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Lärarprofessionalitet på glid: Performativ förskjutning av statlig och lärarfacklig utbildningspolicy
University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5163-7939
2010 (Swedish)In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 18-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Artikeln fokuserar den diskursiva förskjutningen av begreppet ’lärarprofessionalism’. Den ’professionella’ läraren ’uppstod’ i statliga policydokument i slutet av 1980-talet, i samband med avreglering och decentralisering av utbildningssystemet. Syftet med denna artikel är nu att utifrån ett kritiskt policysociologiskt perspektiv (Ball 1994, 2007, 2008) analysera talet om de ’professionella’ lärarna, eller den så kallade ’lärarprofessionalismen’.

 Det empiriska material som analyseras i studien omfattar texter där policyproducenten är staten (genom direktiv, utredningar och propositioner) och Sveriges största lärarfackliga organisation, Lärarförbundet. Jag har också valt att studera policytexter under två olika tidsperioder, 1995-2000 samt 2007-2008. Studien resulterar i att talet från de båda policyproducenterna kraftigt har förändrats eller förskjutits mellan de båda perioderna, och där lärarna idag styrs utifrån ett nytt ’conduct of conduct’ där yttre styrningsteknologier och en utökad performativitet påverkar lärarnas arbete och påstådda ’professionalitet’. Jag vågar därför påstå att lärarna inte har möjlighet att vara professionella, trots talet om ’lärarprofessionalism’.

Abstract [en]

From a classical sociological perspective, the teaching profession has never fulfilled the criteria characteristic of a profession. In the nineteen nineties, however, the Swedish government began for the first time to describe teachers as 'professionals' in articulations of its educational policy. Further, the rhetoric of teachers as 'professionals' is also emphasised in the policy texts drawn up at the time of the teacher education reform in 2001. At the same time one of the teacher unions, 'Lärarförbundet', launched a high profile campaign under the banner 'Teachers lift Sweden´(Lärarna lyfter Sverige) aimed at professionalizing the teaching profession and enhancing the status of the profession.

This article has its focus on the rhetoric of the 'professional' teacher and adopts a critical policy sociological perspective inspired by Stephen J. Ball (1994, 2007, 2008). My aim has been to study how the teachers, through discursive, naturalizing and normalizing practices, are represented as 'professionals' and, consequently, are disciplined through governmental technologies, including performative technologies (Ball 1994, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008; Foucault 1977, 1991, 2003). I also make visible the discursive transition to which the professional' teacher is submitted in the policy texts during the time span between 1995 and 2008. The producers of the empirical material are both the Swedish government (government bills and proposals) and policy texts from the largest teacher union in Sweden, 'Lärarförbundet'. Altogether, five governmental and seven policy texts from thethe teacher union are analysed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 15, no 1, p. 18-32
Keywords [en]
teachers, professionalism, critical policy sociology, governmentality, performativity
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Pedagogics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-3044OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-3044DiVA, id: diva2:390597
Available from: 2011-01-22 Created: 2011-01-22 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bäst i klassen?: Lärare och elever i svenska och europeiska policytexter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bäst i klassen?: Lärare och elever i svenska och europeiska policytexter
2011 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis takes its departure in the recent criticism directed to the Swedish school system and its schools, teachers and pupils, but especially the epidemic of policies produced in order to develop and improve Swedish schools, in particular after the change of government in 2006. The general aim of this thesis is to study how teachers and pupils are represented, and thus constructed, regulated and positioned in a number of current key policy texts. The study also involves a discussion of the construction and regulation practices regarding the school, and its role in society. The main context for the study is policy texts and policy practices related to teacher education. Four studies form the cornerstone of the thesis. Through these policy texts different institutional practices are analyzed. These range from European union policy to examination data from a local teacher education institution in Sweden. A main source of inspiration to the theoretical framework of the study has been provided by the work of Michel Foucault. However, in addition to Foucault's constructionist and poststructural basis, theoretical and methodological approaches drawn from Norman Fairclough's critical discourse analysis, Mark Olssen's social-materialist analysis of policy and Stephen J Ball's policy sociology are also included. The first study examines the constructions and governing technologies in four policy texts within the European Union working programme 'Education 2010'. The second study takes a historical perspective in the construction of teachers and pupils, based on teacher education policy text since 1948, and how the ideal teacher, pupil and school are constructed and positioned genealogically. The third study explores the discursive notions of teacher professionalism and how the regulation of teachers operates through this and other discursive practices by the Swedish government and the Teacher union (Lärarförbundet) during two different time periods, 1995-2000 and 2007-2008. The final study examines student teachers' examination assignments, as a local policy practice, and how the student teachers position the ideal pupil and themselves as ideal teachers. It examines how different policy discourses operate in relation to positioning practices. The thesis shows that current neoliberal discourse order in educational policy today is partly challenged by neoconservative rationalities. Secondly, the thesis shows how each teacher and pupil is governed through several discourses, governing technologies and governing techniques, and how these three entities function relationally in the governing of the subject. In common for discourses, governing technologies and techniques are that they are often very 'seductively packaged', which implies that it is almost impossible to resist and oppose them. Finally I claim that the current discourse order, and its discourses, and governing technologies and techniques imply structural inequalities for teachers, but especially between different pupil groups

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 2011. p. 127
Series
Gothenburg studies in educational sciences, ISSN 0436-1121 ; 302
Keywords
lärare, elever, policy, Foucault, lärarutbildning, makt
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Pedagogics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-4827 (URN)978-91-7346-696-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-02-25, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-12-10 Created: 2012-11-25 Last updated: 2014-05-08Bibliographically approved

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