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Distraktion som smärtlindring vid venpunktion på barn: en systematisk litteraturöversikt
University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
2018 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Distraction as painrelief during venipuncture in children : a systematic review (English)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Trots ökad kunskap om smärtlindring för barn under de senaste decennierna utsätts de för många smärtsamma procedurer inom vården utan tillräcklig smärtlindring. Denna smärta kan orsaka smärta och oro som i ett senare skede leder till att barnen i framtiden undviker eller helt låter bli dessa procedurer. Detta kan leda till ovaccinerad befolkning och långa kostsamma vårdtider relaterat till ovilja att genomgå behandlingar. Smärtlindring vid venpunktion på barn idag ges ofta idag som ytlig anestesi. Denna metod är kostsam samt har bieffekter och tar tid. Distraktion är en smärtlindringsmetod som används vanligt inom vården. Det är en snabb och enkel metod utan biverkningar som tidigare visat sig vara effektiv som smärtlindring vid smärtsamma procedurer på barn.

Syfte: Att undersöka den smärtlindrande effekten av distraktion vid venpunktion på barn.

Metod: En systematisk litteratursökning av kvantitativa studier publicerade mellan år 2007 till 2017 genomfördes i databaserna PubMed och CINAHL. Studier som undersökte den smärtlindrande effekten av distraktion vid venpunktion hos barn inkluderades. Dessa kvalitetsgranskades av författaren och sju studier inkluderades i studien. Dessa sammanställdes i en tabell gällande innehåll och kvalitet.

Resultat: Tre av fem studier talar för att distraktion vid venpunktion på barn har en smärtlindrande effekt. Tre av fem studier såg en minskad oro då distraktion användes vid venpunktion på barn.

Slutsats: Studiens resultat tyder på att distraktion vid venpunktion på barn har en smärtlindrande effekt. Den tyder även på att distraktion minskar deras upplevda oro under proceduren. Distraktion som smärtlindring kan således vara effektiv vid venpunktion på barn. Evidensläget är dock svagt på grund av ett litet forskningsunderlag. Vidare studier på effekten av distraktion vid venpunktion på barn är därför rekommenderat.

Abstract [en]

Background: Despite increased knowledge of pain relief in children during the recent decades, children are still exposed of many painful procedures in healthcare without sufficient painrelief. This may cause the child pain and anxiety as at a later stage leads to them avoiding or refusing these procedures completely. This can lead to an unvaccinated population and long expensive care time related to an unwillingness to undergo treatments. Painrelief during venipuncture in children today is oftenly given as a topical anesthesia. It is an expensive method and it also comes with side effects and takes time to use. Distraction is a painreliefing method commonly used in todays healthcare. It is a quick and simple method without side effects wich has proven to be effective in the past during painful procedures in children.

Aim: Examine the painreliefing effect of distraction during venipuncture in children.

Methods: A systematic literature review of papers published from 2007 to 2017 were conducted in the databases PubMed, CINAHL. Studies that examined the painrelifing effects of distraction in children undergoing venipuncture were included. These studies were then assessed in quality by the author of this study. Seven of the studies were finally included in this review. They were compiled in a tabel regarding contence and quality.

Results: Three of five studies implicate that distraction during venipuncture in children has a painrelieving effect. Three of five studies noticed a lower level of anxiety when distraction was used during venipuncture in children.

Conclusions: The studies included indicates that distraction as painrelief during venipuncture in children is effective. They also indicate that the use of distraction reduces there anxiety during the procedure. Concluded distraction during venipuncture in children may be effective. However, the evidence of this study is low due to the small size of the scientific material existed. Further studies is recommended to determine the effect of distraction during venipuncture in children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 15
Keywords [en]
Children, distraction, pain, venipuncture
Keywords [sv]
Barn, distraktion, smärta, venpunktion
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12530Local ID: EXS701OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-12530DiVA, id: diva2:1222570
Subject / course
Nursing science
Educational program
Specialist nursing programme
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-21 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved

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