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Predicting the Microstructural Evolution of Electron Beam Melting of Alloy 718 with Phase-Field Modeling
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4087-6467
Linköping University, Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, 58183, Sweden.
Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Göteborg, 412 96, Sweden.
NTNU, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IMA, Alfred Getz vei 2, Trondheim, 7491, Norway.
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2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 50A, no 5, p. 527-2537Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electron beam melting (EBM) is a powder bed additive manufacturing process where a powder material is melted selectively in a layer-by-layer approach using an electron beam. EBM has some unique features during the manufacture of components with high-performance superalloys that are commonly used in gas turbines such as Alloy 718. EBM has a high deposition rate due to its high beam energy and speed, comparatively low residual stresses, and limited problems with oxidation. However, due to the layer-by-layer melting approach and high powder bed temperature, the as-built EBM Alloy 718 exhibits a microstructural gradient starting from the top of the sample. In this study, we conducted modeling to obtain a deeper understanding of microstructural development during EBM and the homogenization that occurs during manufacturing with Alloy 718. A multicomponent phase-field modeling approach was combined with transformation kinetic modeling to predict the microstructural gradient and the results were compared with experimental observations. In particular, we investigated the segregation of elements during solidification and the subsequent "in situ" homogenization heat treatment at the elevated powder bed temperature. The predicted elemental composition was then used for thermodynamic modeling to predict the changes in the continuous cooling transformation and time-temperature transformation diagrams for Alloy 718, which helped to explain the observed phase evolution within the microstructure. The results indicate that the proposed approach can be employed as a valuable tool for understanding processes and for process development, including post-heat treatments. © 2019, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 50A, no 5, p. 527-2537
Keywords [en]
3D printers; Deposition rates; Electron beam melting; Electron beams; Forecasting; Gas turbines; Microstructural evolution; Solid solutions; Temperature, Additive manufacturing process; Continuous cooling transformation; Elemental compositions; Layer-by-layer approaches; Microstructural development; Microstructural gradients; Transformation diagrams; Transformation kinetics, Heat treatment
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13756DOI: 10.1007/s11661-019-05163-7ISI: 000463991300038Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85062604965OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-13756DiVA, id: diva2:1315092
Funder
Knowledge FoundationEuropean Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-07-25Bibliographically approved

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Kumara, ChamaraMoverare, JohanNylén, Per

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