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Organisering av en fingerad verklighet: Om övningar mellan blåljusorganisationer
University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. (LINA)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0871-0475
University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level. Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och hälsa . (LINA)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9463-7341
University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology. (LINA)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6358-3528
2013 (Swedish)In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 34-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to elucidate exercise participants’ understanding of critical aspects of organizing and implementation of collaboration exercises with police, fire department and ambulance services. The focus is critical aspects in exercises that have, or are expected to have, bearing on the participants’ ability to learn. Collaboration exercises are used as a tool to reinforce and develop the preparedness for future incidents. The need for such exercises was usually advocated after critique to actions during largescale real-life incidents. The study had a qualitative approach and is based on phenomenographic analysis of interviews with participants from four exercises with different scenarios. The identified critical aspects of exercises were related to realism, acceptance for mistakes, exercise extent and aims and opportunities for joint discussions. The management of an accident can be described to a large extent depend on the organizations’ joint ability to adapt to the prevailing situation and to collaborate. For exercises to contribute to these abilities, they could benefit from shifting the focus to how to organize exercises that allow participants to test different decisions and actions, with less emphasis on the choice of scenario.

Abstract [sv]

Denna studie syftade till att belysa övningsdeltagarnas uppfattningar av hur samverkansövningar mellan polis, räddningstjänst och ambulans organiseras och genomförs. Särskilt fokuserades kritiska aspekter i övningar som har, eller förväntas ha, betydelse för deltagarnas möjligheter att lära. Samverkansövningar används som ett verktyg för att förstärka och utveckla gemensam beredskap inför framtida olyckor och katastrofer. Behovet av övningar på olika nivåer brukar aktualiseras efter kritik mot hanteringen av omfattande verkliga händelser. Studien hade en kvalitativ ansats och byggde på fenomenografisk analys av intervjuer med deltagare från fyra övningar med olika scenarier. Analysen visade att realism i övningarna, utrymme för misstag, övningarnas omfattning och syfte samt möjlighet till uppföljning uppfattades som särskilt kritiska aspekter. Hanteringen av en olycka beror i stor utsträckning på organisationernas förmåga att anpassa sig till den rådande situationen och utfallet av samverkan mellan organisationer. För att övningar ska bidra till dessa förmågor och fylla ett proaktivt syfte, bör fokus tydligare riktas mot organisering av övningar i syfte att ge deltagarna utrymme att pröva olika beslut och ageranden, och med mindre betoning på scenarioval.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 15, no 3, p. 34-64
Keywords [en]
exercise, collaboration, organizing, accident, crisis management, Sweden, WIL, Work-integrated Learning
Keywords [sv]
övning, samverkan, organisering, olycka, krishantering, Sverige, AIL
National Category
Pedagogical Work Public Administration Studies Business Administration Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Business administration; SOCIAL SCIENCE, Public administration; NURSING AND PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE, Nursing science; Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-5629OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-5629DiVA, id: diva2:655518
Available from: 2013-10-11 Created: 2013-10-11 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. In case of emergency: Collaboration exercises at the boundaries between emergency service organizations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In case of emergency: Collaboration exercises at the boundaries between emergency service organizations
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Due to the emergent and dynamic nature of incidents, the complexity of emergency work is often referred to as a challenge for learning. Another recurrent challenge in emergency work is that of collaboration at and across established organizational boundaries involving actors with specific types of expertise who are operating under different regulations and responsibilities. In addition, training emergency service organizations in collaboration remains a challenge. In light of the difficulties and shortcomings that have been identified in major incident responses, the need for exercises for developing and maintaining collaborative response effectiveness prior to the next incident is often highlighted. The overall aim of this thesis is to understand how full-scale exercises can provide conditions for developing inter-organizational collaboration between the police, ambulance and rescue services at the incident site. Learning activities that carry the potential to support and develop collaborative capacity, and how the alignment of distributed expertise can be trained for, were of particular interest. Interviews with participants in eight full-scale exercises with professionals and interviews and observations of one exercise with senior-level students in Sweden served as the empirical base.Central concepts from Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) provided theoretical tools to explore the exercises and understand boundaries between organizations with a wider, systemic approach. The empirical studies show that the participants understood full-scale exercises to be valuable opportunities for becoming involved in response work, making decisions, and acting and interacting in uncertain situations and realistic environments. As in real-life responses, exercises are characterized by the stabilization and confirmation of everyday routines on the one hand, and by improvisation and change on the other hand. The studies also show that exercises tend to focus on specific scenarios,intra-organizational routines, and leadership positions. Infrequent exercises inwhich the participants were only trained in a limited role were perceived to be in adequate for developing preparedness and collaboration. However, the analysis suggested that the way in which exercises were organized and performed had implications for how participants were trained in collaboration.Realizing the potential of boundaries as resources for learning in exercises depends on how boundaries are explicated and approached. Thus, rather than striving to ignore or eliminate boundaries in exercises, the studies illustrated the learning value of explicitly reflecting on the multiple understandings around boundaries. The studies demonstrated that much of the work at an incident site takes place around negotiations. Collaboration at the incident site was not only aquestion about boundary crossing; operational tasks may not always be aligned and have to be prioritized and sequenced. The exercises comprised work situations in which no single motive could explain or determine the collaboration,due to different types of expertise, primary responsibilities and needs forinformation. These factors were understood in terms of the concepts of boundarywork and boundary awareness. These concepts point at a more divergent understanding of collaboration that reaches beyond striving to create mutual understanding between organizations in learning activities. Differences between organizations, such as in terminology, time horizons, priorities, leadership structures, understandings of safety and how intra-organizational decisions and actions could impact the collaborating organizations' work, were central triggers for discussion and negotiation. These differences required explanations in order to make the actions and decisions of one organization understandable and justifiable to another, based on organizational mandates and types of expertise.Giving emergency services the opportunity to work together, to develop an awareness of their expectations of each other in various situations, to use and interpret their own and others' terminologies, and to identify internal hierarchies and motives for prioritizations was essential dimensions of exercises

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West, 2016. p. 135
Series
PhD Thesis: University West ; 8
Keywords
Exercise, Collaboration, Emergency preparedness, Emergency work, Police, Ambulance, Rescue service, Learning, Boundaries
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning; SOCIAL SCIENCE, Pedagogics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-9333 (URN)978-91-87531-29-3 (ISBN)978-91-87531-28-6 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-04-29 Last updated: 2016-06-27Bibliographically approved

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Eklund, AnnikaCarlström, EricBerlin, Johan

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