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Spatial Spillovers of Knowledge Production: An Accessibility Approach
University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main focus of the thesis is on issues concerning production of knowledge. It is a common observation that knowledge activities have a tendency to agglomerate as well as to spill over in space. In order to incorporate geographical proximity, the thesis applies an accessibility approach in which actual travel time distances between locations are used to discount spatial knowledge spillovers. The thesis consists of three individual essays and a joint introduction. The first essay explores to what extent accessibility to R&D conducted at universities and companies can explain the number of patent applications in Swedish municipalities. The second essay analyses the relationship between knowledge accessibility and regional export performance. The knowledge resources used are R&D efforts and university educated labour. Since the distributions of the dependent variables are skewed with a few influential outliers, the estimations are conducted with quantile regressions. The empirical findings indicate that accessibility to university R&D has minor effects on patent production and export performance in Sweden. However, the other used inputs, i.e. accessibility to company R&D and accessibility to university educated labour, are of greater importance. The results also show that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions. The third essay investigates how the inclusion of accessibility variables, i.e. spatially lagged explanatory variables, affects the extent of spatial autocorrelation. The basic proposition is that the inclusion of inputs external to the spatial observation as separate variables reveals spatial dependencies via the parameter estimates. This is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. The Monte Carlo Simulations also indicate that problems with spatial autocorrelation and biased parameter estimates are reduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Internationella Handelshögskolan , 2006. , 153 p.
Series
JIBS dissertation series, ISSN 1403-0470 ; 34
Keyword [sv]
nationalekonomi
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-2040ISBN: 91-89164-68-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-2040DiVA: diva2:280481
Public defence
2006-09-13, Sal B1014, Internationella Handelshögskolan, Jönköping, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2010-03-03 Created: 2009-12-10 Last updated: 2010-03-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Accessibility to R&D and Patent Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accessibility to R&D and Patent Production
2005 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main purpose in this paper is to study to what extent accessibility to R&D can explain patent production. Therefore a knowledge production function is estimated both on aggregated level and for different industrial sectors. The output of the knowledge production is the number patent applications in Swedish municipalities from 1994 to 1999. In order to account for the importance of proximity, the explanatory variables are expressed as accessibilities to university and company R&D. The total accessibility is then decomposed into local, intra-regional and inter-regional accessibility to R&D. As often is the case with R&D outputs, the regional distribution of patents is highly skewed with influential outliers. The estimations are therefore conducted with quantile regressions. The main results on aggregated level indicate that high accessibility (local) to company R&D has the greatest positive effects on patent production. The effects are statistically significant for municipalities with a patent production corresponding to the median and to quantiles above the median. Local accessibility to university R&D is only of importance for certain industrial sectors and not on aggregated level. There is also evidence that intra-regional accessibility to company R&D affects patent production positively. A conclusion is that concentrated R&D investments in companies situated in municipalities with a high patenting activity would not only gain the municipalities themselves, but also the patent production in other municipalities in the functional region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: The Royal Institute of technology, 2005. 35 p.
Series
Electronic Working Paper Series, 37
Keyword
innovations, patents, R&D, knowledge production functions
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-2073 (URN)
Available from: 2009-12-18 Created: 2009-12-18 Last updated: 2011-01-05Bibliographically approved
2. University-educated labor, R&D and regional export performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>University-educated labor, R&D and regional export performance
2008 (English)In: International regional science review, ISSN 0160-0176, Vol. 31, no 3, 211-256 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE, 2008
Keyword
Exports, Knowledge production, Quantile regression, Research and development (R&D)
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Social science, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-1529 (URN)10.1177/0160017608319335 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-05-13 Created: 2009-05-13 Last updated: 2010-03-03Bibliographically approved
3. On the Specification of Regression Models with Spatial Dependence: An Application of the Accessibility concept
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Specification of Regression Models with Spatial Dependence: An Application of the Accessibility concept
2005 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Using the taxonomy by Anselin (2003), this paper investigates how the inclusion of spatially discounted variables on the ‘right-hand-side’ (RHS) in empirical spatial models affects the extent of spatial autocorrelation. The basic proposition is that the inclusion of inputs external to the spatial observation in question as a separate variable reveals spatial dependence via the parameter estimate. One of the advantages of this method is that it allows for a direct interpretation. The paper also tests to what extent significance of the estimated parameters of the spatially discounted explanatory variables can be interpreted as evidence of spatial dependence. Additionally, the paper advocates the use of the accessibility concept for spatial weights. Accessibility is related to spatial interaction theory and can be motivated theoretically by adhering to the preference structure in random choice theory. Monte Carlo Simulations show that the coefficient estimates of the accessibility variables are significantly different from zero in the case of modelled effects. The rejection frequency of the three typical tests (Moran’s I, LM-lag and LM-err) is significantly reduced when these additional variables are included in the model. When the coefficient estimates of the accessibility variables are statistically significant, it suggests that problems of spatial autocorrelation are significantly reduced. Significance of the accessibility variables can be interpreted as spatial dependence

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology, 2005. 27 p.
Series
Electronic Working Paper Series, 51
Keyword
accessibility, spatial dependence, spatial econometrics, Monte Carlo Simulations, spatial
National Category
Economics
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-2074 (URN)
Available from: 2009-12-18 Created: 2009-12-18 Last updated: 2010-03-22Bibliographically approved

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