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Violence in Close Relationships, Sexual Risk taking, and Help-seeking among Young Men
University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy. (BUV)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3152-3042
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 In close relationships and through sexual intimacy, most adolescents and young adults have opportunities to develop the ability to experience emo-tional intimacy and trust. This thesis focuses on problematic phenomena that can occur in these situations. Study I addressed limitations in the literature on dating violence concerning prevalence rates, dynamic risk factors, and the effectiveness of intervention programs. The results showed that preva-lence ratings of physical dating violence ranged between 10% and 20%, and that psychological/emotional violence is the most frequently experienced type of abuse. Peer influence was found to be an important risk factor for dating violence. Interventions were found to have short-term positive effects on behavioral change. In Study II, 88 adolescents participated in focus group sessions. The aim was to determine the extent to which a universal set of themes about dating violence could represent adolescents’ attitudes, as part of a study across four European countries. The study identified four superor-dinate themes: gender roles, television as an educator, perceived severity, and the decision to seek help. Study III, concerning sexual risk-taking, in-volved a survey of young men (N=452) who were testing for sexually trans-mitted infections (STIs). Results revealed that the young men had a relative-ly high average number of partners (3.8) with whom they had had unprotect-ed sex i.e., they had done so at some point in the past. In addition, almost a fifth of them were reluctant to use a condom due to erection difficulties. A relatively high proportion had been subjected to sexual coercion (14.7%). Study IV explored 30 young men’s descriptions of how members of their social networks had influenced them to seek psychological help. Results showed that young men were influenced by their networks mainly through exhortation and drawing attention to their needs. Friends who were role models were especially influential in helping them overcome obstructive masculinity norms and move from reluctance toward more constructive atti-tudes regarding help-seeking. This thesis focuses on young men’s experi-ences with relationship violence, as well as their sexual and psychological health needs, all of which have clinical implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2020. , p. 83
Series
Avhandling/Göteborgs universitet, Psykologiska inst, ISSN 1101-718X
Keywords [en]
dating violence, young men, sexual risk-taking, social network, help-seeking
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Child and Youth studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16275ISBN: 978-91-8009-077-3 (print)ISBN: 978-91-8009-076-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-16275DiVA, id: diva2:1527367
Public defence
(Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-02-10 Created: 2021-02-10 Last updated: 2021-02-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Prevalence, dynamic risk factors and the efficacy of primary interventions for adolescent dating violence: An international review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence, dynamic risk factors and the efficacy of primary interventions for adolescent dating violence: An international review
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Aggression and Violent Behavior, ISSN 1359-1789, E-ISSN 1873-6335, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 159-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adolescent dating violence is a pressing international issue: yet, there have been few attempts to collate the international evidence regarding this phenomenon. This article reviews contemporary evidence from Europe and North America on prevalence, dynamic risk factors, and the efficacy of intervention programs for adolescent dating violence. Prevalence findings suggest that victimization rates are comparable across Europe and North America. Although individual studies report differing prevalences, the overall hierarchy of violence types - in which psychological/emotional violence is most and sexual violence least prevalent - is consistent across almost all investigations. Four dynamic risk factors for perpetration are identified: peer influence, substance use, psychological adjustment and competencies, and attitudes towards violence. Peer influences and attitudes towards violence appear to be the most extensively evidenced factors in the literature. Nine existing intervention programs are identified, all located within North America. Intervention results are mixed, with some evaluations reporting significant long-term benefits while others report positive intervention effects dissipate throughout follow-up. Tentative analysis suggests that programs focused on behavioral change may elicit sustainable effects more readily. However, this is difficult to ascertain with no data on program repetitions and variations across intervention pedagogy and sample. Concerns with existing research and interventions and possible future directions are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords
Adolescent dating violence, Domestic violence, Literature review, Violence intervention program, Violence prevalence, Violence risk factors
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-5043 (URN)10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.015 (DOI)000314440400019 ()2-s2.0-84871481552 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2021-02-10Bibliographically approved
2. How social networks influence young men to seek psychological help
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How social networks influence young men to seek psychological help
2021 (English)In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 153-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a growing body of literature that recognizes young men's reluctance to seek psychological help. However, how young men perceive the role of their social networks in their decision to seek help has received limited attention in research. Using thematic analysis, this study investigated 30 young men's description of how members from three categories of their social networks: partner, family and friends have influenced them to seek psychological help and how they have experienced this influence. The results show that certain themes recur between various members of men's social networks while others were unique to roles in the social network. How this information can be used to make it easier for young men to seek psychological help is discussed.

Keywords
young men, psychological help-seeking, social networks
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16047 (URN)10.1080/19012276.2020.1839540 (DOI)000585408300001 ()2-s2.0-85095812285 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-11-22 Created: 2020-11-22 Last updated: 2022-03-30Bibliographically approved
3. Sexual risk-taking among young Swedish men testing for STI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sexual risk-taking among young Swedish men testing for STI
2021 (English)In: European journal of contraception & reproductive health care, ISSN 1362-5187, E-ISSN 1473-0782, no 2, p. 155-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates sexual risk-taking among young men testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI).

SAMPLING METHOD: 452 participants (aged 18-30) completed surveys concerning their backgrounds, sexual risk-taking, and experience with STI.

RESULTS: Over one-third had used alcohol during their last sexual encounter, one-fifth were reluctant to use condoms due to concerns about erection difficulties, 14.7% had experienced sexual coercion and one-fifth reported having had contracted the most common STI, chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Older participants (aged 25-30) were more reluctant to use condoms because of erection worries and to report having had CT. Immigrant men reported more unprotected sex while men who have sex with men (MSM) were more exposed to sexual coercion than others, but less likely to use alcohol when having sex.

CONCLUSIONS: There are important differences in sexual risk-taking within the group of young men testing for sexually transmitted infections which need to be taken into account in developing effective counselling and promotion strategies in sexual and reproductive health care. Further research on young men's sexual risk-taking is needed to broaden understanding of factors associated with young men's sexual health.

Keywords
SRH, Young men, chlamydia trachomatis, condom use, erection difficulties, sexual debut, unprotected sex
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Nursing Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Research subject
Child and Youth studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-15969 (URN)10.1080/13625187.2020.1821355 (DOI)000574957100001 ()33006520 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85092097600 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-10-08 Created: 2020-10-08 Last updated: 2022-01-19Bibliographically approved
4. Northern European Adolescent Attitudes Toward Dating Violence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Northern European Adolescent Attitudes Toward Dating Violence
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Violence and Victims, ISSN 0886-6708, E-ISSN 1945-7073, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 619-634Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes toward dating violence among 86 adolescents (aged 12-17) from four northern European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium). Four superordinate themes were identified from thematic analyses: gender identities, television as the educator, perceived acceptability of dating violence, and the decision to seek help/tell someone. Although violence in relationships was generally not condoned, when violence was used by females, was unintended (despite its consequences), or was in retaliation for infidelity, violence was perceived as acceptable. Adolescents indicated that their views were stereotypical and based solely on stereotypical television portrayals of violence in relationships. Stereotypical beliefs and portrayals generate barriers for victimized males to seek help because of fear of embarrassment.

Keywords
adolescence, dating violence, attitudes; Europe
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-5658 (URN)10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-12-0009 (DOI)000322548400004 ()
Available from: 2013-10-21 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2021-02-10Bibliographically approved

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