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  • 1.
    Abdulhasan, Zaid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Al-Zurbatee, Hawraa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Drönarens utvecklingsmöjligheter tillkostnadseffektiv kartframställning2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) or drone as it is called in modern day language, is an unmanned aircraft. The first time it has been used was in the military. During the past years, the use of UAS has been more common. It is because of this engineering that the collection of data is possible. The drones themselves are equipped with cameras. The collection of data happens when the cameras take pictures on top of the ground level during the flight.The aim of this study is to find pros and cons about UAS photography during map making and tofind out if this engineering could replace or complement the traditional way of map making. The RMS value (also known as Root Mean Square value) varies between different screening and that could be due to different factors. Some of the factors could be what type of ground it is, asphalt and gravel, flight height, or one could investigate which type and size of support dots that has been used, the weather and so on. The two last examples could affect the precision of the measurements. The result of this study is that UAS-photography could replace or complement the traditional mapmaking methods. This study has through different scientific articles and earlier studies with the help of UAS photography been able to make map making more effective. The total time for these measurements were very short compared to the traditional measurements. This could bring a faster map making via UAS-photography. The precision in the experiment has been approved by the HMK-recommendations that are 5 centimeters

  • 2.
    Abdulla, Zine
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Varför blir inte detaljplanelagd mark för bostadsändamål bebyggd?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Boverket's housing market survey 2018, which is a result of a national survey of the housing market in Sweden, there is a deficit in housing in 243 of Sweden's 290 municipalities. In order to meet increased demand for housing, increased housing construction is needed. Detailed development plans govern the rights, construction rights, which indicate what and to what extent property owners can build land. Detailed development plans are the legally binding documents that are established and adopted by municipalities in order to determine, among others, the use of land and water areas. There are several reasons for housing shortage and one is that Sweden's population continues to increase, both due to natural population growth and because of immigration. A growing population entails, for instance, an increase in housing demand, which in turn places demands on the housing market. The demand and supply of housing need to match each other. Another reason is that today it is the private sector that accounts for the majority of housing supply. The private sector does not have the responsibility that municipalities have in terms of meeting the residents' housing needs. The private actors intend to make a profit. Consequently, privately owned construction and housing companies build when it is economically beneficial and not just because there is a housing requirement. Due to the fact that there are still housing shortages in most municipalities, which is problematic, it is interesting to investigate which factors are important for housing construction.

    Current detailed development plans for housing purposes were studied. The detailed development plans that had not been implemented were used as starting material during interviews with relevant actors.

    The purpose of the study was to try to find out what factors affect the fact that detailed development plan land for housing purposes is not built.

    The study's results show that among the factors it is primarily the market situation, high business activity and recession, which affect whether housing construction is going to start or not. There are also factors such as construction law handling times that affect how soon a residential building can get started.

    The conclusion of the study was, among other things, that the market situation seems to be the most influential factor and because the market is governed by profit-dependent players, supply and demand will not always meet. Other conclusions that were drawn were that what is being built is not what is requested and that the building permits take longer than is required by plan- och bygglagen.

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  • 3.
    Ahonen, Patricia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Heimdal, Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Samordnat planförfarande: en förenkling?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The coordinated planning procedure regulates how consultation, announcement and review can be simplified and coordinated with a case that is examined according to the Road Act or the Rail Construction Act. A coordinated planning procedure was introduced in the Planning and Building Act on 1 January 2015. Previously, the procedure has been regulated as a simple procedure. The simple procedure was introduced in the new Planning and Building Act in 2011 after investigations and preparatory work found that a simpler planning process is needed to streamline construction and speed up social development. The opportunity for simplification should also help to avoid double work and double testing. In order to apply the procedure, certain requirements are set. If the requirements are met, the municipality can skip consultations and, in some cases, also use the environmental impact assessment that is produced in the road or railways plan. When amending the Road Act and the Railway Construction Act in 2013, the corresponding simplification and coordination provisions were also introduced in these. However, the study shows that the Swedish Transport Administration cannot simplify the consultation in the same way as the municipalities and that it is difficult for the Swedish Transport Administration to make use of an environmental impact assessment that has been produced by the municipality. The study is based on answers from surveys sent out to municipalities and the Swedish Transport Administration as well as interviews. The answers from the surveys show that the knowledge of the procedure is very low both at the municipality and at the Swedish Transport Administration. A few respondents indicate that they have used the procedure and have different views on the advantages and disadvantages of the procedure. From the study we have found that coordinated planning is difficult to apply, which means that it is rarely used. The study shows that more general coordination is used as the parties see advantages in sharing investigations and in some cases also trying to hold joint consultations in order to increase public understanding and avoid double messages. It can be stated that the municipal planning process and the planning process for state infrastructure differ both in process and time, which is the main reason why coordinated planning procedure sounds nice but is difficult to apply.

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  • 4.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH.
    Optimisation of Lilla Edet Landslide GPS Monitoring Network2015In: Journal of Geodetic Science, ISSN 2081-9919, E-ISSN 2081-9943, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the year 2000, some periodic investigations have been performed in the Lilla Edet region to monitor and possibly determine the landslide of the area with GPS measurements. The responsible consultant has conducted this project by setting up some stable stations for GPS receivers in the risky areas of Lilla Edet and measured the independent baselines amongst the stations according to their observation plan. Here, we optimise the existing surveying network and determine the optimal configuration of the observation plan based on different criteria.We aim to optimise the current network to become sensitive to detect 5 mm possible displacements in each net point. The network quality criteria of precision, reliability and cost are used as object functions to perform single-, bi- and multi-objective optimisation models. It has been shown in the results that the single-objective model of reliability, which is constrained to the precision, provides much higher precision than the defined criterion by preserving almost all of the observations. However, in this study, the multi-objective model can fulfil all the mentioned quality criteria of the network by 17% less measurements than the original observation plan, meaning 17%of saving time, cost and effort in the project.

  • 5.
    Alizadeh-Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Jensen, Anna O.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Optimization of deformation monitoring networks using finite element strain analysis2018In: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i. e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point. © 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

  • 6.
    Andersen Engstrand, Matilda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommuners uppföljning av åtaganden i exploateringsavtal2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Land development agreement is an agreement for the implementation of a detailed plan that regulates the financial and practical issues required for implementation. The parties involved are the municipality, as a planning authority, and a private property owner who wishes to develop their property, a developer. The Contract Act and the Freedom of Contract are basically at hand, but the contents of the development agreement are regulated to some extent in the Planning and Building Act. The municipality as an authority must also relate to the public law, such as the Local Government Act, the Public Procurement Act and the EU state aid rules.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate to what extent, and with what methods, the municipalities are working on monitoring commitments in development contracts. Material has since been collected through surveys to all of Sweden's municipalities and in-depth interviews with two selected municipalities.

    80 replies were received on the questionnaires. It showed that 68.8% did not consider themselves to have a routine for general follow-up of commitments in land development contracts. The majority of those who considered themselves to have a routine stated "project leader follows up" or "continuous follow-up" as the current routine. On specific issues concerning follow-up of property formation and financial security, the municipalities considered to a greater extent routine for follow-up. Real estate development stated that the municipalities were able to secure by applying for a settlement themselves in cases where it was a municipal matter. Financial security ensures the municipalities primarily by requiring security before signing contracts, or the project manager is responsible for the follow-up.

    With detailed development plans where the property owners build and maintain the publically accessible places, some municipalities felt that there was more to follow up, some that less follow-up takes place.

    The two interviewed municipalities described how the project manager's routine for follow-up can work and that they both work actively with follow-up.

    The conclusion is that some municipalities are actively working on follow-up of commitments, but that there are a lot of shortcomings. Some municipalities do not seem to work actively with the follow-up. Among these municipalities are many of those who write zero or very few agreements annually, but also several municipalities that write many agreements annually.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Anna-Lotta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, Emelie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Att neka rivningslov enligt PBL 9 kap. 34 § 22020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To protect culturally valuable buildings from demolition Planning and Building Act chapter 9 section 34 p. 2 is used if the building is located within the detailed development plan or area regulations. Preparatory work on the section is clear that what is defined as cultural history must be decided regarding local considerations. When an application for demolition permit is submitted to the municipality, it must be tested against Planning and Building Act chapter 9 section 34 p. 2. To deny demolition, the building must meet the cultural heritage prerequisite. The cultural-historical value may be the building itself or the overall environment the building is part of. To prove the cultural-historical value, statements from museums, cultural inventories, private companies with building antiquarian competence and the municipality's own plans are used.

    The municipalities' cultural history plans and programs are not always updated, which places higher demand on the knowledge of culturally valuable buildings in the municipal's officials. The study indicates that there is a varying level of knowledge among the officials who participated in the survey, in some cases there are misinterpretations of the law. It is not possible to deduce the level of knowledge neither to education nor experience in the profession. When the officials knowledge is not sufficient municipalities make desitions in conflict with the intentions of the law. The competence of conservation officers is of good help for the building committee in assessing the cultural historical value of a buildning. Municipalities should update and expand the inventory of culturally valuable buildings to be able to make qualified assesments when it comes to denying or granting demolition permits.

    This study shows deficiencies in the municipality's information to property owners about their rights to compensation in the event of a denied demolition permit. Furthermore, it is unusual for municipalities to budget for this compensation. It is difficult to determine why the municipality's lack in information to property owners and whether the lack of budget leads to deficient information. However, the fact remains, the municipality is obliged to compensate the property owner if the damage of the refused demolition permit meets the qualification, significant damage in relation to the value of the affected part of the property.

    The legislation is clear, but the knowledge needs to be spread among Sweden's municipalities in order to enable the preservation of culturally valuable buildings.

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Ahl, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Täktverksamhet: En undersökning av beslut om avgifter och nedsättning2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att utreda huruvida det råder en konsekvent hantering av tillsynsavgifter och ifall beslut om nedsättning tas på lika grunder. Tanken var att rapporten skulle kunna påvisa om verkligheten avspeglar lagstiftningen.

    Grunden till denna studie är frågeställningarna;

    1. Hur beslutar tillsynsmyndigheter om tillsynsavgifter?

    2. I vilken utsträckning beviljar tillsynsmyndigheter nedsättning av tillsynsavgiften?

    3. I vilken utsträckning begär verksamhetsutövare nedsättning av tillsynsavgiften?

    Begreppet täkt definieras som arbetsföretag vilket primärt syftar till att nyttiggöra det uttagna materialet. Detta sker antingen genom direktförsäljning eller i övrig verksamhet inom det egna företaget. Arbetet handlar endast om tillståndspliktiga täkter och i Sverige finns det omkring 2300 sådana igång. Tillsynsavgiften för täkterna ligger på omkring 800 kronor per timme och i snitt läggs det enligt våra intervjuer tio timmar tillsynstid per täkt och år. Det sammanlagda beloppet på tillsynskostnader i Sverige ligger således på drygt arton miljoner kronor.

    Arbetet inleds med en teoridel där läsaren ges möjlighet att få en djupare förståelse för täkter, tillsynsavgifter, nedsättning och de lagrum som skall följas i samband med detta. Teorin grundas på litteraturstudier och samtal med sakkunniga. Följt av teorin kommer en undersökning som valdes att utföras genom intervjuer med ett visst antal kommuner, Länsstyrelser och verksamhetsutövare. Sammanställningen av intervjuerna blev grunden för det avslutande resultatet och de slutsatser som kunde tas av undersökningen.

    Resultatet av arbetet visar på att tillsynsmyndigheter fattar beslut om tillsynsavgifter och nedsättning på olika sätt och grunder. För att få en mer likvärdig hantering av frågorna skulle en tydligare och mer konkret lagstiftning behöva arbetas fram. Vi kunde också fastslå att Naturvårdsverket som har en tillsynsvägledande roll i sammanhanget inte verkar nå ut till de tillsynsansvariga då de flesta av dem inte vet om att Naturvårdverket tillhandahåller detta stöd. Det är många frågor som väcks efter att ha fullbordat denna studie och listan på förslag till framtida arbete kan därmed göras lång

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  • 9.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Boström, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Emballagenedbrytning: Framtagning av förslag till utformning av ny arbetsstation till Volvo Pentas fabrik i Vara2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AB Volvo Penta manufactures and sells motors and drive systems for marine and industrial applications. The plant in Vara is specialized within manufacturing of marine diesel engines.The plant in Vara is about to go through major changes. The reason is a merger with Volvo Penta Production (VPP) located in Gothenburg. In connection with the merger there is going to be redevelopment of the plant. The station for packaging degradation is going to move and it needs to be redeveloped because it is not an efficient neither ergonomic workstation.The purpose of this project was to develop a suggestion of a new workstation for the packaging degradation. The goal was to develop a suggestion that is more efficient and ergonomically adapted. Data was collected through a situation analysis.To fulfill the purpose the project group performed literature studies, collected data and facts. The theory that was studied focused on lean, station design and layout, work environment and ergonomics. Stakeholders, earlier studies and packaging materials were examined. The next step was benchmarking, the group visited VPP in Gothenburg, Logent AB in Skövde and Mape Sweden AB in Trollhättan. Facts were collected through observations, interviews and a workshop with operators.After that the group studied different flows for the station. The result was to move forward with a parallel flow and a U-shaped flow. Then the group used the flows to form layouts. The final result was a U-cell with the operator and material placed outside the cell. The U-cell is most suitable from a lean perspective and from an ergonomic perspective.Further, today’s station needs to change because it is classified as a risk workstation. The final suggestion for a new station is supposed to work as a guideline for Penta. The suggestion with a U-cell needs to be developed further and more delimitation also needs to be done.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Patriksson, Linnéa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Northvolts etablering leder till påskyndade detaljplaneprocesser: Hur har processen sett ut och vilka konsekvenser/risker medföljer?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden a more efficient detailed development planning process is requested and a debate on slow processes is in progress. The purpose with the detailed planning process is to try a specific location and the suitability of the land for a specific object. Therefore, it is important that the process is democratic and that many parts are investigated so that the municipality can weigh interests and balance against each other and finally judge whether future land use is suitable.

    In the study, two detailed development planning processes in the municipalities of Skellefteå and Gothenburg were investigated. The common factor in the detailed development planning will enable the establishment of the Northvolt industrial operations. The processing time for Skellefteå is on average 24 months and 27 months in Gothenburg.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the municipalities' approach of bringing forward detailed development plans. Skellefteå's detailed development planning work has taken six months and Gothenburg's detailed development plan is expected to become legally binding in the tenth month of the work. To find out what caused the rapid detailed development planning process, how the municipalities worked and what these working methods lead to consequences and risks. Two officials from each municipality have been interviewed. Detailed development plan documents have also been examined to answer the study's issues.

    The survey shows similarities and differences in the municipalities' working methods and presents positive consequences and risks with the accelerated detailed development planning processes. A similarity and prerequisite for the municipalities rapid detailed developmentplan processes was that the detailed development plan was in accordance with themunicipalities' comprehensive plan. Results from the study show that an accelerated detaileddevelopment planning process requires good communication between administrations and acomposite team. The most important factor has been shown to be that there was a common goal and the politicians prioritized the plan and appointed a team.

    The municipalities investigate work has been separated, which has contributed to varying degrees of details that is described in the respective environmental impact statement. This difference is also clarified in the municipalities' consultation and review documents. Thesuitability of the working method depends on how the work is accelerated. It is important not to forget the purpose of detailed development planning without making careful considerations and not to make hasty decisions.

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  • 11.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bosson, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära lägen: En kartläggande och jämförande studie av hur kommuner och Länsstyrelser tillämpar lagstiftningen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    2009/2010 a new concept was brought into Environmental code and Planning and Building Act, which was countryside development in areas close to shores (LIS). This amendment was motivated by that areas which have a low degree of exploited land area and high access to seaside areas would get an opportunity to reliefs in coastal protection regulations, in order to be able to offer attractive areas for living and establishing different activities within the municipality. Since the amendment came into force the main responsibility for approval of exceptions from costal protection regulations is on the county. The county administrative board main responsibility is to keep an eye on the granted approvals of the municipalities. The amendments in the Planning and Building Act resulted in the possibility for the municipalities to present areas in with a relief in coastal protection regulations, as a part of the comprehensive plan, an addition to the comprehensive plan or an extensive version for a part of the comprehensive plan.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare how the legislation about LIS is applied, by studying 44 municipalities including the documents of comments from the county administrative board. The first part of the study is the quantitative part which contains collecting and compile information and statistics in which the study will be founded. The study also contains a qualitative part of analyzing the results obtained in the quantitative part.

    Overall the study shows that there is a disagreement between the municipalities and the county administrative board regarding costal protection regulation. The conclusion is based on the results from the study presenting the comments from the county administrative board to the municipalities during the final examine before the comprehensive plan is adopted by the municipal council. The results in the study show a pattern in the most frequent comments from the county administrative board compiled. The most common comment from the county administrative board is that the municipality has not fulfilled the purpose of the legislation about LIS. Furthermore, the municipality has not considered national interests in the municipal areas meant for LIS. The study shows that different political ideology has an influence on the execution of the legislation about LIS in municipalities. The results in the study show that the political ideology has an impact on the numbers of areas which the municipalities present as LIS. As a matter of fact, the impact of political ideology is greater than the impact of geographical similarities between two municipalities, according to the results in the study.

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Jennie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Collby, Ida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Planprocessen utifrån ett gentrifieringsperspektiv: En studie med gentrifiering i fokus för fyra stadsdelar i Göteborg2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gentrification is a concept for the process of change that occurs in a neighborhood where people with high economic status move into an area that has previously been dominated by people with low socio-economic status. The process takes place step by step and affects, among other things, the economic, social, physical and cultural impression in the district. The concept itself is not well mentioned in urban planning or by politicians. Instead, they choose to use words such as integration in their work as it leaves a positive impression. The gentrification process can eventually give positive effects to a neighborhood if it generates growth and contributes to increased service in the area. However, the negative side of the gentrification process is more talked about. The negative effects are characterized by consequences for the residents in an area where the rents increase and they can no longer afford to live. The reason for the price increase and the fact that people are forced to move can be a consequence of the rebuilding and new construction run by the municipality and developers. The phenomenon occurs worldwide, but due to the extensive degree of development within the City of Gothenburg, the study will be based on the municipality. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the City of Gothenburg relate to the concept of gentrification and to what extent they work with its sanctions when they add new detailed plans for an area. The study is also meant to investigate the municipality's position on the concept as well as whether it is conscious or unconscious decisions that make, which in turn can lead to the re-enactment of the detailed planning area. In order to delimit the study, four areas were chosen in Gothenburg with similar conditions where a new detailed plan has gained legal force and exploitation is either started or completed. A qualitative method was used for reading material and interviews were held with the municipality and an developer to gain insight into the thinking about the design of the detailed plans and the exploitation. After completing the study, we have found that gentrification is a loaded concept, which means that politicians and urban planners also do not want to know it. In connection with the interviews carried out for the study, there was a lack of knowledge about the concept's existence, but a strong belief that their particular project would generate a positive gentrification effect for the area they project. Some interviewees also reported for some type of conscious gentrification when they felt that an increased population and variety of population groups could contribute to something positive despite the possible risk of gentrification in the exploited area.

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  • 13.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thyrsson, Alicia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Marklov för trädfällning & skogsplantering: Kravets omfattning och utbredning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In community planning, there are many regulations that can be made to control land use and a detail development plan is an instrument that Sweden's municipalities have access to in order to do so. In a detail development plan, the municipality may specify properties that will apply in an area, such as the protection of trees, whish this study is about. To protect trees a plan regulation is required in the plan indicating what is applicable. In the Planning and Building Act 9 chap. 12 § it is stated that the municipality in a detail development plan may decide that a land permit is required for felling trees and for afforestation. An application for a permit to felling trees and / or afforestation shall be sent to the municipality, which will examine whether the application is to be granted or refused. Entering a land permit for felling trees in the detail development plan protects trees that may otherwise be cut down without the municipality's knowledge.

    The survey aims at examining the extent to which the municipalities of Sweden use the opportunity to decide on land permits in a detail development plan. Furthermore, the municipality's motive for the protection of trees is investigated and if it is done otherwise than with the plan regulation, and whether there has been any change in how the municipalities regulate trees in 2017 compared to 1990, when the detail development plan had recently been introduced. This has been done with both qualitative and quantitative methods to get a versatile and complete study.

    The results show that the municipalities used the plan regulation for land permit for felling trees in 60 of the detail development plans in 2017. To ensure protection of trees municipalities use other methods than land permit, for example a Plan regulation to protect trees. The motives given by the municipalities to protect trees vary widely and there are ecological, social and aesthetic reasons. In the comparison of detail development plans from 2017 and 1990, differences have been observed. More plans in 2017 with land permit for felling trees have been observed as well as more and more varied motivations. Plan regulation about afforestation has been found only once in a total of 1 353 detail development plans.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Carmesund, Julia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Handläggningstiden vid bygglov: En studie kring kravet i PBL 9:272015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With Swedish planning and building act (PBL) of 2011 a new demand was adopted for handling time before permits and advance rule, called PBL 9:27. Following PBL 9:27 an application for permits shall be processed promptly and the applicant shall be informed of the decision within ten weeks from the moment a complete application has been submitted to the local building committee. Previously this demand had not been included into Swedish law. The purpose of this demand was to speed up the handling time and to reduce differences in handling time between municipalities. When this demand was adopted a decision was made not to connect it with any form of sanction, should the demand not be met. The argument being that a more effective handling time would be met even without sanctions. Following several notifications to the legal ombudsman one may conclude that in several cases, municipalities do not meet the demand for a handling time within ten weeks. While there are no sanctions connected to the demand municipalities, may without any risk, take as much time they fell needed for the handling of each case. Thereby one of the key purposes of PBL 9:27, that is, reduced differences in handling time between municipalities is counteracted.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether handling time in building permit cases are in compliance with PBL 9:27. In order to answer this question building permit cases were examined thoroughly in seven municipalities in Västra Götaland County. The study has focused cases from 2014 and cases pertaining to construction of buildings. The collected information was compiled in one data matrix for each municipality. Beside of the information compiled in the data matrix each municipality answered a questionnaire focusing workload. The purpose of the questionnaire was to relate the results from the investigation of handling time to a possible explanation, that is, the workload of employees during 2014.

    Out of 436 examined cases 44 did not meet the demand of handling tie within ten weeks, or approximately 10 % of the cases. Of these 44 cases that did not meet PLB 9:27, 32 were real estates that were located within areas regulated by detailed municipal plans and twelve were located outside of planned areas. Out of the 32 real estates located within planned areas 13 accounted for a minor deviance from the detailed municipal plan while 19 were in compliance with the detailed plan and

    regulation areas.

    The results indicate that municipalities need to speed up their handling time for building permit cases regulated by PBL 9:27. An additional result of this study is that several municipalities have flaws in relation to documentation of significant dates. Also, municipalities tend to make different assessments of when an application is considered complete. This study suggests that clearer guidelines are adopted pertaining to documentation of cases and the demands for how to assess if an application is complete.

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  • 15.
    Andersson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Wagerland, Rebecca
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Gestaltningsprogram kopplat till detaljplan: Gestaltningens påverkan på hållbarhetsdimensionerna2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the planning process, municipalities work with spatial design. In order to specify and justify the design of the built environment, the municipality can choose to create an spatial design program in connection with a detailed development plan. Spatial design programs have no legal effect, but should be used as a guiding document when, for example, building permit approval are carried out. This can be done by the municipality itself or in collaboration with a developer. Through spatial design, municipalities can achieve the national goals for sustainable community building and the proposition Politik för gestaltad livsmiljö.

    It can be difficult for municipalities to comply to a detailed development plan that is legally binding and using a spatial design program without legal effect can create uncertainty about how the documents can be used together. This study is based on investigating whether a spatial design program should be made more legally binding or not and what impact a more legally binding spatial design program would have on social, economic and ecological sustainability. In order to examine how municipalities work with design in practice and how they view the possible legal effects of the spatial design program, the municipality of Lilla Edet was used in the study.

    The results of the study present how the municipality relates to governing documents, laws and guidelines. It appears that it is not legally correct to link design programs with a detailed plan. Today, design needs to be described directly in the planning regulations to become legally binding. Furthermore, it is presented that spatial design has a great impact on the sustainability dimensions in the long and short term. Making spatial design programs legally binding could help to ensure good spatial design, which means a good balance between social, ecological and economic sustainability.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Martin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Flödesförbättring för processkedja på GKN2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace is a world leading supplier of aerospace components. The Aerospace segment that Trollhättan is part of has a total of 35 plants on four continents and employs at the time of writing over 12,000 people. The products produced are made in materials that are difficult to process and the accuracy requirements are extremely high.

    The case study has been carried out at GKN in Trollhättan and aims to identify disturbances in the initial part of the process chain for the products LM2500 and 3-9C. The objective of the work will lead to proposals for action which is intended to smooth out the flow and create conditions to keep the given cycle time of eleven hours.

    Since GKN has been working with Lean production before it is also the basis for the theoretical framework. The main method of data collection was collection of data in the business system that has been supplemented with interviews and observations in the factory.

    An important part of Lean is to eliminate waste. Therefore, the eight wastages is the basic structure for the results section. Based on the chosen structure several types of waste could be identified. By analysis underpinned by theoretical framework and data collection this leads to recommended measures where the most important are:

    • Review maintenance practices when machine stop causes many hours of waiting and causes unpredictability in the production.

    • Equalize the production flow through the introduction of new operations and smooth the process times. 

    • Work towards initiating a one piece flow by separation operations that are currently carried out in the same machine.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Studie av nyblivna skogsägares värdering vid köp av sina fastigheter2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensjobb handlar om skogsköparens resonemang och värderingsåsikter om sin köpta skogsfastighet. Jag har tagit reda på hur köparna resonerar med hjälp av intervjuer gjorda via telefon. Utbildningen jag gått är lantmäteriingenjörsprogrammet (120p) på högskolan i Trollhättan. Genom att sammanställa alla intervjuer och dra slutsatser av dessa hoppas jag kunna bidra till förståelse för vad man tycker är viktigt som skogsköpare i västra Götaland. Resultaten hoppas jag ska kunna få en praktisk betydelse för arbetet med värdering och försäljning/köp av rena skogsfastigheter.

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  • 18.
    Asad, Ahmed
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Sallander, Rikard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Balansering och tidsoptimering av materialsatsning till F12-monteringen på Parker PMDE Trollhättan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In industries, the management tools of Lean Production are used to develop and streamline operations in a way to reduce waste and lead times in all processes. Parker PMDE in Trollhättan manufactures hydraulic machines. Since the 90´s, Parker has pursued business development under the management principles of Lean Production. One of the next steps in Parkers continuous improvement was to explore opportunities to develop a kitting department so that a worker could provide the assembly with the material quickly without surplus resources. In the current situation, there is an imbalance from the kitting station towards the tact times in the assembly station because it takes longer at the kitting station to pick materials for four hydraulic machines, than it takes for the assembly station to consume these kits of materials.The aim of the thesis was to develop suggestions for improvement where a worker could perform the kitting process in less than 16 minutes. The interim objectives were to do a survey of the times and activities within the kitting process. The boundaries of the project was not to examine processes outside the kitting station. The project was designed according to DMAIC methodology, which is a project model for fact-based problem solving and clear structure. The methods used in the data collection were observation and analysis of video footage applying the software called AviX Method. Video recordings were categorized as different activities in the kitting process such as transport, picking, scanner time, pre-assembly and uncategorized time. Activities that were time consuming and did not add value to the process were identified. These data measures were the basis for the solution proposals.Based on these results and using brainstorming, solution proposals were generated together with the engineers and material handlers. The solution proposals that met the objective of the project of picking a 4-set of materials in 16 minutes were: Pick by voice, Pick-by-light, Ring Scanner and Relocation of one pre-assembly operation. Pick by voice is considered to be the most appropriate solution for the company since it reduces picking times, scanning times and is a flexible system. Two more proposed solutions were developed that did not meet the objective of the project, but are considered worth investigating further based on Lean Production and ergonomic reasons. These proposed solutions consisted of changing the picking route and the installation of a magnetic lift.

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  • 19.
    Augustsson, Angelica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Albertsson, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Lantmäterier i Norden: Dess centralorganisationer och det nordiska samarbetet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to highlight similarities and differences between the different central organizations for surveying in the Nordic counties. The Nordic cooperation’s will be examined to gain a deeper understanding for the cooperation between the countries.

    Denmark’s organization is consisted by several boards. Those who perform cadastral proce-dure are private operators who report changes in property to the boards for registration. The organization is complex and difficult to get an overview of. The central organization of Finland is large and extensive, with multiple devices, areas and departments controlled by directors. The organization is owned by the state where both cadastral procedure and cadastre is within the central organizations responsibility. The central organization of Norway is owned by the state, with few work areas and specializations. They handle maps, cadastre and registration. It is Jordsifteretten who perform major ordinances and municipalities perform the minor. They are investigation whether the cadastral procedure should be private in order to develop and improve the surveying process in the country. Sweden like Finland has a central organization owned by the state who is handling cadastral procedure and cadastre. The organization is built in a number of different divisions that manage registration of property, cadastre and geodesy. In addition to the government offices are also municipal offices. In both the central organizations and in the countries different surveying associations are Nordic cooperation’s. Both seek to strengthen communion and enable exchange of expertise between the counties.

    The central organizations of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are different from each other, but there are still some similarities. The possibility to create an organization that works across the countries in common, is limited by national legislation. A unified central organization will therefore not be formed, nor is it the purpose of the Nordic cooperation’s. By mapping the central organizations an overview is created of the variations between the countries. But despite these differences succeed to get similar results in terms of surveying operations in the Nordic countries.

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  • 20.
    Backersgård, Oscar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Undersökning av Trimbles etableringsmetoder vid fri station: en jämförelsestudie av integrerad etablering och etablering med kända punkter2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the comparison between two different methods of establishment of free station for the purpose of geodetic surveying. The methods are the traditional method,with known control points with already established coordinates, and the integrated method,that uses GNSS-technology. In the beginning of the thesis there is some theoretical background and explanation of the technology and methods to help with understanding the later parts. The study focuses only on the accuracy of the different methods, and not the time that each method takes to establish. This was decided because the main interest was to see which method was the most accurate, and not the most efficient time wise.

    The method using known points is based on using points that have already established coordinates, and by measuring the distances and angles between these and the total station a position for the total station can be calculated. The other method is based on GNSS, and also uses the total station. This method instead uses new points, known as backsights, that are placed out during the establishment. The thesis also focuses on the sources of error that can occur during work with these methods, and how these sources impact the different methods. A look into the geodetic control network is also made and discussed throughout the thesis.In the end the completed results from all of the establishments are compiled and summarized, and a comparison and analysis are made on these results. These results are later discussed and the strengths and weaknesses of each method is weighed up.

    The results of this study has shown that the best quality of the establishment is reached by using the integrated with at least five backsights. The sources of errors that were discovered for each method are studied more closely, in correlation to the prerequisites of the study. The study also shows that some of the known control points that were used during the establishments were of bad quality and in need of a control and some adjustments, to ensure that future work around these points won’t be a problem.

    In the conclusion of the study the result shows that the use of the integrated method withat least five backsights is the preferred method of establishment. The quality of the establishment with the integrated method was 0,002 m and 0,004 m for the north and east coordinates, while the result of the traditional method was 0,004 and 0,013 for the north and east coordinates.

  • 21.
    Bengtsson, Emmy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Svensson, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Små och okomplicerade projekt inom infrastrukturplanering: En studie i hur Trafikverket använder typfall 12015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial planning of land and water is an important part of a community’s structure and development. Community planning is a democratic process, regulated by several laws and it’s contributing to a sustainable living environment from a social, ecological and economic perspective.

    Trafikverket (The Swedish Transport Agency) is the authority in Sweden which is responsible for infrastructure planning. According to the Swedish Road Law and Railway Law, the one intending to build new infrastructure, must establish a road or railway plan, which often is a long and costly process. In January 1, 2013 changes were introduced in to the law to exclude small and uncomplicated projects from the formal planning process, to create a more effective infrastructure planning system. These small projects were given the name type case 1 (typfall 1), in the planning system of Trafikveket.

    The purpose of the study is to examine how the changes in the law from 2013 have been used in the planning process by Trafikverket. The study intends to investigate which type of project the law changes has applied on and how they conform with the intentions that they should be small and uncomplicated. It will also investigate how the changes are received and perceived by those involved in infrastructure planning.

    The methods used to answer the questions is document study and focused interviews. The documents study includes all the planned projects from Region Väst (Western Region) from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014. The interviews were conducted with project managers and consultants who all have experience in the planning of small and uncomplicated projects.

    The results shows that Trafikverket mainly uses the new changes in the law to build bus stops, left fields and roundabouts, and it has been applied to significantly more road projects than railway projects. The projects is varying in size since the new guidelines have been interpreted in different ways.

    The conclusion is that changes in the law have contributed to a more efficient planning process. The project managers overall have a positive attitude to implement smaller projects without a formal plan, but the guidelines on witch background material needed for a project should be more clear.

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  • 22.
    Bengtsson, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Carlson, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Kontroll av en del av den nationella höjdmodellen Laserdata Nedladdning NH med hjälp av tekniska specifikationen SIS-TS 21144:20162022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using already existing data is a good way to save both money and time. In this case it’s about Laserdata Nedladdning NH, a nationwide height model created by Lantmäteriet under a 10-year period. But is this data always trustworthy? To perform sample controls on this data is important to know when and how to properly use it. To execute a sample control of this type the technical specification SIS-TS 21144:2016 was used as a guideline throughout the study. This specification is applied when producing a digital surface model at the behest of the contractor to ease the cooperation between this part and the surveyor. In this study there will be research on whether the specification is of relevance as a control document for height models produced with Laserdata Nedladdning NH and how filtering down the data affects its uncertainty.

    This control was performed on a parking lot and greenery at University West. The measurements were performed with a total station, established with the help of a GNSS-integrated method, RUFRIS, since there were no known reference points to be used as back objects. Neither were there any fitting places to put any such markers up on. To control the station several markers were put into the surrounding asphalt and grass that were measured right after establishing and after measuring all the control profiles. 18 control profiles were measured, spread around the area in lines of at least 20 m and containing at least 20 points. The point cloud from Laserdata Nedladdning NH was filtered down to different levels of point density which were then tested with different cell sizes.

    The results showed that the surface model passed most of the requirements stated by the specification, with an average height difference of just under 1 cm, but showed that areas with sharp height differences would create divergent results. Similarly, the same applied when the point cloud was filtered down according to the specifications most dense least allowed points/ha, where the numbers began to spread out increasingly. In the most thinned out cloud, 50 m cell size, the data quality barelyheld for an older height model, with average height differences up to 2.99 m, which was made with this cell size. From the results a conclusion could be drawn that the technical specification SIS-TS 21144:2016 is relevant for investigations of these models, although not where the ground has too much of an irregular shape. The specification is also not recommended when filtering down measurement data unless it’s performed on a plain open field. 

  • 23.
    Berdén, Lisa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Da Silva Jonasson, Amanda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    En minskad budget för skötsel av värdefull natur: Hur påverkar det länsstyrelsens skötselarbete i Sveriges naturreservat?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As nature holds value for us humans through the extraction of its resources for our survival, it is also crucial that we care for it. To ensure the sustainable provision of nature's benefits in the future, a balance must be struck between resource extraction and the ability of nature to regenerate. The challenge arises when the population continually grows and resources are extracted to a greater extent than before. Reports suggest ongoing depletion of terrestrial ecosystems, and to address this depletion, it is more sustainable to protect and manage nature now rather than restore it later. In early 2023, when the County Administrative Boards received their annual allocation for nature reserve management, indications emerged that it could have consequences for their work in managing Sweden's nature reserves. The government has reduced the funds allocated for the management of valuable nature by approximately 70 percent compared to the previous year in this year's budget.

    This study examines whether the decreased budget affects the County Administrative Board's management work in Sweden's nature reserves. The aim is to shed light on how the economic factors, in the form of reduced allocations, can have broader consequences in the County Administrative Boards' efforts to maintain the nature reserves. To answer the research questions, qualitative interviews were conducted with seven individuals working in the County Administrative Boards of the country's five regions. By addressing these questions, the study contributes to highlighting the changes in work processes that arise and the extent to which the government's budget for 2023 affects the management work of Sweden's County Administrative Boards.

    With the decreased funding, the County Administrative Boards need to prioritize differently, and the most significant changes can be observed in the work related to restoration and the control of invasive alien species. The crucial factors influencing the County Administrative Boards' prioritization include the perceived urgency of management measures. Further factors include the county's geographical conditions and the type of projects initiated in previous years. External determining factors affecting the County Administrative Boards' management work include the annual variation in budget and how targeted time-limited funding leads to subsequent costs when the efforts conclude. It is also critical whether the budget remains low over an extended period, as this is when risks seem to arise for nature values and the risk of decreasing biodiversity.

    In conclusion, the results demonstrate that reduced funding complicates the work, but an equally significant issue appears to be the substantial variation in funding with short annual intervals. When major initiatives are interrupted, there is a risk of work being left unfinished, resulting in the allocated funds to the County Administrative Boards not achieving the intended effect. A low budget over time also leads to increased costs in the future, as delayed measures require greater efforts in the long run.

  • 24.
    Berglund, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Thörnqvist, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Detaljplan med enskilt huvudmannaskap för allmänna platser: planering kontra genomförande2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har vi utrett om genomförandet av allmänna platser inom detaljplanelagda områden med enskilt huvudmannaskap utförts i enlighet med kommunens intentioner. Studien baserades på elva detaljplaner inom tre kommuner i Västra Götalandsregionen där planhandlingar granskats och jämförts med de förrättningar som skett på områdena. Slutligen besiktigades också områdena för att se hur det blev i verkligheten. Granskningen visade att kommunernas intentioner har följts överlag men avvikelser förekommer. Vi kom fram till att enskilt huvudmannaskap kan vara en fungerande lösning för att säkerställa kommunens intentioner om de använder sig av planbestämmelser för att reglera utformningen av allmänna platser i detaljplan.

    En kortare studie av aktuell lagstiftning visar att kommunerna får använda sig av planbestämmelser på allmän plats vid enskilt huvudmannaskap i samma grad som kommunen skall använda sig av dessa vid kommunalt huvudmannaskap.

    Med ett kommittédirektiv som bakgrund, där det b.la. skall utredas hur tillgängligheten till allmänna platser med enskilt huvudmannaskap skall vara, har vi under besiktningen av områdena också undersökt hur tillgängligheten faktiskt var. Besiktningen visade att tillgängligheten till de allmänna platserna varierade mellan de kommuner vi granskade.

    En enkätundersökning visar att lantmäterimyndigheterna anser att samarbetet med kommunerna är för dålig p.g.a. bristande resurser. Lantmäterimyndigheterna har som utgångspunkt att följa planbestämmelser gällande utformning av allmänna platser. Det förekommer att lantmäterimyndigheterna förbiser prövning av väsentlighet och båtnad i de fall detaljplan ligger till grund för förrättningen.

    Övriga slutsatser vi dragit från arbetet är att naturområden som skall vara allmänt tillgängliga ej bör ingå i en gemensamhetsanläggning då väsentlighetsvillkoret enligt Anläggningslagen, AL kan ifrågasättas. Vi kom också fram till att anläggningsbesluten bör utformas mer utförligt för att tydliggöra kostnader och ansvar för fastighetsägare i framtiden.

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  • 25.
    Berntsson, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Halldin, Josefin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Ägarlägenheter på Öckerö: erfarenheter kring förvaltningsfrågor2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har det sedan maj 2009 varit tillåtet att bilda ägarlägenheter. En ägarlägenhet är en typ av fastighet som är avgränsad både horisontellt och vertikalt och avsedd att innehålla endast en bostadslägenhet. Ägarlägenheten ägs som vilken fastighet som helst och kan därmed fritt hyras ut, pantsättas, belånas och överlåtas.Några av de första att satsa på den nya bostadsformen var det kommunala bostadsbolaget på Öckerö, Öckerö Bostads AB. Bolaget startade 2009 projekteringen av ett nytt bostadsområde som omfattades av 5 huskroppar om totalt 50 ägarlägenheter på Breviksängar. Öckerö Bostads AB styckade av 50 ägarlägenheter varav de sålde 30 av lägenheterna och behöll 20 lägenheter för uthyrning. Det är kombinationen bolagsägande och privat ägande men också hur förvaltningen har fungerat som har undersökts och analyserats. Både lekmannaperspektivet och fackmannaperspektivet har belysts.En anledning till att bolaget valde att sälja 30 av de 50 ägarlägenheterna var för att bolaget ville delfinansiera de 20 hyreslägenheterna och på så sätt hålla hyresnivån för en nyproducerad lägenhet på en rimlig nivå. Att hyresrätterna delfinansieras med försäljning av ägarlägenheter leder till att bostadsbolaget kan erbjuda hyresgästerna en lägre hyra jämfört med om hela projektet hade varit hyresrätterBlandningen av hyresrätter och ägarlägenheter upplevs av de flesta som positiv. Vissa av ägarlägenheternas ägare anser dock att hyresgästerna inte är lika rädda om området som ägarlägenhetsägarna. Ser man till de grannelagsrättsliga reglerna är det däremot mer säkert att bo bredvid en hyresgäst än att bo bredvid en ägarlägenhetsägare eftersom en hyresgäst kan avhysas om denne orsakar störningar i boendet medan en ägarlägenhetsägare inte kan avhysas även om denne orsakar störningar.Öckerö Bostads AB hade också en integrationstanke om att blanda olika typer av människor och familjekonstellationer på Breviksängar, därför blandades hyresrätter och ägarlägenheter i samtliga hus, detta är dock svårt att införliva på Öckerö på grund av att hyrorna och kostnaden för en ägarlägenhet fortfarande är relativt höga.Samfälligheter och gemensamhetsanläggningar bildades för att tillgodose ägarlägenheternas gemensamma behov. Alla ägarlägenheternas ägare, både privata ägare och bostadsbolaget, ingår i Norra Breviks samfällighetsförening som förvaltar samfälligheterna och gemensamhetsanläggningarna. Denna gemensamma förvaltning upplevs till stor del ha fungerat bra. Att Öckerö Bostads AB representeras i styrelsen är bra dels för att bolaget representerar hyresgästerna, men också för att Öckerö Bostads AB har kunskap om fastighetsförvaltning. Det finns dock ägarlägenhetsägare som anser att Öckerö Bostads AB inte skall vara med i styrelsen.Bland de som äger sina ägarlägenheter har det uppstått oklarheter från kring bolagets olika roller. En gränsdragning mellan bolagets roll som byggherre och bolagets roll som fastighetsägare bör vara tydligare för att undvika missförstånd, speciellt viktigt är det innan garantitidens utgång för att inte blanda ihop byggherrefrågor och föreningsfrågor.

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  • 26.
    Berntsson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    A study on the quality of the NKG2015 geoid model over the Nordic countries2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The NKG2015 (Nordic Geodetic Commission) geoid model is the most recent official geoid model over the Nordic countries. There has been no previous research published on the quality of this model, therefore, this study may be a valuable contribution to the research in this area. It is important to be aware of the limitations and quality of the geoid model used when measuring heights. If the quality of the geoid is not known, the quality of the measured heights will also be uncertain. This might cause problems when the measured heights are used in projects where great precision is vital.

    Measured GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems)/levelling data has been compared to the computed geoid heights from the NKG2015 geoid model at the corresponding points to investigate the quality of this model. The misclosures between the geoid height, obtained from the GNSS/levelling data and the geoid heights from the NKG2015 geoid model have been analysed by statistical methods. The normality of the misclosures is tested, and the analysis is performed on unfiltered and filtered misclosures with confidence intervals (CIs) of 95% and 99.7% to remove probable outliers. Trends in the misclosures are removed with a least-squares detrending method.

    The result of the study shows that filtering the misclosures generally makes them more normally distributed, but this is not the case for all countries. Detrending the misclosures improves the normality in most cases. In this process, a corrective surface with a specified number of parameters is fitted to the misclosures to remove trends. The topography of each country is very important when deciding which corrective surface that should be used in the detrending process. Countries with rough topography such as Norway has greater uncertainty in its heights and needs a corrective surface with more parameters than flatter countries such as Denmark. There are some estimates for the errors for the GNSS/levelling data which are not all in agreement with the misclosures. The GNSS/levelling error in Finland is greater than it should be.

    The given, estimated errors of the NKG2015 geoid model are 10 mm for Sweden and Denmark, 22 mm for Norway and 12 mm for Finland. These errors are reasonable, but not in perfect agreement with the given errors of the GNSS/levelling measurements in relation to the misclosures. Based on the assumption that the GNSS/levelling errors are correct, confidence intervals of the geoid error can be estimated. These estimated intervals are 0-6.5mm for Sweden, 1.8-5.2mm for Denmark, 14.8-17.7mm for Norway and 0-0mm for Finland. The confidence interval for Finland is not realistic because it is based on the assumption that the GNSS/levelling error is correct.

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  • 27.
    Birlev, Olle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Halvordsson, Robin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Gemensamhetsanläggning med flera ändamål2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Needs common to several properties can be satisfied by a joint facility. It may consist of one or more purposes and is often managed by a joint property association. 

    The aim of the study is to investigate both the legal regulation and the application of the possibility of forming multi-purpose joint facilities.

    The study has a legal dogmatic outset in applicable law (“de lege lata”) but is mainly based on qualitative methods applied from the perspective of sociology law. Telephone interviews have been carried out with twelve cadastral surveyors from both municipal and state cadastral authorities in Västra Götaland county. Five interviews in written form have been carried out with experts in the Joint Facilities Act (1973:1149), and one written interview with an expert in joint property associations was completed.

    The result demonstrates that there is a possibility that cadastral surveyors may be violating the legislator’s intentions regarding the possibility to form multi-purpose joint facilities, but in absence of current legal practice this cannot be ensured. Consequently, cadastral surveyors are currently very free when deciding to form one or more joint facilities.

    It is unclear if a multi-purpose joint facility is to be adjudicated overall, or if each of its purposes are to be adjudicated individually in relation to the terms in the Joint Facilities Act. However, the study shows that there is a risk that the adjudication will be done less strict for each purpose if a multi-purpose joint facility is to be adjudicated overall towards the terms in the Joint Facilities Act.

    Cadastral surveyors mainly choose to form a multi-purpose joint facility because it simplifies both the conduction when forming the joint facility and the future administration for the joint property association. However, the choice to set up multipurpose joint facilities is subordinate to the fact that the layout of the area is assessed suitable, that the purposes are considered appropriate to be set up in the same joint facility and that the participatory share of the participating property units are equal.

    The study shows that a multi-purpose joint facility in some cases may lead to future problems. Mainly, these problems can lead to the fact that the joint facility may need to be re-formed according to the Joint Facilities Act Section 35 §. This could mean great costs which could have been avoided if several joint facilities had been formed from the beginning, instead of one multi-purpose joint facility.

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  • 28.
    Blom, Roger
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Höglund, Annika
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konsekvensredovisning vid detaljplanering: En studie av planer enligt nya PBL2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Community planning is often based on changes and development of the physical environment which local residents may have different opinions on. To achieve acceptance of a change it is important that concerned feel involved in the process and that the information is clear and understandable even for those who are not proficient in the area. Within the process of developing a detail plan a description shall specify the organizational, technical, financial and real estate law actions necessary for its intended implementation. To make it possible for concerned property owners to be able to read and understand how they are affected by a detail plan the description must be clear and comprehensible explain the intended implementation consequences. The purpose of this study is to find out the extent to which impact description of implementation issues exist and if the requirements of Swedish planning and building act (PBL) from 2011 can be considered fulfilled. The PBL Committee noted in 2005 that the description of the implementation of detail plans is often weak or lacking. The introduction of a new PBL May 2, 2011 aimed to strengthen the status of the implementation issues. In the study the extent of the descriptions was examined with respect to organizational, technical, financial and real estate law issues as well as if the description is done summarily or per property. The study includes 84 detail plans from Västra Götaland and Stockholm County who were in the examination phase during weeks 14 and 15, 2014. There were 19 questions created to provide a picture of the application of PBL 4:33 §. A number of categories were created for these questions to classify the content of the plan descriptions. The result shows a large variation in the extent of the content in the plan descriptions. An average value of how common it is with insufficient content of description (in applicable cases) in each division gives the following result:

     Organizational issues: 49 %

     Technical issues: 30 %

     Economic issues: 68 %

     Real estate law issues: 13 %

    The study also shows that "per property" reporting occurs in a very limited extent. With the above results, it is doubtful if many of the detail plans meet the legal requirements of description and could withstand a judicial review

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  • 29.
    Blomberg, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Söderqvist, Linnea
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Andelstalsfördelning för gemensamhetsanläggningar i tredimensionella fastigheter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently no common way of apportioning participatory shares in joint facilities in 3D property formation. One reason is that 3D property formation is relatively new and previously used only to a limited extent, but today it is becoming more common as cities are densified and growing in height. This leads to a more complex property formation with more common spaces and facilities. The purpose of this thesis is to create a model for apportioning participatory shares that can be used in 3D-based facility procedures for joint facilities with the purpose of elevator. The idea is that the participatory shares should be easy to understand, while at the same time experiencing fairness by the property owners as well as giving a general picture of reality. The method that is used to obtain the calculation models is statistics on the number of journeys in lifts, as well as surveys of areas and visitors to different types of properties. Further methods used are discussions with several surveyors and analysis of collected materials and results. The model developed uses the “tonkilometermetoden” as a basis. In the same way as “tonkilometermetoden”, the apportioning is divided into two steps to obtain a transport number and then a length number. The transport number corresponds to the number of elevator trips a property generates and is calculated using models depending on the type of activity in the property unit. The work generates calculation models for property units with the purpose of housing, office, restaurant, preschool and dentist. For other types of property units there is only an indicative discussion. The length number is determined by the floors used by the property unit. The model for the length number leads to two proposals for how the length number can be calculated and differentiated with respect to the floor, with a linear curve or an exponential curve. The two solutions are compared and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The transport number and length number are then used together to obtain the participatory share that the property unit receives.

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  • 30.
    Boman Ivarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ragnarsson, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av installationshandlingar till flerbostadshus i Trollhättan2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is the final assignment of the education Electric Power Technology at University West. The purpose of the thesis was to create drawings of the electrical and communication system for the construction of a new apartment building in Trollhättan. 

    The work has been done in programs such as MagiCAD for the construction of the drawings, El-Vis to help with the choice of cables, DIA-Lux to do a study of what lights to choose and Bluebeam Revu to review the drawings. The project has followed the customers description and the Swedish standards SS 437 01 02, SS 436 40 00 and Bygghandlingar 90. This means that the project fulfills the requirement of good electrical safety practice.

    The work resulted in drawings for twenty apartments, outdoor corridors, basement with garage, the technical room, the garden environment and miscellaneous buildings. The drawings contain information about ducting, lighting, power, communication, access control, fire alarms, list of light fixtures, list of distribution circuits in the whole building, list of the network in the whole building and a single-line diagram. The building has a calculated power draw of 102 kW and is connected with a AXQJ 4x95/29mm2cable and is secured by a 160A fuse. The apartments are connected with a FQQ 5G6 cable, and so is the elevator in the building. The electric car chargers and other miscellaneous equipment in the building are connected with EQLQ cable. The garage is illuminated by eight light fixtures that are 1200 mm long, a rated power of 35 W and a color temperature of 4000 Kelvin.

    Results in projects like this can vary depending on how a person interprets the standards and the customers description and needs. The project was completed within the timeframe, approved for use and is considered to fulfill the requirement of good electrical safety practice. 

  • 31.
    Borg, Louise
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ekosystemtjänster i kommunal planering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018 the meaning of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services should be general knowledge and integrated into economical standpoints, political considerations and other decisions where relevant and reasonable. This is one of the milestone targets that the Swedish government decided in 2012. We know today that only parts of this target will be reached. This study includes a survey regarding the concept of ecosystem service in Sweden, all the local authority comprehensive planning, and an examination of three housing projects in Stockholm’s county where ecosystem services were the focal point during the comprehensive planning. In the first part of the study, which concentrates on surveying the concept of ecosystem services, it can be shown that 116 of 290 municipalities have been using the concept in their local authority comprehensive planning. Furthermore, the concept is used more often than not during the last three years in local authority comprehensive planning. In the second part of the study the outline planning was examined, plan handlings and implementation contracts from projects in Täby, Nacka and Haninge municipality. The research was based on text analysis and on-site inspection. The results from the research showed that the municipalities have a high ambition regarding working with ecosystem services, and that there exist a correlation between the visions in the local authority comprehensive planning and regulations in the detailed developed plan. In the agreement the developers are bound to work according to implementation contracts and sustainability program which regulate the considerations of ecosystem services. The concept of ecosystem services is used to show which benefits we humans receive from nature’s work. We are dependent on continual ecosystem services, which are also essential to the public health and wellbeing. Joint effort and a considerate use of ecosystem services is needed to keep them intact. It can result in large profit for society to preserve, develop and recreate nature and green areas in population centers. To integrate ecosystem services in the physical planning is a step in the right direction. The local authority comprehensive planning show the direction for the municipality’s community planning, and the outline of the future physical structure, it also serves to guide upcoming detailed development plans and building acts. The local authority comprehensive planning plays a key part in the ecosystem services future, since its importance can be illustrated within. To reach the visions of the local authority comprehensive planning and the opportunity to actualize it in the detailed development plan is required. To secure the continued functionality of the ecosystem services, a clear and purposive legislation is required. An increase in knowledge and awareness of ecosystem services is essential, and everyone must see their part in the in our common responsibility and work toward a sustainable society.

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  • 32.
    Borgmalm, Tomas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Schüllerqvist, Ola
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Bygglovets giltighetstid: Och hanteringen av justeringar efter bygglovsbeslut2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How long a building permit is valid is regulated in the Swedish planning and building act (PBL) 9:43. The validity of the permit is defined as the actual works with the building must be commenced in two years and ended in five years. The main question in this study is about the difficulty in assessing whether the actual works with the building has been commenced. There are few law cases that define the meaning of "commenced", which probably means that municipalities make different interpretations of the issue. Another question the study addresses is how changes in building permits are handled after the permit has become valid. Reasonably it happens that developers need to make adjustments of the building permit during the actual construction.

    The aim of this study is to examine how municipalities interpret PBL 9:43 with respect to the term "commenced" and how the building permits limitation of two years is complied with. Furthermore, the purpose is to give a description of the legal basis of what is meant by "commenced" in the current legislation. The study also intends to investigate whether PBL provides the ability to adjust the building permit during the time of the construction, and how municipalities deal with such cases in practice.

    The study is based on a legal analysis that aims to describe the legal grounds surrounding the building permit and especially the rule in PBL 9:43. To examine how the two-year period is complied, a quantitative survey of 500 building permit documents in six municipalities was completed. A questionnaire was sent out to 75 municipalities to provide answers to questions about the municipalities interpretations of "commenced" in PBL 9:43 and how adjustments of building permits are being handled.

    The outcome of the legal analysis shows that work with a building's foundation is probably a requirement that is needed for the work to be assessed as "commenced". The questionnaire survey reveals large differences in how municipalities interpret "commenced" in PBL 9:43. It also shows that half of the municipalities do not perform any active controls of the building permit's two year limitation. The investigation reveals that it is common that developers make adjustments during the time of construction and that most municipalities deal with it within the existing building permit. The investigation of building permits shows no case where starting clearance was given after the two year limitation.

    We conclude that a clarification of the legislation would likely provide a more uniform assessment of "commenced" in the municipalities. Likewise, it is unclear what support PBL provides considering adjustment after the building permit has become valid.

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  • 33.
    Brandt, Malin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Kihlberg, Lisa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Barns perspektiv i fysisk planering: För realisering av barnkonventionen2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children and young people under the age of 18 represent one fifth of the Swedish population. Their participation in spatial planning is most certainly a question of democracy. In 2020, Convention on the Rights of the Child became Swedish law, which entails a right for all children to express their views in all matters affecting the child, and the views of the child being given due weight. A recently published review from SKR, stated that children as a group are being sidelined in spatial planning. The purpose of this study is to contribute with an insight to those mutual exchanges in dialogues with children and hoping to encourage more planners to actively work to implement the articles of Convention on the Rights of the Child regarding spatial planning. 

    The aim of this project is to answer the question of which kind of knowledge children can contribute with, and in which way this knowledge later is applied in spatial planning. Furthermore, what is crucial for the process manager(s) to contemplate during a dialogue with children, are explored. To be successful in this aim, a case study of a recently completed citizen dialogue with children, was conducted. This dialogue was carried out as part of the project Våra Rum, in association with a group of students in fifth grade at Brålandaskolan, in Vänersborg’s municipality. Three interviews were conducted within the case study: one with each of the process managers, and one with a knowledgeable participating consultant. Finally, an interview was conducted with an expert within the field, with solid experience in managing similar dialogues with children. 

    The result shows that children contribute with knowledge on how they use a specific area, how they move around, what they like a about a place, what they dislike, and what they need. The planner will receive a deeper understanding for the area through the children’s perspective. Whether the planner in charge needs to participate in the actual dialogue with the children has been discussed in this study. What can be said is that a close relationship with the process manager is necessary, to have the children’s knowledge to be taken care of. In addition, there is an importance of openness in the dialogue. The process managers need to be open minded in the dialogue with the children. Equally important is to have the process itself be open and transparent. In a transparent process all participants should be aware of their rights to make an impact, and in what way their knowledge will be applied in spatial planning. Thereto will transparent processes show who is responsible for implementation of the dialogue and the feedback, and for the result being realized in the regular planning process. 

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  • 34.
    Brodin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Spårbarhet inom återvinningsindustrin2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor´s thesis is perfomed for the company Hoglin Recycling AB in Kungshamn, Sweden. Hoglin collects and refines cooking fat from customers in western Sweden and Småland. The refined product is then sold to a reseller. The purpose of this thesis is to find the best possible traceability system for Hoglin so that they with high security and effectivity can hold apart their two products, animal and vegetable cooking fat. With the help from literature studies, interviews and experiments the group has proposed a system for Hoglin that also could be implemented in other businesses.

    To make the barrels where the cooking fat is stored in traceable literature studies were made on different tracking methods such as barcodes, RFID and GPS. These are some of the most common methods to track products. The group used the tools screening and scoring matrix to choose which of these methods suited Hoglin the most. With these the tracking methods were individually ranked amongst each other to find the winning concept, one dimensional barcodes.

    For traceability systems to function properly it requires not only a tracking method but also a tracking system where information can be stored and used when needed. To find the most suitable type of system the group decided to compare a fully developed system with a mobile phone application. These two systems were compared against each other with the use of an SWOT-analysis. The mobile application was the most interesting one with advantages in both cost and customizability. The only problem that remained was whether the GPS in a mobile phone would be good enough for a system like this or not.

    The work resulted in a requirement specification with all the requirements needed for the traceability system, included an explanation of how it works. To give an understanding of how the application could look like it is illustrated with pictures

  • 35.
    Bryntesson, Markus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Rasheed, Nihro
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Omprövningsförrättningar enligt AL 43 §: En studie där omprövningar utvärderas med hänsyn till kvalifikationsgränser I AL 35 §2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to have facilities, which are common for some properties, functioning in a purposive manner for several users, the concept of joint facilities are established in Sweden. In ordinary cases in order to manage the joint facilities is to organise a joint property management association by co-owners of the properties. After the establishment of a joint facility, a need for changes or adjustments of that could arise. To implement these changes, a new cadastral adjudication procedure, under § 35 AL, can be applied, where the adjudication of the joint facility is re-exercised there.

    In order to perform a reconsideration for an adjudication, one of the three criteria of § 35 AL should be met. In order to have the permission to modify the issue as a cadastral procedure again, the material criteria of AL 5-11 §§ need to be met as well. The goal of this project is to study the different criteria of AL § 35 and new cadastral procedure adjudications from the archives of the municipal cadastral authority. The main purpose of this work is to assess to what degree the new cadastral procedure adjudications apply and fulfil any criterion in AL § 35.

    Those three criteria governing whether it is possible to perform a new cadastral procedure, regarding a joint facility, are changed circumstances, a clear need and a deadline stated in the previous cadastral procedure. The actual definitions of the first two criteria are not clear from the law, and therefore there is a difficulty for cadastral surveyors to assess and apply AL § 35.

    In our study, 2.5% of total number of the analysed acts do not or doubtfully fulfil any criterion of AL § 35. In 15% the new cadastral procedures some unclear issues are seen, which put a question mark in front of the work of the cadastral surveyors in using and applying the paragraph, but the acts were done in any case.

    The results of this project show that most of the assessed cases fulfil one of the necessary criteria, but despite this there are clear shortcomings in how AL § 35 is applied. It is often difficult for cadastral surveyors to know how this paragraph is assessed and applied, and which trial to apply for each criterion. Clearer and better explanations of these criteria can contribute to a more accurate and efficient cadastral procedure reconsiderations.

  • 36.
    Börjesson, Sofie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Wikman, Emelie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Geografiska informationssystem som analysverktyg av kommunal planering: En studie om markinnehav i Kungälv-, Lysekil- & Skövde kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1900, a large population increase has occurred in Sweden, which has led to the importance of strategic planning for society's continued development. The latest municipal reform, of 1970-71, led to larger municipalities with increased responsibility. Municipalities now started to work actively with community planning issues and no legal differences were to remain. Today, municipal development occurs at different rates, partly depending on geographical location and resources, but also because there is no regional mechanism that controls how municipalities are working with land issues. In connection with "Väröfallet, in 1963, attention was drawn to the fact that physical planning was eclipsed by economic interests. After that event, people became aware of environmental issues and fear of environmental damage on earth increased. During the time of "Väröfallet" municipalities began working more actively with environmental issues, but it was not until 1999 that the government adopted 15 goals to regulate environmental quality which later, in 2005, became 16 goals. Environmental quality objectives are regulated by "Miljöbalken". The objectives were to promote sustainable development and national interests to protect biodiversity. The purpose of this study is to compare the landholdings of three municipalities and how the use of them has been affected since the last municipal reform. The methods used in the study are qualitative and quantitative. The quantitative section consists of a concrete mapping program, ArcMap, which provided map data from each municipality as well as a previous study course. Map production is an important step in analyzing what the landholdings looks like as well as the distribution of national interests within the municipalities. The qualitative part of the study consists of interviews with municipal representatives who informed us about the facts surrounding land issues and planning strategy. The study also investigates whether there is a regional system that controls the way in which they work. The result of the produced maps shows urban land holdings, national interests as well as private landowners of importance. Part of the result is an analysis of the area on the maps made using GIS tools to show how much municipal land and industrial land covered by national interests. Another part of the result is to visually see local conditions for future development.

    The maps were analyzed using GIS tools to measure similarities, differences and local conditions for future development. Summary local governments should actively work with GIS tools as an aid in the control of land use. Through GIS, municipalities can keep updated and see how changes in the municipality take place over time. The conclusion of the study is that local governments must work strategically to develop a sustainable society

  • 37.
    Carlson, Freddie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Zurowetz, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommuners förhållningssätt till regeln om reduktion av bygglovsavgiften: en studie av fyra kommuner inom Västra Götaland2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Planning and Building act (PBL) was rewritten in 2011. A new requirement was added for the local authorities to handle building permits within ten weeks from when the applications were completed. However there were no sanctions added against the local authorities if they were to exceed the deadline of ten weeks. Several investigations performed by, for example Boverket, show that the local authorities have difficulties meeting the deadline. JO has several times, since the readjustment in 2011, complained to local authorities of their unreasonable processing time.

    In 2016 the government gave Boverket an assignment to investigate if the local authorities are meeting the deadlines and to propose a sanction system for the building committees, if they exceed the ten weeks. The purpose of the assignment was to improve the local authorities' processing time and to make the building process more effective. The report from Boverket showed that 81 percent of the local authorities handle a majority of the building permits within the deadline and that the processing time has improved every year since the Planning and Building act was rewritten in 2011. It was stated in the report from Boverket, that a reduction of the building permit fee was the most suitable penalty to use against the local authorities for a time violation.

    The reduction of the building permit fee was introduced in PBL on the first of January 2019, and was stated in paragraph 12:8 a. The penalty is structured so that every started week that exceeds the deadline, the building permit fee will be reduced by a fifth. In this study it has been analysed what impact the rule has had on four local authorities and how they interpret the rule. The study has been limited to and is only focused on building permits that are outside of the detailed plan, with minor deviance from the detailed plan and building permits for major buildings. The study is based on interviews with the manager in the department of building permit in four different local authorities located in Västra Götaland. Three of the local authorities were chosen based on size of population and the fourth was chosen to represent a local authority that has major seasonal accommodation. Before every interview the interviewees have been given an interview guide, and during the interviews the same basic questions have been asked with an opportunity to ask in-depth follow-up questions.

    The result showed that 12:8 a will not have a significant impact on the local authorities and therefore will not result in a more effective building process. The reason for this is that the new regulation is only a small part in the bigger picture and has a lack of deadlines in other parts of the building process. This will lead to local authorities simply moving resources to the area that has a deadline, while other steps of the process will not be as prioritized. The conclusion from these findings show that the whole building process should be looked over. The rules within PBL should be better aligned with each other and also with other laws. The guidance that Boverket gives to the local authorities should also be clearer, since local authorities can interpret the law differently. Overall, the 12:8 a paragraph will not have a big impact on the building process. The purpose of PBL on a simpler Planning and Building act continues to be sidestepped.

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  • 38.
    Carlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Lindesson, Julia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Är det skäligt?: En studie kring skäl vid överklagade bygglov2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the current housing crisis, part of the social debate has been focused on streamlining the building permit process, and more specifically the ability to appeal a building permit. Proposals that emerged in the legislative history is to limit what and who has the right to appeal a building permit decision and the possibility to charge for the appeals. As the legislative history is only based on general statistics there is a lack of knowledge about what the complainant confided as reasons for the appeal. Nor is there any recognition on the grounds that wins the greatest success with the provincial government by matters referred back or canceled.

    The purpose of the study is to create a better understanding about the contested building permits and the function the provincial government fills as the appeal court. The main objective is to investigate the reasons behind the contested building permits, and investigate which of the arguments that have the greatest success for the complainants. To fulfill the purpose three questions were answered. What are the reasons invoked by the appellant? With what the reasons cancels and remits the provincial government municipal decisions? To what degree do the reasons cited by the complainant correspond with the reasons the provincial government cancels or refers cases?

    A quantitative content analysis was applied together with the legal method to interpret and classify the reasons. A statistical method has been used to compile and present the results. A total of 274 contested decision documents were reviewed and resulted in 197 documents considered as representative for the study. The review resulted in 77 categories of reasons cited by the complainants.

    The most common reasons were: significant inconvenience, the measure is contrary to the local plan, city- and landscape, cultural heritage and good overall effect is adversely affected, the neighbor hearing has not occurred, that there have been shortcomings in the documents and frivolous reasons.

    By far the most common reasons for the cancellation was that the measure is contrary to local plan and was not considered to be a little deviation. The most common reasons for the provincial government to remit cases were that the neighbor hearing had not occurred and that the building committee failed in its justification of the decision. Reasons cited by the complainant and the provincial governments reasons for the suspension or referral was consistent in 47% of the cases.

    Overall, the biggest success factors to cited reasons involving measures who is contrary to local plan or defects in the building committees' handling of building permits. As a whole the provincial government are considered to play an important role as a regulator and should therefore not be excluded from the instance chain.

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  • 39.
    Carlsson, Ida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jämförelsestudie mellan digitala terrängmodeller av en bergyta framställda med TLS och med UAS-laserskanning2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital terrain models (DTM) of rock surfaces are important for, among other things, volume calculation, safety planning and rock blasting. DTM can be created from point clouds produced with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or unmanned vehicles (UAS) equipped with laser scanners. TLS is an older and more established method while UAS laser scanning for topographic purposes is newer. A source of error with TLS as a method for scanning rock surfaces is that it cannot scan the entire rock surface due to shadow zones being formed as the scan can only take place below the mountain. UAS laser scanning has the ability to scan a rock surface from different heights and angles, which might create a better point cloud.

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate TLS and UAS laser scanning as a method for scanning a rock surface in quarries and try to account for the differences in quality of DTM and point clouds from the different methods. The study was done in collaboration with the company Bohus Bergsprängning AB. A rock surface located in a quarry three miles south of Uddevalla was scanned with TLS and UAS laser scanning and then DTM was created from each point cloud. DTM was created and compared in Trimble RealWorks.

    The result of georeferencing the point clouds from the different methods showed that the point cloud from TLS achieved an uncertainty of 3.884 mm while the UAS laser scan had an accuracy of 61.023 mm. DTM was created with a point spacing of 0.1 m. DTM contained large holes where point density was too poor, especially DTM from the UAS laser scan contained large and many holes due to poor point cloud. The comparison of the models showed a difference between -1.277 m and 1.637 m on the rock face and between -0.268 and 0.557 on the top surface.

    The result of this study shows that TLS is the method that creates a DTM of a rock surface with the lowest uncertainty in georeferencing and the densest point cloud. Further studies in the field should be done to create a nuanced comparison between TLS and UAS laser scanning. The result of this study should be seen as a comparison between a worse point cloud from UAS laser scanning and a better point cloud with low uncertainty from TLS.

  • 40.
    Carlsson, Sara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Lokalisering av de mest ändamålsenligaplatserna för bostadsexploatering i Uddevalla centrum med avseende på översvämningsrisk: Med hjälp av spatiala data och multikriterieanalys2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uddevalla centrum är beläget intill Bäveån och omges av berg och faktorer såsom höjda vattennivåer och dålig dränering har gett upphov till flera översvämningar i stadskärnan. Syftet med studien var att hitta de lämpligaste platserna i Uddevalla centrum för framtida bostadsexploatering med avseende på översvämningsrisk. Metoden som användes är multikriterieanalys vilken innebär att flera kriterier kan vägas samman till ett resultat. Två separata multikriterieanalyser genomfördes för att först ta fram en karta över översvämningsrisken och sedan en lämplighetskarta för bostadsexploateringslämpligheten. Den programvara som användes var huvudsakligen ArcMap 10.8 och GIS-data inhämtadesfrån bland annat Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU) och Lantmäteriet. Datan användes för att skapa både begränsnings- och faktorkartor vilka sedan kunde kombineras till ett resultat. Liknande studier har gjorts på andra platser tidigare och mycket information finns därmed tillgänglig både med avseende på översvämningsriskkartering och lämplighetsbedömning för bostadsplanering. Vid genomförande av analysen fick samtligafaktorkriterier vikter vilket gjordes med hjälp av metoden Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) och rangordning enligt tidigare studier och efter att resultatet tagits fram genomfördesen sensitivitetsanalys med hjälp av metoden ”One-at-a-time” (OAT) för att validera det. Studien har stor betydelse för framtida samhällsplanering i Uddevalla centrum då områden vilka löper stor risk för översvämning kan undvikas för planering av bebyggelse. Resultaten från denna studie kan också tillämpas på andra områden och bidra med kunskap till framtida studier inom fältet. Hänsyn måste dock tas till faktorer såsom val och rangordning, kriterier och klassintervall i och med att sådana faktorer kan ha betydelse för osäkerheter i resultatet. 

    Nyckelord: Multikriterieanalys, översvämningsrisk, bostadsexploatering, GIS-data, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), sensitivitetsanalys, OAT

  • 41.
    Chit, Ali
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Wimmer, Anton
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Rör inte mitt kränkande ortnamn!: En studie om varför vissa kränkande ortnamnselement tagits bort medan andra finns kvar2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lantmäteriet, the Swedish government agency responsible for place names and the creation of maps, have removed every place name containing the offensive word “neger” (referring to afro-swedish people) from the maps. Meanwhile, there are still place names on the Swedish maps containing the equally offensive words “tattare” (referring to Travellers/Romani people), “lapp” (referring to Sami people) and “zigenare” (referring to Romani people). These are words that shouldn’t be used in everyday language, yet they still exist in place names. The purpose with this study is to investigate why some offensive place names have been removed while others still remain, as well as examining how the remaining offensive place names should be handled - should we remove them or keep them? Old place names have considerable protection assured by the law, however offensive place names might violate the law since they make the place names less suitable for usage. Therefore, this report will also examine how Lantmäteriet makes theirconsideration between the place names age and suitability.

    The report is based on semi-structured interviews and email correspondence with experts on place names as well as representatives from the ethnic groups that the offensive words refer to. The study shows that Lantmäteriet have to take account of many different things in their consideration between age and suitability, however the age and whether the place names are linked to Sweden’s cultural history are factors of great importance since old place names are essential parts of Sweden's cultural heritage. The reason why the word “neger” was removed from the maps is that most place names containing that word were recent and of little importance for the cultural history of Sweden, while the other words usually appear in old place names with large historic value. Other factors that might have significance is how offensive the majority population think the words are, how many of the general public or the affected ethnic groups who support removal versus preservation of the place names, whether precedents exist, if the ethnic groups have high or low social status etcetera. A majority of the respondents in this study favored preservation of the place names because of their historic value, but one respondent supported removal since the names are very offensive. Multiple respondents expressed that the majority population need more education about how Sweden treated their ethnic groups historically - for that purpose, the place names might be used as illustrative examples of the segregation and discrimination the ethnic groups faced. Some respondents also requested information boards or monuments on places with names containing the words “tattare” or “zigenare”, since that would illustrate the traveller/romani history on those places more clearly than it is today. 

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    fulltext
  • 42.
    Dahl, Tove
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Skateboard urbanism: Kunskaper och deltagande i stadsplanering för en rebellisk disciplin2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skateboardåkare har sedan 1960-talet använt den urbana miljön för att praktisera sin disciplin. Historiskt har aktiviteten varit ovälkommen, men med insikter av vad den bidrar med till stadsmiljöer välkomnas den nu med planerade ytor i städer. Att planera för en grupp som tidigare praktiserat en disciplin som har varit och inneburit en protest mot maktstrukturer i den urbana miljön kan vara utmanande och innebär flera motsättningar. Involvering av användargruppen är möjligen därför extra viktig.

    Studien genomfördes inom ramen Habermas teoribildning kommunikativt handlande och för Patsy Healys teoribildning kollaborativ planering. Genom intervjuer, observationsstudier och dokumentanalyser, med fokus på två torg i Malmö, undersöktes skateboardåkarens upplevelse av planerade skateplatser i staden och hur upplevelsen kan tas tillvara på. 

    Under studien identifierades och konkretiserades tre viktiga aspekter för planering av skateboard i stadsrummet: dialog, materialval och skateboardkulturen. Därutöver framkom en problematisering av kunskapsglappet mellan landskapsarkitekter och skateboardåkare, som en negativ inverkan på planeringsprocessen. Trots att konkreta slutsatser var svåra att dra, betonas vikten av ovanstående aspekter, med dialog som det främsta verktyget för planerare att få insikt om bra materialval och skateboardkulturen. 

  • 43.
    Dawid, Nahren
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Melvinsdotter, Lena
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Att skydda natur och kulturhistorisk bebyggelse enligt plan- och bygglagen och miljöbalken2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated five districts in the Region Västra Götaland that are working with the protection of natural- and cultural historically interesting settlements within municipal planning through zoning, area regulations, natural-/cultural reserves. At a total, ten plans have been studied, from the municipalities of Alingsås, Göteborg, Härryda, Kungälv and Partille. Five of the plans in this study are formed according to the Planning and Building Act (1987:10), and five of the plans under the Environmental Code ( 1998:808). The municipalities have in most cases sought to conserve, protect and/or develop wildlife, heritage-/ recreational values and outdoor recreation opportunities for the public. The study has been subject to two elements; current plan documents have been examined and interviews were conducted with the administrator in charge for each planning.

    This study shows that there is a vagueness in how the choice of planning method was made and that the municipalities have not considered various alternatives of zoning. The results show that the municipalities mainly use the instrument for detail planning when zoning and that the knowledge of the different alternatives for planning differs between both the officials and the politicians. The officials in this study perceive that politicians do not know much about the various plan forms and that it is the officials that plan and prepare proposals for the politicians. The study finds that the political interest of aim is essential in the creating of preserving plans. If the politicians do not want to protect areas through zoning, nor will resources intended for it be allocated.

    The results show that natural- and cultural reserves provide the best protection for conservation. By the preservation regulations, the municipality can clearly set bans and other restrictions of usufruct/the right of disposition for both party concerned as well as the public. The sanctuary decisions are also demands that there should be a management plan, which is not regulated by law for zoning or area regulations. A reserve decision is also more difficult to repeal compared to zoning and area regulations

  • 44.
    Dikelius, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Tellesås, Emmie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Lantmäteriets handläggningstider gällande fastighetsbildning: Hur påverkar det bostadsutvecklingen?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, the housing shortage has increased and the processing times of The Land Surveyor´s Office regarding property development have become considerably longer. As property development is of great importance for housing development, the processing times risk jeopardizing the development of society. In the Administrative Procedure Acts (2017:900) section 9, article 1 states that cases must be handled as simply, quickly and cost-effectively as possible without compromising legal security. The Swedish National Audit Office published an audit report in March 2022, "Property formation in Sweden - processing times, fees and need for reform (RiR 2022: 3)". They state that the processing times risk affecting property formation and not least housing development.

    It is a fact that the negative development of processing times causes problems, but to what extent and what consequences it causes for housing construction is not specified. What actual consequences it causes, has not been further investigated. By mapping any effects of the processing times of the National Land Surveyor´s Office, the study intends to answer in what way they affect housing development. To answer the questions of the study and to increase scientific reliability, methods such as qualitative interview studies have been carried out with two municipalities, four property developers and a unit manager at the National Land Surveyor´s Office. Collections and reviews of data have also been applied to answer the purpose of the study.

    The result shows that the industry takes into account the processing times of the National Land Surveyor´s Office. They work proactively and in parallel with the exploitation processes but prefer to see that times are reduced since property development decisions are essential in the process. The applicant can neither mortgage nor transfer the property before a property development decision has been made. In summary, the study shows that housing development is not significantly hindered because of the processing times of the National Land Surveyor's Office. However, several effects arise that affect society. Effects that can be distinguished from the study are:

    • Economic impact for the industry

    • Delay of the exploitation process

    • Home buyers risk losing confidence in the developer

    The result states that the processing times are no longer the biggest problem, no fewer homes are being built, but construction risks taking longer time. The problem according to the results of the study, is rather the administrative costs.

  • 45.
    Dufin, Sandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Anståndsbeslut i enlighet med PBL 9kap. 28 §: innebörd och konsekvenser2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A deferral decision can be made in accordance with PBL Chapter 9 § 28 if a case concerning permit or advance notice is affected by a started planning work. The question of permit will then be decided when the planning work is finished, however, no later than two years from the application being submitted to the building committee. There is no obstacle to start planning work at the same time the deferral decision is made and the purpose of the decision is, according to the legislature, that the building committee should be given the opportunity to start planning work in order to deny an application for an out-of-plan real property or which is in accordance with current detailed development plan or area regulations. This study shows that very few deferral decisions are made in accordance with the legislature's purpose, instead it is many times used with the purpose of waiting for provisions already ongoing planning work. In cases where the application for permit does not accord with the current detailed development plan or area regulations the deferral decision is positive for the real property owner, given the possibility that the permit can be submitted in accordance with ongoing planning work. If the application for permit instead either applies to an out-of-plan real property or is in accordance with the applicable detailed development plan or area regulations, there is a risk that the deferral decision will lead to denied application for permit. If a decision to start planning work is taken at the same time as the deferral decision with the reason to deny a specific application for permit, a situation can occur where the application for permit has been preceded by the Land Surveyor that has formed a new property in accordance with the same purpose as the application for permit. In case of a denied permit, this means a complicated situation for the real property owner because the newly formed real property unit will not be possible to build on according to the real property owner's requests. When a real property unit is formed for new construction out-of-plan an advance notice is in most cases necessary before the Land Survey decides. Based on the study's conclusions, a real property owner is recommended to seek advance notice when something is to be done that requires a permit, even if the action is to be done in accordance with the present detailed development plan. When the implementation period for a detailed development plan has expired, there is no guarantee that measures in accordance with the detailed development plan are workable. The fact that the Land Survey will in a larger scale consult with the building committee in real property development within detailed development plan is also something that is discussed in the study, although it would be uncertain if it could lead to a real property development being denied on the grounds, which in this case would not lead to a better solution for the real property owner.

  • 46.
    Ekberg, Mattias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Jansson, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Konsekvenser av bristande kvalitet i registerkartans gränsredovisning i skogsmark2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvalitetsbristerna i registerkartan är ett välkänt problem och Lantmäteriet arbetar ständigt för att uppdatera kartan och hitta en lösning på detta problem som är ekonomiskt försvarbar. Trots detta arbete så är bristerna stora på många håll, speciellt på landsbygden och inom skogsmark.

    Denna rapport behandlar konsekvenserna av registerkartans gränsredovisning i skogsmark. Arbetet har skett genom en fältstudie där två fastigheters utmärkta gränser kontrollmättes mot registerkartans angivna gränser. En beräkning av det teorietiska skogsvärdet som hamnar i gränszonen mellan registerkartans gräns och den på marken utmärkta gränsen.

     En schablonmässig beräkning bedömt på hela Sveriges årliga avverkningsareal som ligger inom den gränszon som påverkas av registerkartans brister har gjorts och värdet av virkesvolymerna inom detta gränsland har beräknats.

    En Litteraturstudie har genomförts på den litteratur som berör ämnet. Enkätundersökningar till sakkunniga inom skogsnäringen och samtal med andra sakkunniga personer har skett för att få en inblick i hur registerkartans brister påverkar.

    Skogsnäringen vill inte se detta som ett stort problem som påverkar deras arbete. Även fast fel uppstår p.g.a. brister i deras kartmaterial och utrustning. De vill hellre peka på att gränserna många gånger är för dåligt underhållna av fastighetsägarna och att lantmäteriets prissättning gör att man hellre riskerar att göra fel än att få gränsen bestämd.

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    ex.arb.Jansson-Ekberg-HV-2012
  • 47.
    Eklund, Josefin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Kjörk, Ida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Rättigheter för ledningar: en studie av upplåtelseformer för ledningar i Göteborgs Stad2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to expand our knowledge of way-leave and other forms of tenures for conduits and to study how they are adopted in practice. By way of introduction the various forms of tenures; easement, way-leave and different types of usufructs are described. Easement and way-leave are forms of tenures not limited in time, whereas usufructs as leaseholds are limited to longer or shorter periods. This part of the thesis is concluded by a short summary describing the advantages and disadvantages of the different forms of tenure seen from the perspective of the landowner and that of the owner of the conduit. This is followed by a part showing which interests are guarded by the different parties and which form of tenure they prefer. This part is based on interviews with nine representatives from different companies and committees in Gothenburg. Some of the agreements that are in use are also described. During the interviews it became clear that the owner of the conduits main interests lie in reaching agreements that guarantee a long term legal protection at a low-cost and thus they see the advantages of way-leave. Despite this, way-leave is seldom used regarding land owned by the City of Gothenburg since the companies prefer to avoid tenure with compulsory elements. Furthermore the municipality is generally negative towards locking land by allowing rights unlimited in time. The municipality offers usufruct agreements as an alternative. How those are worked out in detail is negotiable and differs from case to case. Even though agreements are often reached they are always compromises. In some exceptional cases agreements have not been established as the parties have been too far apart. Therefore we have come to the conclusion that there is a need for new legislation. There is presently no cross between usufructs, wholly based on voluntary agreements, and way-leave which, in its present form, is problematic since it gives advantages to one on the expense of the other.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 48.
    Eklund, Kristin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Detaljplan och naturreservat: En jämförelse mellan två kommunala processer2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reasons as to why nature should be protected and preserved can be explained in its environmental value, cultural value or its value for recreation and outdoor life. According to Swedish legislation valuable nature are of national interest and needs to be protected from various interference like urban planning. Municipalities can protect and preserve valuable nature with the help of two different plans, a development plan or by proclaiming the area a nature reserve.

    This study aims to compare the development plan with the plan for a nature reserve and to find differences and similarities between the two processes. This to answer the question whether Swedish municipalities should use a development plan or a nature reserve when preserving nature sites. The study will use a legal method which involves the usage of legal sources like constitutions and its preparatory work, case-law and legal doctrine.

    As expected, the study shows that the municipalities should protect nature through a nature reserve. The goal of a nature reserve is protecting nature and thus have a focus towards nature and environmental questions. However, besides the obvious, this study has shown that preserving nature through a nature reserve is much more beneficial, both for landowners and for the municipality itself. The landowners participate more in the decision making of a nature reserve than in a development plan. Financially it is also more beneficial since the environmental code, when compared to the planning and building act, has better financial compensation for the restrictions of land usage put on the landowners. For municipalities the benefits can be seen in the fact that the workload with the nature reserve can be constrained to environmental questions and that the municipalities can get state funding. A nature reserve also gives a much stronger protection which ensures the municipalities action if a shift in power would come in place

  • 49.
    Eklund, Linda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Friyta på lika villkor!: En studie av 8 kap. 9 § plan- och bygglagen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's population is steadily increasing, and cities are densifying. Most of the residents wish to live centrally, where closeness to both jobs and service is located. The densification, in turn, means that more schools and preschools need to be built. In densified cities, the area is shrinking to build on, which results in a higher price on the land. The purpose of the study is to investigate how Sweden's municipalities interpret "sufficiently large free space" in Chapter 8. 9 § 2 of the Planning and Building Act. The study also examines whether the municipalities changed their way of working as the Children's Convention became law on January 1, 2020. The study has used electronic questionnaires sent to Sweden's 290 municipal building departments with a response rate of 44%. Nearly half of the study's respondents use the checklist from Boverket and almost as many also have their own guidelines. A part of the study respondents uses functional programs that follow the curriculum's intentions when planning the school or preschool. The results of the study's survey show that 61% of the respondents follow current research on the size of the free space, which is 30 square meters for students in F-6 and 40 square meters for preschool children. The respondents which not following the common advice from Boverket about free space, developed their own guidelines for the size of the free space. Most of these municipalities set the size of the free space lower than recommended. The result shows that the respondents who do not follow the general advice on free space from Boverket think that the location of the free space weighs heavier than the size and design of the free space. Of the respondents, only 30 have worked with the Convention on the Rights of the Child even before the law came into force. Most of the respondents will start or have started to work more with the Convention on the Rights of the Child when designing school and preschools since the Convention on the Rights of the Child has become law. Although cities are increasingly densified, the current wording in Chapter 8. 9 § 2 The Planning and Building Act has in principle not changed since the building charter. Since the ground today is more attractive and that the Children's Convention has become law, the wording "sufficiently large free area" in Chapter 8. 9 § 2, the Planning and Building Act need to be changed. The law section should contain clarifications on the design and size of the surface to ensure such a large surface area that according to research is suitable for children in school and preschool.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Eklund, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Engström, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Preliminärfråga enligt anläggningslagen: En kartläggning av användandet I Västra Götaland, Skåne och Blekinge län 20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines the use of a special procedure whereby preliminary decision according to the Swedish law called "anläggningslagen" is used. Preliminary decision means that the surveyor can take a decision before the joint facility is valuated or technical work has been done. This is recommended if there is an unclear relationship in the location of the joint facilities or if there is a dispute between a number of interest parties leading to a risk of appeal(s). When a joint facility is introduced it is done so by the law "anläggningslagen". In "anläggningslagen", there are opportunities to create joint facilities for a variety of purposes such as roads, parking lots, water and sewage system and more. To create such a joint facility involves an application by an interested party submitted to The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority (Lantmäteriet) which then handles the case in the manner required by law. The report aims to identify the number of cadastral procedures that make use of preliminary decision, and if there are any clear patterns in situations or purposes. Furthermore the study examines the surveyors own opinions about the preliminary decision. And finally a survey is conducted on the form requirements of the preliminary decision and how it is reported in the cadastral documents in which the proceeding has been used.

    The study is limited both geographically and in time to only examine cadastral documents from Västra Götaland, Skåne and Blekinge County in 2014. During the study, a statistical survey and an interview method have been used. The statistical method was chosen to identify the usage of the preliminary decision in Västra Götaland, Skåne and Blekinge County in an easily distinguishable way. The statistical results show that the usage of a preliminary decision is uncommon, and that it is only used in 2.1 % of the cadastral procedures. The study also shows that the most common purpose of a joint facility is roads. The results from the interviews indicates that the aforementioned section regarding preliminary decision is used in the construction of joint facilities to be a way to simplify handling of the cadastral procedures. In addition, the results show that the surveyors that were interviewed experience that the section is used more commonly in complicated cadastral procedures. After studying over 500 cadastral documents, it is to note that there is not a clear way in how the usage of preliminary decision is presented in the cadastral documents.

    The conclusion of the report is that the usage of the preliminary decision is very rare. A well-utilization of the preliminary decision will lead to a simplified and more time-economical management of complex cases. It is used primarily in complex cadastral procedures when the prospect of the procedure is uncertain and in new construction cases. This specific section is perceived as very useful by the authors after the conclusion of the study.

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