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Dimensions of Norm-Referenced Compulsory School Grades and their Relative Importance for the Prediction of Upper Secondary School Grades
University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. (BUV)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7751-3942
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 58, no 2, 127-146 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Irrespective of the grading system, grades are the most valid instrument for predicting educational success. Previous studies have shown that criterion-referenced compulsory school grades are multidimensional, reflecting subject-specific dimensions and a common grade dimension, both of which contribute to the predictive validity of grades. This suggests that in addition to knowledge and skills, grades reflect other aspects which might have importance for the prediction of educational success. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using structured equation modeling, whether norm-referenced compulsory school grades display similar patterns of dimensionality and predictive validity to criterion-referenced grades. Possible differences due to gender and parents’ education were considered. Participants were 3855 students born in 1972. The results showed that norm-referenced grades are multidimensional, and that both the subject-specific and common grade dimensions contribute to predicting educational success. In the common grade dimension, girls and students with higher educational backgrounds were favored.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 58, no 2, 127-146 p.
Keyword [en]
compulsory school grades, upper secondary school grades, predictive validity, norm-referenced grades
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Pedagogics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-6218DOI: 10.1080/00313831.2012.705322ISI: 000332197300001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84897692909OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-6218DiVA: diva2:716033
Available from: 2014-05-07 Created: 2014-05-07 Last updated: 2015-06-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dimensionality and Predictive validity of school grades: the relative influence of cognitive and social-behavioral aspects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensionality and Predictive validity of school grades: the relative influence of cognitive and social-behavioral aspects
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the thesis is to investigate the relative influence of cognitive and social-behavioral aspects on compulsory school grades and the importance of the different dimensions for the predictive validity of grades. Data is retrieved from the Gothenburg Educational Longitudinal Database (GOLD) and the Evaluation Through Follow-up (ETF) database. The sample in Study I consisted of three cohorts each of about 100 000 students in Grade 9, in Study II of about 4000 students in Grade 9, and in Study III of about 9000 students who were followed-up through compulsory school. All analyses were conducted using structural equation modelling (SEM). Both criterion-referenced and norm-referenced compulsory school grades were found to be multidimensional, reflecting both subject-specific dimensions and a common-grade dimension, cutting across grades and teachers. The common-grade dimension, which in previous research has been found to be related to social-behavioral aspects, contributed to predict study success in upper secondary school, indicating that social-behavioral aspects partly contribute to explain the predictive power of school grades. The influence of cognitive aspects was substantial. Fluid abilities had a continuous direct influence on the development of knowledge and skills throughout compulsory school, which is in line with the predictions from Cattell's (1987) Investment theory. Substantial indirect effects of fluid abilities on school grades were found, although no direct effects. In sum the results in the present thesis show that both cognitive and social-behavioral aspects contribute to explain the predictive validity of school grades.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 2014. 112 p.
Series
Gothenburg studies in educational sciences, ISSN 0436-1121 ; 356
Keyword
Predictive validity criterion-referenced grades norm-referenced grades social-behavioral aspects crystallized abilities fluid abilities
National Category
Learning Pedagogical Work
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Educational science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-6724 (URN)9789173467988 (ISBN)978-91-7346-797-1 (ISBN)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-10-01 Created: 2014-10-01 Last updated: 2015-09-15Bibliographically approved

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