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Putting a MOOC for Human Rights in the Hands of Kenyans: The Haki Zangu Case for Non-Formal Learning
University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2378-5432
Linköping University.
2014 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 65, no 3, 1-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The research goal of this project was to explore the use and effects of non-formal education and incentives in the context of a developing country. The practical aim of this project was to create, implement, and evaluate a platform about human rights that was available to any Kenyan for free in order to increase knowledge and engagement. Therefore, a non-formal massive open online course (MOOC) about human rights was designed and launched. The course was free and open to anyone in Kenya and offered both a digital badge and certificate from Stockholm University in Sweden upon completion. The course was called Haki Zangu (Kiswahili for "My Rights"), and it explored how using incentives such as a digital badge and certificate of completion affected learning outcomes. This course offered ubiquitous access based on principles of responsive web design and used audio recordings of the entire course content. The course is perpetual and still on-going, but after six months there were 160 participants who had enrolled, and ten participants had completed the course and received certificates and digital badges. The participants showed extensive enthusiasm and engagement for human rights issues, and they expressed desires to learn more and further spread knowledge about human rights. The current findings suggest that the availability of digital badges and certificates increased interest for participation and positively affected learning outcomes. Moreover, the use of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) format with incentives proved successful, combined with the contextualization and accessibility of the course content. Furthermore, the technical platform proved adequate for disseminating education for free in a developing country, and allowed for unencumbered access regardless of device. Lastly, a key challenge for future non-formal learning efforts in developing countries is the cost of Internet access.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 65, no 3, 1-17 p.
Keyword [en]
Mobile learning, non-formal learning, digital badges, ICT4D, human rights
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Informatics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-7211OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-7211DiVA: diva2:773442
Available from: 2014-12-19 Created: 2014-12-19 Last updated: 2015-06-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Do-It-Yourself Learning in Kenya: Exploring mobile technologies for merging non-formal and informal learning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do-It-Yourself Learning in Kenya: Exploring mobile technologies for merging non-formal and informal learning
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The educational landscape is changing and a variety of technologies and techniques are blurring the lines between traditional and non-traditional learning. This change is substantial in low-income countries: individuals in developing countries have a great desire to educate themselves and improve their quality of life. Kenyans are adequately literate and accustomed to mobile technology despite being a largely impoverished, poorly educated populace. Kenya represents an optimal setting in which to research the use and feasibility of modern mobile and educational technologies. The broad aim of this dissertation is to explore how mobile devices can catalyze and enhance both informal and non-formal learning. In particular, this dissertation explores how technologies and concepts such as mobile web apps, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), and learning incentives via a smartphone specifically affect informal and non-formal learning in Kenya. The primary research question is how can learning efforts that utilize mobile learning, MOOCs, and learning incentives combine non-formal and informal learning to develop and contribute to a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach to learning in Kenya? The primary method is action research. The first contribution of this dissertation is the finding that mobile web apps are currently better suited for data exchange than producing new content. The second contribution is the finding that a smartphone can enhance informal learning in a developing country with little or no scaffolding. The third contribution is the finding that non-formal learning efforts as a MOOC are shown to be a viable means of delivering non-formal learning in a developing country via a smartphone. The fourth contribution is the finding that the use of incentives such as digital badges provide a means by which to validate non-formal learning and contribute to a DIY attitude towards learning creation, where individuals can freely complement or replace a traditional curriculum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, 2014. 122 p.
Series
eport Series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 14-018
Keyword
ICT4D, mobile learning, M4D, informal learning, non-formal learning, MOOCs, digital incentives
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Informatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-7216 (URN)978-91-7649-045-7 (ISBN)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-12-19 Created: 2014-12-19 Last updated: 2015-06-24Bibliographically approved

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