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Depressive symptoms and non-suicidal self-injury during adolescence: Latent patterns of short-term stability and change
Örebro University, Sweden.
University of British Columbia, Canada.
University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. (BUV)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2901-0187
2019 (English)In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 75, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction:

Depressive symptoms and non-suicidal self-injury not only increase in prevalenceduring adolescence, but they can also occur together. Both psychological problems seem to have similar precipitating conditions, suggesting they have transdiagnostic conditions—personal or contextual characteristics that contribute to co-occurrence. We sought to understand when these two problems co-occur and what is related to their co-occurrence.

Methods:

Using a pattern-centered approach and two waves of longitudinal data collected an-nually, we examined latent profiles of depressive symptoms and self-injury among a Swedish sample of adolescents aged 12 to 16 (MageT1= 13.65 years,SD= 0.64), 53.7% boys and 47.3% girls. Most of the adolescents were Swedish (89%), with parents who were married or cohabitating (68%). We also examined the transitions between profiles over time.

Results:

Our results suggest that during this time frame, depressive symptoms and self-injury tend to emerge and stabilize or abate together. We also examined a broad array of predictors, including individual characteristics, emotion dysregulation, experiences with friends, parents' negative reactions to behavior, and school stress. The significant unique predictors suggest that adolescents who reported being subjected to relational aggression, having negative experienceswhile drinking, and low self-esteem had a greater probability of moving from moderate to high levels or maintaining high levels of depressive symptoms and self-injury, compared to adolescents classified in the other statuses.

Conclusions:

Focusing on negative interpersonal experiences and selfesteem as transdiagnostic conditions may guide research and aid clinicians in supporting adolescents who feel depressed and engage in self-injury. Symptoms of depression increase during adolescence (Hankin et al., 1998;Lewinsohn, Rohde, Seeley, Klein, & Gotlib, 2000) as doself-injurious behaviors (Hilt, Nock, Lloyd-Richardson, & Prinstein, 2008; Lloyd-Richardson, Perrine, Dierker, & Kelley, 2007; Ross &Heath, 2002). Defined as direct and intentional destruction of one's own body tissue without suicidal intent, non-suicidal self-injury(NSSI) includes cutting, hitting, burning, and scratching (Nock, 2010). Although rates of NSSI are typically lower than those of depressive symptoms, they often covary (Auerbach et al., 2014; Lloyd-Richardson et al., 2007; Nock, Joiner, Gordon, Lloyd-Richardson, & Prinstein, 2006; Zetterqvist, Lundh, Dahlström, & Svedin, 2013). In this study, we focused on the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and NSSI. We aimed to understand when these problems occurred together, in comparison to when adolescents exhibit only one problem or none and to explore how co-occurrence arises.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.07.013

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 75, p. 163-174
Keywords [en]
Adolescence, Self-injury, Self-harm, Depression, Profiles, Mixture modeling
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Child and Youth studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14777DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.07.013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-14777DiVA, id: diva2:1379503
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved

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