.

    Skogsnäringen vill inte se detta som ett stort problem som påverkar deras arbete. Även fast fel uppstår p.g.a. brister i deras kartmaterial och utrustning. De vill hellre peka på att gränserna många gånger är för dåligt underhållna av fastighetsägarna och att lantmäteriets prissättning gör att man hellre riskerar att göra fel än att få gränsen bestämd.

  • 30.
    Eklund, Josefin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Kjörk, Ida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Rättigheter för ledningar: en studie av upplåtelseformer för ledningar i Göteborgs Stad2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to expand our knowledge of way-leave and other forms of tenures for conduits and to study how they are adopted in practice. By way of introduction the various forms of tenures; easement, way-leave and different types of usufructs are described. Easement and way-leave are forms of tenures not limited in time, whereas usufructs as leaseholds are limited to longer or shorter periods. This part of the thesis is concluded by a short summary describing the advantages and disadvantages of the different forms of tenure seen from the perspective of the landowner and that of the owner of the conduit. This is followed by a part showing which interests are guarded by the different parties and which form of tenure they prefer. This part is based on interviews with nine representatives from different companies and committees in Gothenburg. Some of the agreements that are in use are also described. During the interviews it became clear that the owner of the conduits main interests lie in reaching agreements that guarantee a long term legal protection at a low-cost and thus they see the advantages of way-leave. Despite this, way-leave is seldom used regarding land owned by the City of Gothenburg since the companies prefer to avoid tenure with compulsory elements. Furthermore the municipality is generally negative towards locking land by allowing rights unlimited in time. The municipality offers usufruct agreements as an alternative. How those are worked out in detail is negotiable and differs from case to case. Even though agreements are often reached they are always compromises. In some exceptional cases agreements have not been established as the parties have been too far apart. Therefore we have come to the conclusion that there is a need for new legislation. There is presently no cross between usufructs, wholly based on voluntary agreements, and way-leave which, in its present form, is problematic since it gives advantages to one on the expense of the other.

  • 31.
    Eklund, Kristin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Detaljplan och naturreservat: En jämförelse mellan två kommunala processer2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reasons as to why nature should be protected and preserved can be explained in its environmental value, cultural value or its value for recreation and outdoor life. According to Swedish legislation valuable nature are of national interest and needs to be protected from various interference like urban planning. Municipalities can protect and preserve valuable nature with the help of two different plans, a development plan or by proclaiming the area a nature reserve.

    This study aims to compare the development plan with the plan for a nature reserve and to find differences and similarities between the two processes. This to answer the question whether Swedish municipalities should use a development plan or a nature reserve when preserving nature sites. The study will use a legal method which involves the usage of legal sources like constitutions and its preparatory work, case-law and legal doctrine.

    As expected, the study shows that the municipalities should protect nature through a nature reserve. The goal of a nature reserve is protecting nature and thus have a focus towards nature and environmental questions. However, besides the obvious, this study has shown that preserving nature through a nature reserve is much more beneficial, both for landowners and for the municipality itself. The landowners participate more in the decision making of a nature reserve than in a development plan. Financially it is also more beneficial since the environmental code, when compared to the planning and building act, has better financial compensation for the restrictions of land usage put on the landowners. For municipalities the benefits can be seen in the fact that the workload with the nature reserve can be constrained to environmental questions and that the municipalities can get state funding. A nature reserve also gives a much stronger protection which ensures the municipalities action if a shift in power would come in place

  • 32.
    Eklund, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Engström, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Preliminärfråga enligt anläggningslagen: En kartläggning av användandet I Västra Götaland, Skåne och Blekinge län 20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines the use of a special procedure whereby preliminary decision according to the Swedish law called "anläggningslagen" is used. Preliminary decision means that the surveyor can take a decision before the joint facility is valuated or technical work has been done. This is recommended if there is an unclear relationship in the location of the joint facilities or if there is a dispute between a number of interest parties leading to a risk of appeal(s). When a joint facility is introduced it is done so by the law "anläggningslagen". In "anläggningslagen", there are opportunities to create joint facilities for a variety of purposes such as roads, parking lots, water and sewage system and more. To create such a joint facility involves an application by an interested party submitted to The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority (Lantmäteriet) which then handles the case in the manner required by law. The report aims to identify the number of cadastral procedures that make use of preliminary decision, and if there are any clear patterns in situations or purposes. Furthermore the study examines the surveyors own opinions about the preliminary decision. And finally a survey is conducted on the form requirements of the preliminary decision and how it is reported in the cadastral documents in which the proceeding has been used.

    The study is limited both geographically and in time to only examine cadastral documents from Västra Götaland, Skåne and Blekinge County in 2014. During the study, a statistical survey and an interview method have been used. The statistical method was chosen to identify the usage of the preliminary decision in Västra Götaland, Skåne and Blekinge County in an easily distinguishable way. The statistical results show that the usage of a preliminary decision is uncommon, and that it is only used in 2.1 % of the cadastral procedures. The study also shows that the most common purpose of a joint facility is roads. The results from the interviews indicates that the aforementioned section regarding preliminary decision is used in the construction of joint facilities to be a way to simplify handling of the cadastral procedures. In addition, the results show that the surveyors that were interviewed experience that the section is used more commonly in complicated cadastral procedures. After studying over 500 cadastral documents, it is to note that there is not a clear way in how the usage of preliminary decision is presented in the cadastral documents.

    The conclusion of the report is that the usage of the preliminary decision is very rare. A well-utilization of the preliminary decision will lead to a simplified and more time-economical management of complex cases. It is used primarily in complex cadastral procedures when the prospect of the procedure is uncertain and in new construction cases. This specific section is perceived as very useful by the authors after the conclusion of the study.

  • 33.
    Ekstorm, Markus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Rex, Olle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Servitut enligt anläggningslagen och fastighetsbildningslagen: En jämförande studie av prövningsförfarandet vid upplåtande av servitut för väg2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through the Joint Facility Act and the Property Formation Act easement for road can be granted. The legislature makes clear that the easement road according to the Joint Facility Act would apply in the case of an independent action for which a property in need of a road for transport to and from the property, and the Property Formation Act would apply when the easement would be granted in connection with a property realloment. There is no explicit restriction to apply the Joint Facility Act in connection with a property reallotment.

    The aim of this study is to investigate how the review procedure is conducted in the individual laws in order to thereby investigate possible similarities and differences. In order to achieve the aim of the study, the legal text, preparatory work and court cases is examined. In order to interpret what the legislature intended and when the laws should be applied. Thereafter the cadastral files where reviewed and interviews with cadastral surveyors were conducted. This in order to compare how the laws are meant to be applied and how they are applied by cadastral surveyors.

    To answer the study questions three different methods has been applied. The applied methods are qualitative -, quantitative- and legal method. The files have been reviewed and the interviews that have been conducted have been limited to Västra Götaland, primarily to facilitate conduction of the interviews in person.

    After completing the analysis of the legal text and its legislative history the study came to the conclusion that the condition "essential importance" in the Joint Facility Act is an optional provision. The study shows that of 47 joint facility files, 31 were are based on an agreement and "essential importance" was motivated in 20 of these 31 acts. This is not really needed according to the conclusion of the legal text. In all the remaining 16 joint facility files "essential meaning" is motivated. Of the 50 property reallotment files that was reviewed "essential meaning" was motivated in 27 files. The interviews showed that all the respondents were of the opinion that "essential importance" is always to be tried regardless of the legislation and is to be viewed as the same condition.

    In summary, the study indicates that there is a difference between how the two acts should be applied and how it is actually applied by the cadastral surveyors. The application of the two laws by the cadastral surveyors is very similar.

  • 34.
    Elisson, Niklas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Dahlberg, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Simuleringsmodell för flaskhalsidentifiering i produktionsflöde2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists at the Production Technology Centre, PTC, in Trollhättan have read about an unusual method to identify bottlenecks in industrial production. The method is called Shifting bottleneck detection and measures for how long a machine has been active. The machine with the longest active time is the temporarily bottleneck and the machine that has the total highest percentage as bottleneck during a specific period of time is the bottleneck that the company should invest their resources in.

    The purpose of this bachelor study is to demonstrate the possibilities with a bottleneck identification system. This was done through simulations in a program called Plant Simulation.

    Parallel with the study another more practical project progressed on a production line in the workshop at PTC. The production line was used as a base and all the data was gathered on this line. The data was later used to create a copy of the production line in the simulation program. It was called Basmodellen and used as base for the experiments.

    The study resulted in a manual analyze of the chosen method to identify bottlenecks. The simulation program was not capable of capturing the data required to create an automatically analyze of the shifting bottleneck detection. The result of the manual analyze indicated that the method worked as intended and was able to identify bottlenecks.

    A simple prototype was made for future work. It describes the possible stages that a program could have to get the analyze of the shifting bottleneck detection automatic. The prototype will basis for further research in shifting bottleneck detection

  • 35.
    Elmersson, Åsa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Grafström, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Småhusbyggande i marknadssvaga Götalandskommuner: En studie i hur mycket det byggs och hur det finansieras2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige räknas till blandekonomierna. Blandekonomin har sin utgångspunkt i marknadsekonomin men staten reglerar marknaden till viss del. Detta gäller också för bostadsmarknaden. Så utgångspunkten är således att marknaden ska styra priset på småhus genom tillgång och efterfrågan. Det är ena sidan. Den andra sidan är regleringarna. När det kommer till bostäder är det till exempel bolånetaket och amorteringskravet. Bolånetaket utgår från bedömt marknadsvärde. Är det ett begagnat hus räknas som regel försäljningspriset som marknadsvärde medan det i de fall det är ett helt nytt hus görs en förhandsvärdering inför byggnationen. Maximalt kan 85 procent av marknadsvärdet belånas, med fastigheten som säkerhet, för att finansiera ett husköp eller en nybyggnation. På attraktiva marknader är detta sällan något problem eftersom marknadsvärdet på nybyggnationerna oftast är högre än kostnaderna för att bygga huset. Men hur är det då i områden där det inte är så, utan där produktionskostnaderna istället ofta är högre än det förväntade marknadsvärdet? Rent teoretiskt borde det inte kunna byggas småhus i dessa områden med annat än att de som bygger satsar eget kapital och/eller lägger ner mycket eget arbete. Är det så verkligheten ser ut eller lånar bankerna trots allt ut pengar? Och byggs det några småhus överhuvudtaget i dessa områden? Med breda penseldrag har detta undersökts. Urvalet för studien är de femton kommuner i Götaland med lägst Tobins q-värde, det vill säga hade sämst relation i kvoten marknadspris på en befintlig bostad genom den totala produktionskostnaden för en likartad bostad ur Boverkets lista för år 2012. I studien har bygglovsstatistiken i undersökningskommunerna och jämförelsekommunerna studerats. Rapporten visar att det relativt sett byggs färre småhus i de undersökta kommunerna. I de femton undersökta kommunerna med svaga bostadsmarknader är medianvärdet 0,20 beviljade bygglov per tusen invånare. Motsvarande siffra för de tio mest folkrikaste kommunerna i Götaland är 0,69, nästan 3,5 gånger mer under samma år. Studien har också undersökt den teoretiska lönsamheten på de platser där bygglov utfärdats i de studerade kommunerna. En teoretisk produktionskostnad har antagits och en modell skapats för att kunna massvärdera samtliga bygglov med hjälp av taxeringsvärden. Resultatet med den här modellen ger att i 87 procent av fallen går det inte med säkerhet att säga att nybyggnationen är ekonomiskt lönsam vid färdigställandet. Slutligen har studien även undersökt hur nybyggnationerna finansieras genom att inteckningsbeloppen för varje nybyggt småhus har granskats. Av de nybyggnationer där interimistiskt slutbesked eller slutbesked har erhållits visar det sig att 20 procent av nybyggnationerna inte har några inteckningar alls och således har finansierats på annat sätt än genom lån med huset som säkerhet. Bedöms istället, utifrån datamaterialet, den teoretiska produktionskostnaden i förhållande till ett uppskattat marknadsvärde är knappt 50 procent av dessa nybyggnationer helt bankfinansierade. Således är cirka 30 procent av nybyggnationerna sannolikt delvis bankfinansierade. Även tecken på övervärdering av nya bostäder har uppmärksammats.

  • 36.
    Engblom, Tove
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Gunnarsson, Lisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lovet på landet: En rättsdogmatisk studie av 9 kap. 6 § PBL2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the older planning and building act was replaced in 2011 by todays planning and building act, the paragraph regulating permits exempt buildings actions received some linguistic updates. The updates where intended to simplify and update the interpretation. Any changes in the countryside in how this was supposed to be interpreted was not intended. This thesis examines how multiple Swedish municipalities interpret the permits exempt buildings according to 9 chap. 6 § planning and building act. The examination was done with a survey sent to all Swedish municipalities, which was then put together and the results where compared. To be able to decide if the municipalities have been making correct interpretations this thesis have also made a thorough legal examination of the law and preliminary work.

    9 chap. 6 § planning and building act is a complicated paragraph and cannot be interpreted without reading the preparatory work. Unfortunately, just reading the propositions to the planning and building act is not enough. The preparatory work for older planning and building act must also be read to fully grasp the meaning of the law. The paragraph has gone through multiple updates since 1987, therefor the information has been spread out.

    The permits exempt buildings in this paragraph is aimed at property owners owning houses with one or two families in the countryside that want to erect a small extension for the house or a complimentary building adjacent to the main building. The condition is that there is a house on the property and that the building is of a complementary nature to not dominate over the actual main house. The property owner does not need to report to or consult with the municipality but is rather supposed to judge if the rules are applicable for them self.T

    hat the average citizen, without basic legal education, is supposed to be able to interpret a complicated paragraph like this is troublesome. The consequence of a misjudgement is expensive. Unfortunately, there is not a lot of guidance to be had from the municipalities since our survey shows that almost all Building Department are making incorrect decisions based on interpreting the paragraph incorrectly.

    This thesis shines a light on the problem with assigning a complicated paragraph to be interpreted by the property owners. Furthermore, allowing the municipalities to make their own regulations regarding the interpretation of the law, without accountability to superior government agencies does not make the problems fewer. Our conclusion with this thesis results in that better guidance and stricter demands on the municipalities must be enacted to not place too big of a responsibility on the individual citizen.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Laserskanning i antikollisionsanalyser för konstruktioner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been carried out in collaboration with Maersk Oil. Their mission for me was to develop a standard to check that their CAD models match the data that has been generated by laser scanned point clouds. The models are used in simulations of structures that are to be joined, and avoiding a collision when the structures physically are joined together.

    After an item has been scanned with a laser scanner raw data will be acquired in the form of a point cloud. Once the point cloud afterwards is exported to a construction program which can perform these simulations, the client are not entirely sure if the raw data coming into the construction program without any defects.

    The work has progressed through various stages, including the study of the market, field work with data collection, coordination of interviews and contacts with various suppliers and specialists in the field.

    The report contains a basic knowledge of software and laser scanning and a recommendation to use the software Geomagic Qualify to verify that the models are consistent with the actual structures.

  • 38.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad AMin
    KTH.
    Two-epoch doptimal design of displacement monitoring networks2015In: Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas, ISSN 1413-4853, E-ISSN 1982-2170, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 484-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the traditional method of optimal design of displacement monitoring networks a higher precision, times better than the desired accuracy of displacements, is considered for the net points in such a way that the accuracy of the detected displacements meets the desired one. However, in this paper, we develop an alternative method by considering the total number of observations in two epochs without such a simple assumption and we call it two-epoch optimisation. This method is developed based on the Gauss-Helmert adjustment model and the variances of the observations are estimated instead of the weights to optimise the observation plan. This method can deliver the same results as the traditional one, but with less required observations in each epoch

  • 39.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Alizadeh-Khameneh, Mohammad. Amin
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    The effect of constraints on bi-objective optimisation of geodetic networks2015In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, ISSN 1217-8977, E-ISSN 1587-1037, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 449-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the problems in the single-objective optimisation models (SOOMs) for optimising geodetic networks is the contradiction of the controlling constraints, which may lead to their violation or infeasibility in the optimisation process. One way to solve this problem is to use a bi-objective optimisation model (BOOM) instead of SOOMs. In this paper, we will use the BOOM of precision and reliability and investigate the influence of the controlling constraints in a two-dimensional simulated network. Our studies show that the unconstrained BOOM is a good model, which almost fulfils our precision and reliability demands of the network. This model is also economical as more observables are removed from the plan whilst adding the controlling constraints leads to including more observables, which have no significant role

  • 40.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johansson, Filippa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Karlsson, Lenita
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Horemuz, Milan
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A case study on displacement analysis of Vasa warship2018In: Journal of Geodetic Science, ISSN 2081-9919, E-ISSN 2081-9943, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring deformation of man-made structures is very important to prevent them from a risk of collapse and save lives. Such a process is also used for monitoring change in historical objects, which are deforming continuously with time. An example of this is the Vasa warship, which was under water for about 300 years. The ship was raised from the bottom of the sea and is kept in the Vasa museum in Stockholm. A geodetic network with points on the museum building and the ship's body has been established and measured for 12 years for monitoring the ship's deformation. The coordinate time series of each point on the ship and their uncertainties have been estimated epoch-wisely. In this paper, our goal is to statistically analyse the ship's hull movements. By fitting a quadratic polynomial to the coordinate time series of each point of the hull, its acceleration and velocity are estimated. In addition, their significance is tested by comparing them with their respective estimated errors after the fitting. Our numerical investigations show that the backside of the ship, having highest elevation and slope, has moved vertically faster than the other places by a velocity and an acceleration of about 2 mm/year and 0.1 mm/year2, respectively and this part of the ship is the weakest with a higher risk of collapse. The central parts of the ship are more stable as the ship hull is almost vertical and closer to the floor. Generally, the hull is moving towards its port and downwards

  • 41.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Ramin, Kiamehr
    Division of Geodesy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    A strategy for optimum designing of the geodetic networks from the cost, reliability and precision views2007In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, ISSN 1217-8977, E-ISSN 1587-1037, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 297-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different criteria for designing a geodetic network in an optimal way.An optimum network can be regarded as a network having high precision, reliabilityand low cost. Accordingly, corresponding to these criteria different single-objectivemodels can be defined. Each one can be subjected to two other criteria as constraints.Sometimes the constraints can be contradictory so that some of the constraints areviolated. In this contribution, these models are mathematically reviewed. It is numericallyshown how to prepare these mathematical models for optimization processthrough a simulated network. We found that the reliability model yields small positionchanges between those obtained using precision respectively. Elimination ofsome observations may happen using precision and cost model while the reliabilitymodel tries to save number of observations. In our numerical studies, no contradictionscan be seen in reliability model and this model

  • 42.
    Ewenborg, Linus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Hellgren, Marcus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    3D-objekt i Sverige: var och varför?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since a number of years, it is possible to form so called 3D-objects in Sweden. It is three- dimensional properties that represent closed volumes and is thus separated both horizontally and vertically. It is in contrast to traditional real estate with only horizontal boundaries (on the ground) and lacks demarcation up and down. The property types that fall under the category of 3D-objects is 3D-properties, condominiums and 3D- communities.

    This study was aimed to geographically identify the number of 3D-objects in Sweden and the distribution of 3D-object's uses and explain the advantages and disadvantages of three- dimensional property entails based on opinions from professional actors. The survey is about these professional actors view on 3D-objects and not an objective valuation from the writers.

    To implement the study all Swedish 3D-objects were identified in number by municipality and uses by county, which was based on the extraction of 3D-objects in the land registry. The mapping of the number served as a basis for selection of 20 municipalities to a survey which sought through contact with surveyors and developers working in the field examine their thoughts about the pros and cons three-dimensional property entails.

    From the mapping, it was clear that 3D-properties (those that are not condominiums) are formed in municipalities with larger cities such as Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö, which could be explained by the larger population in these cities. Condominiums are not as tied to urban areas, several smaller municipalities have numerous condominiums which make up a rather large portion of the total number. In communities that have large number condominiums they are most often formed in few units with large numbers in each. Many condominiums are located near the Norwegian border in communities such as Tanum, Dals-Ed and Sotenäs where they meet a norwegian demand. That communities such as Kristianstad and Örnsköldsvik has got condominiums can't be explained more than it has happened randomly and they stand out in the statistic because of the low total number of condominiums. 3D-communities have proven to be a rare phenomenon of which only a few exist today and are formed exclusively in connection with condominiums. The 3D-objects formed are mostly centered to the same area, which is located in the municipal seat. The mapping over use showed that condominium units and rental units are by far the most common uses of 3D-objects. Of 1643 3D-objects in Sweden 930 of them are condominium units and 487 rental units, which represent 87 % of the total.

  • 43.
    Falck, Thedor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Eliasson, Thord
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Regionala skillnader i anslutningen till gemensamhetsanläggningar: Med fokus på 42 a och 43 § i anläggningslagen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1973, when the Swedish equivalent to the joint facilities act (anläggningslagen [AL] 1973:1149) was signed into law, co-owners of jointly owned facilities have had the ability to enter, exit or change their properties share in these facilities by themselves through a mutual agreement. This agreement must be approved by the Swedish National Land Survey (Lantmäteriet), and is used for avoiding an otherwise necessary, though costly and time consuming, reappraisal of the entire facility, in accordance with AL § 35.

    In 1998 AL was changed to include § 42 a, which now allowed surveyors to decide who should enter, exit or change shares. This is done within a land survey ordinance and only for pre-existing joint facilities.

    Both sections of the law act as measures used instead of reappraisals. Usually, an agreement between property owners is the preferred method during land surveys, but Swedish law dictates that the cheapest, most efficient alternative is to be chosen at all times. The purpose of this essay is to map out whether or not there are any regional differences in the usage of § 42 a and § 43, as well as any potential reasons as to why this happens. The essay is also meant to give a glimpse into if the co-owners of these facilities are reimbursed, as well as what type of joint facilities are usually subjected to these changes in members and shares. The bulk of this investigation has been done using a combination of quantitative research and legal methodology, with some elements of qualitative research. All executory acts containing a decision based on § 43 or § 42 a between 1998 and 2014 from 11 counties have been included in the resulting statistics. Out of these acts, 221 of them have been subjected to closer investigation in order to answer questions relating to reimbursement and facility management, as well as type of joint facility.

    The results show a large difference in what section is favoured by what county, as well as differing approaches to these sections between municipalities. As an example, 69 % of all executory acts in Västra Götaland between 1998 and 2014, where these sections where applied, used § 43. Meanwhile, In Stockholm County, 66 % of the acts within the same time period applied § 42 a. The surveyors in the municipalities within the counties gave entirely different reasons for why they work in the manner of which they do: Surveyors in Gothenburg claims that they wish to "encourage understanding" (and therefore agreements), meanwhile, surveyors in Stockholm claimed that all they do depends upon the specific circumstances of the case in question. Reimbursements were deemed unusual, only 26 % of all acts contained demands for it, regardless of which section was used. The type of joint facility was also very uniform, 70 % of them were primarily formed to manage jointly owned roads.

    The reasons for why these regional differences occur are still unclear. The suspicion is a tradition within each county, where different cultures within the offices dominate and result in different approaches to each section of the law. A larger investigation into the matter with a greater focus on qualitative research, interviews with surveyors and inquiries into different surveying offices is needed to confirm this.

  • 44.
    Forsberg, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Olausson, Lisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Gemensamhetsanläggning: Fastighetsrättsliga problem när mark försvinner på grund av erosion2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gothenburg City is in a big development phase where a lot will happen the next years to meet the City’s future need. The old shipbuilding industry in Eriksberg has been transformed into a flourishing residential area belonging to a popular place to settle in the city. Many of the public areas in Eriksberg are attended by the property owners as jointly-owned facilities. The fact that the houses are located next to the sea makes the area attractive but at the same time it also means a climate which effect the environment. In the area it is high risk of erosion and today has the ground in some places erode away and given damage on jointly-owned facilities.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the legal implications when the ground under a joint-owned facility eroding away. The problem is new and to keep joint-owned facility as an attractive way to corporate for common needs and develop areas next to water it is of interest to investigate in this problem. In order to investigate the legal implications has a case study been done, where the legal method mainly has been used. The case study has been made over Eriksberg where the problem first was highlighted. The result of the study is a product of subjective interpretation of the authors. Legal case and former studies concerning the subject strengthens the author's interpretation and the study's credibility.

    The study shows that the conditions surrounding a joint-owned facility should be properly investigated in order to assess the legal implications. The study has resulted in significant aspects to investigate the question is whether there is any agreement about positive achieve-ments, where the line between construction and real estate are and how the land under the facility is built. In order to prevent future disputes about the problem requires a strict work process in the establishment of joint-owned facilities and clear construction decision. The study concludes that the positive achievements of the easement should be avoided and that the neighbour law rules should apply to the parties involved in a joint facility. This means that there is a responsibility to prevent nuisance to their neighbours. Failure to follow the law is an obligation to be accountable for the damage suffered. A municipality has a responsibility to control land use in the most appropriate manner, the neglect from this municipality can be held liable for damages. Swedish surveying authority has a responsibility to act and advise in the selection of land and its principal responsibility.

  • 45.
    Fransson, Sanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Olovligt nyttjande av kommunal mark: Kommunens hantering av olovliga överträdelser2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All land in Sweden is divided into properties and is part of society's infrastructure. Each property has a unique designation and is bounded by a property boundary marked with boundary points. All properties also have one or more owners. The state, county councils, municipalities and individuals can all be owners of properties. The municipality has a role in society as both property owner and authority. Land use in Sweden is governed by Sweden's municipalities through various planning procedures. The largest land areas that the municipality owns are within urban areas where most of the land is local planned. Both the individual and the general interests should be merged about the surfaces for an appropriate use of the land. The municipality as a property owner handles cases where individuals use municipal land unlawfully for private purposes. Interviews have been completed to take part of the municipalities' experiences of unlawful use of municipal land. Examples of noncompliances that occur on municipal land are hedges, garden furniture, compost, waste or buildings. The biggest consequence is that the public places are privatized. The public has the right to stay on someone else's land according to the right of public access and can temporarily use public space for individual purposes if permission exists. If municipal land is used unlawfully for individual purposes, the municipality can use legal measures to deal with the problem. Depending on the type of non-compliances and where it occur, there are several different laws and regulations to relate to. It can be distinguished from newspaper articles and publications on municipal websites that the problem has been around for a long time but has now begun to be discovered more and more by the municipalities. The participating municipalities confirm that unlawful use of municipal land occurs. The phenomenon is perceived more or less as a problem in the various municipalities. The result has also shown that the problem is handled differently and makes it difficult to fulfill the principle of equal treatment. There are no clear guidelines in several of the municipalities for handling such cases. Part of the problem can be reduced already in the planning work if detailed plans are developed with well-thought out surfaces and clear boundaries for public space. At present, large additional resources are required if a municipality is to deal with the problem seriously.

  • 46.
    Freiholtz, Maria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Skredriskhantering i utvalda kommuner2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify and describe the legal framework governing local government work on landslide prevention. This purpose is supported by two issues; which legal framework municipalities have to relate to the risk of landslide management. And plan strategies used in the prevention of landslides?

    The study is restricted to only discuss three municipalities. Focus is on the time before a landslide takes place and is reported from a municipal perspective. There are two selected method, which implies both interviews of semi-structured nature and literature studies. The approaching method was to collect data, sifting of the material and the compilation of results. In the theory section four important background topics are presents and the aim is to provide a basic picture of the landslide problem in society. The interdisciplinary subjects in this study are geological conditions, historical landslides in the Göta älvdalen, climate change and geotechnic.

    The result chapter consists of two parts. The first is called Legal Framework and contains a survey of the laws that impact on landslide prevention. The laws presented are The Swedish Law of Planning and Building Act, the Law of Environmental Code, the Law on Protection against Accidents, the Law on municipalities and county measures before and during extraordinary events in times of peace and times of alert, the Law of Expropriation and the Law of Indemnity. The second part of the result is called Municipal strategies and it´s practical approach on landslide prevention. The chapter concludes with a result analysis that compiles the responses emerged. This is followed by a discussion section that contains a valuation of forward originated responses and report successes as well as shortcomings in the work. In the conclusion reported responses are coupled together with the problems presented in the beginning of the study. The underlying purpose and issues are also answered here. There is also an evaluation of past results, and reflections on what could have been done differently. Several interesting aspects not covered in this study is reported and suggested as future works. Finally, the study report sources as well as several appendices necessary to increase reader's understanding of the study

  • 47.
    Grahn, Peter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Överföring och frigörande av fastighetstillbehör: Skillnader i användandet av frigörande och överföring av fastighetstillbehör inom förrättningsverksamheten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden consists of over 3.2 million real properties and an even greater number property accessories such as buildings and facilities. The majority of the properties are located directly on the ground. In addition three-dimensional real estate properties exist. These are situated below or under the ground level, making it possible to several layers of real properties that are vertically distributed.

    The community is continuously progressing through development of properties that are being newly created and transformed. One imperative part of the government controlled real estate development is to strive to achieve the highest and best use for each parcel of land. A facility could be included as part of a property accessory to a property, which prior to the legislative amendment in 2002, only could be transferred if it was removed from the main property. After long time of pressure from the citizens, the government decided to proceed and appoint a legal task force to investigate if a legislative amendment could be beneficial separating a property accessories from main properties. The legislative amendment was executed Jan 1st 2002 and provided a completely new possibility to transfer and to release property accessories.

    In order to investigate what the underlying bias was, the ordinance acts was reviewed and notes were taken regarding whom had requested the measure. In conjunction to the statistical analysis, five interviews were conducted. The interviews served to provide a better understanding to how the quantity surveyors experienced the legislation. In addition, data that were not recorded in the acts, were collected through the interviews.

    The result shows that cadastral surveyors are experiencing that the majority of the real estate developers are not aware how to, transfer, and to release, property accessories from the main properties. In most cases, the quantity surveyor will need to inform and teach the real estate developer about the possibility. Neither does the quantity surveyors experience it to be complicated to use the legislative tool. The shortcoming lies within the single individual professional that does not possess the knowledge of how to use the tool.

  • 48.
    Granfeldt, Adam
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Liten avvikelse från detaljplan: en översiktlig studie i Västra Götaland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building permit is applied for a detailed development plan area, the basic principle will be that the detailed provisions of the plan should be followed. But there is a possibility to derogate from the basic principle and applying a small deviation from the detail plan. A small deviation may be taken from the detailed provisions of the plan, if the deviation is consistent with the detailed plan's purpose and the deviation is small or limited. The deviation have to be necessary for the use of the building. Since there is no exact limit to what is a small or large deviation, the slight deviation will be interpreted and viewed in different ways. The consequence is that municipalities may have different attitudes and tolerances to what a small deviation is.

    The purpose of the study is to comprehensively see how the municipalities in Västra Götaland handle small deviation from the detailed development plan and how it is used in practice. To perform the study, the following answers been issued: How is the size of a small deviation decided? How do the municipalities interpret a small deviation? What type of deviations are made? How important is the detailed plan's age when small deviation are approved?

    To answer the purpose of the study, interviews were carried out with seven municipalities within Västra Götaland, along with the review of the planning permission decision in one of the municipalities for an entire year. What the study has come up with was that there's no limit to what is a small deviation. Small deviations from the detail plan are handled and interpreted differently in municipalities. What distinguishes the municipalities is the size of deviations accepted and mindset when the deviations are be approved. Neighbors might have a large impact on the building permit when a small deviation is allowed. If the neighbors doesn't oppose the small deviation the chance of approval is increased. The most common type of deviation used is placement of buildings fully or partially on land marked as dotted (dotted = not to be built on according to the detail development plan). The result of the study does also show that the age of the detail development plans are of significands for deviations made. It is harder to get an approval of a small deviation on newer detail plan than on an older plan.

  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jägerev, André
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Strandfastigheters gränser: En studie av gränser i vatten.2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water areas and beaches were during the 18- and 19 century's very low graded (waste land) because it was not possible to grow any crops on the grounds. The same properties are today highly regarded real-estate. People buy beach front properties as summer homes or as permanent living, in a low stress environment. Because of this, the establishment of the estates boundaries can create problems when new beach front properties are created. The problems are usually linked to where the land boundaries really are located and where the property-owners consider it to be. To establish where the boundaries really are located the surveyor must perform a thorough archival research on the original property.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the establishments of the estates boundaries are performed today. Questions to answer are: How are the boundaries' established legally? How accurate are the boundaries in water areas, and have the uncertainty of the 3 meter depth curve any influence on the boundaries? Can the bathymetric laserscanner, compared with the current method, be a suitable method to establish the boundaries of beach front properties?

    The method selected in this study was qualitative interviews. The interviews were performed with experienced people from the Swedish "Lantmäteriet" and the company Airborne Hydrography AB.

    The theory was divided in three parts. Part one addresses "Lantmäteriets" role and workings with creating beach front property. Part two addresses the laws involved in creating beach front property. Part three addresses bathymetric laserscanning and the technical accuracy the instrument are capable of.

    The result shows that the accuracy of the boundaries in water areas are difficult to assess due to lack of references that often are missing and the shoreline is hard to locate. Laserbatymetri can in certain cases have a positive effect on beach front properties boundaries border setting in water areas and help the surveyor. The conclusion is that the surveyor must undertake an extensive archival research to find the shoreline and it is more difficult the older the original properties are. By examining the current method of establishing these boundaries and mix the result with the bathymetric laserscanning method the authors found a possible solution for the uncertain boundaries of water areas. The shoreline, 300meters boundary line and where the 3 meters depth curve is located

  • 50.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Rättslig reglering av enskilda vägar med fokus på kostnadsansvarets utformning och tillämpning2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De enskilda vägarna utgör ungefär 75 % av alla vägar i Sverige och 60 % av landets gemensamhetsanläggningarinnehåller vägar. Drift och underhållskostnader för enskilda vägar fördelasgenom att de deltagande fastigheterna har andelstal i gemensamhetsanläggningen.Syftet med rapporten har varit att undersöka hur kostnadsfördelningen i samfällighetsföreningarför vägändamål fungerar i teorin och i praktiken.En litteraturstudie ligger till grund för teoridelen i avsnitt 2 och 3 där tidigare och nuvarandelagstiftning beskrivs. Fokus har lagts på frågor som rör enskilda vägar och kostnader, ersättningarsamt ändrade förhållanden för dessa. Ett antal samfällighetsföreningar för vägändamålhar undersökts och kontaktats för att få reda på hur de ser på systemet för kostnadsfördelningoch hur det fungerar.Resultatet av arbetet visar att de undersökta föreningarna anser att systemet för att fördelakostnader fungerar bra och i allmänhet anses som rättvist. I hälften av föreningarna hadeförutsättningarna ändrats på sätt som gjorde att andelstalen ändrades. Oftast var det pågrund av ändrad användning av fastigheter eller ändrad fastighetsindelning.Endast i ett fåtal fall hade föreningarna haft problem med utebliven betalning från medlemmarna.

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