Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Laser Metal Deposition using Alloy 718 Powder: Influence of Process Parameters on Material Characteristics
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1472-5489
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a general name used for manufacturing methods which have the capabilities of producing components directly from 3D computeraided design (CAD) data by adding material layer-by-layer until a final componentis achieved. Included here are powder bed technologies, laminated object manufacturing and deposition technologies. The latter technology is used in this study. Laser Metal Powder Deposition (LMPD) is an AM method which builds components by fusing metallic powder together with a metallic substrate, using a laser as energy source. The powder is supplied to the melt-pool, which is created by the laser, through a powder nozzle which can be lateral or coaxial. Both the powder nozzle and laser are mounted on a guiding system, normally a computer numerical control (CNC) machine or a robot. LMPD has lately gained attentionas a manufacturing method which can add features to semi-finished components or as a repair method. LMPD introduce a low heat input compared to conventional arc welding methods and is therefore well suited in, for instance, repair of sensitive parts where too much heating compromises the integrity of the part. The main part of this study has been focused on correlating the main process parameters to effects found in the material which in this project is the superalloy Alloy 718. It has been found that the most influential process parameters are the laser power, scanning speed, powder feeding rate and powder standoff distance.These process parameters have a significant effect on the temperature history ofthe material which, among others, affects the grain structure, phase transformation, and cracking susceptibility of the material. To further understand the effects found in the material, temperature measurements has been conducted using a temperature measurement method developed and evaluated in this project. This method utilizes a thin stainless steel sheet to shield the thermocouple from the laser light. This has proved to reduce the influence of the laser energy absorbed by the thermocouples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West , 2017. , p. 104
Series
PhD Thesis: University West ; 12
Keywords [en]
Additive manufacturing; Laser metal deposition; Powder; Superalloy; Material characterization
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology; ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11842ISBN: 978-91-87531-68-2 (print)ISBN: 978-91-87531-67-5 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-11842DiVA, id: diva2:1161118
Public defence
2017-12-18, F104, Trollhättan, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Review of Laser Deposited Superalloys Using Powder as an Additive
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of Laser Deposited Superalloys Using Powder as an Additive
2014 (English)In: 8th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Ott, E., Banik, A., Andersson, J., Dempster, I., Gabb, T., Groh, J., Heck, K., Helmink, R., Liu, X. & Wusatowska-Sarnek, A, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 393-408Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2014
Keywords
Laser, Deposition, Additive manufacturing, Powder, Nickel, Nickel-iron, Superalloy
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-7186 (URN)10.1002/9781119016854.fmatter (DOI)2-s2.0-84923070258 (Scopus ID)978-1-119-01680-9 (ISBN)9781119016854 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives, TMS (The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society) September 28-October 1, 2014, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA,
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation of a temperature measurement method developed for laser metal deposition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a temperature measurement method developed for laser metal deposition
2017 (English)In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measuring temperatures in the material during laser metal deposition (LMD) has an inherent challenge caused by the laser. When thermocouples are radiated by the high intensity laser light overheating occurs which causes the thermocouple to fail. Another identified difficulty is that when the laser passes a thermocouple, emitted light heats the thermocouple to a higher temperature than the material actually experience. In order to cope with these challenges, a method of measuring temperatures during LMD of materials using protective sheets has been developed and evaluated as presented in this paper. The method has substantially decreased the risk of destroying the thermocouple wires during laser deposition. Measurements using 10 mm2 and 100 mm2 protective sheets have been compared. These measurements show small variations in the cooling time (∼0.1 s from 850°C to 500°C) between the small and large protective sheets which indicate a negligible effect on the temperature measurement. © 2016 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

Keywords
Laser metal deposition, additive manufacturing, powder, Alloy 718, temperature measurement
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology; ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-8803 (URN)10.1080/13621718.2016.1169363 (DOI)000387910300001 ()2-s2.0-84978471771 (Scopus ID)
Note

Ingår i lic.avhandling

Available from: 2015-12-15 Created: 2015-12-15 Last updated: 2018-04-11Bibliographically approved
3. Investigation of laser metal deposited Alloy 718 onto an EN 1.4401 stainless steel substrate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of laser metal deposited Alloy 718 onto an EN 1.4401 stainless steel substrate
2017 (English)In: Optics and Laser Technology, ISSN 0030-3992, E-ISSN 1879-2545, Vol. 97, no Supplement C, p. 144-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on how process parameters affect the deposition of Alloy 718 onto an EN 1.4401 stainless steel substrate in terms of secondary phase formation, dilution and hardness. A columnar solidification structure with elongated grains growing in the direction normal to the substrate was observed for all parameters. In the interdendritic regions, phases with a high content of Niobium were identified. Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy measurements revealed these phases to most likely be Laves phase and Nb-carbides. Temperature measurements indicated no significant aging in the deposits. Considerable enrichment of iron was found in the initially deposited layers due to dilution from the substrate. The increased content of iron seemed to aid in forming constituents rich in niobium which, in turn, influenced the hardness. The highest mean hardness was noted in the sample with the lowest area fraction of Nb-rich constituents.

Keywords
Laser metal deposition, Additive manufacturing, Powder, Superalloy, Stainless steel
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11578 (URN)10.1016/j.optlastec.2017.05.038 (DOI)000409284800019 ()2-s2.0-85021979985 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-07-03Bibliographically approved
4. Influence of Heat Input on Grain Structure in Thin-Wall Deposits using Laser Metal Powder Deposition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Heat Input on Grain Structure in Thin-Wall Deposits using Laser Metal Powder Deposition
2016 (English)In: The 7th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS16, Conference Proceedings: 25th – 27th of October 2016, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2016, p. -7Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing method which is used to deposit material directly onto a metal surface layer upon layer until a final component is achieved. The material used in this study is the nickel iron based superalloy Alloy 718. There is a strong thermal gradient associated with this method which generally produces columnar grains growing in the build-up direction. The preferred solidification orientation of the FCC matrix is in the (001) direction which makes it possible to build directionally solidified structures with epitaxial grains growing through the layers. In this study LMD with powder as additive has been used to build thin walled samples, multiple layers high. The main objectives of this research are to assess the influence of the heat input on the grain structure in LMD builds and evaluate how the morphology and texture of the grains are affected by the changes in process parameters. Two different parameter sets are compared where a high and a low heat input have been used. The two samples with different heat inputs have been evaluated using a scanning electron microscope coupled to an electron back scatter diffraction detector in order to obtain quantitative grains size measurements as well as crystallographic information. It was shown that the grain structure was considerably affected by the heat input where the high heat input produced a strong texture with columnar grains growing in the build-up direction. With a low heat input the grains became finer and, although elongated, the grains became more equiaxed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Swedish Production Academy, 2016
Keywords
Laser metal deposition, additive manufacturing, crystallography, iron-nickel superalloy
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-10248 (URN)
Conference
7th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS16, Lund, Sweden, October 25–27, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2018-07-03Bibliographically approved
5. Microstructural Characterization of Laser Metal Powder Deposited Alloy 718
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural Characterization of Laser Metal Powder Deposited Alloy 718
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A microstructural study of Laser Metal Powder Deposition (LMPD) of Alloy 718, using a low (40 J/mm) and high (100 J/mm) heat inputs (HIs) was performed. The microstructure was characterized in as-deposited condition as well as after a standard heat-treatment, using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Laves, MC-carbides, γ' and γ'' are observed in the interdendritic areas of both conditions. However, the dendritic core only consists of γ-matrix. The high HI condition shows a slightly larger Primary Dendrite Arm Spacing (PDAS) as compared to the low HI condition. Additionally, the particle size of the Nb-rich constituents in the interdendriticregions (Laves-phase and Niobium carbide) are larger in the high HI sample. After heat-treatment, the Laves phase dissolves and is replaced by δ-phase in the interdendritic regions, while γ', γ'' and MC-carbideremain in the interdendritic regions. However, the γ'' precipitates seems to be less developed in the dendritic core as compared to the interdendritic regions, especially in the high HI sample. This can be attributed to a heterogeneous distribution of Nb in the microstructure, with a lower Nb content in the dendritic core as compared to close to the interdendritic regions.

Keywords
Laser Metal Deposition, Additive manufacturing, Powder, Superalloy, Microstructure
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology; ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11840 (URN)
Note

Ingår i avhandling

Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
6. Effect of Process Parameters on the Crack Formation in Laser Metal Powder Deposition of Alloy 718
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Process Parameters on the Crack Formation in Laser Metal Powder Deposition of Alloy 718
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cracking in Alloy 718 using laser metal powder deposition has been evaluated in this study. It is found that the material is susceptible to cracking when the laser power is high, the scanning speed is high and the powder feeding rate is low. Almost all the cracks are located close to the center of the deposited wall and propagates in the normal direction to the substrate. Evidence of liquation are found at the cracked surfaces and since all cracks reside in regions which are reheated several times, the cracks are determined to mostlikely be heat affected zone liquation cracks. The influence of respective process parameter was evaluated using a design of experiment approach. It is shown that, when the powder feeding rate is incorporated as avariable, the heat input is not a suitable indicator for the hot cracking susceptibility in laser metal powder deposition of Alloy 718. A combinatory model using the power ratio together with the heat input is therefore proposed.

Keywords
Laser Metal Deposition, Additive manufacturing, Powder, Superalloy, Cracking, Characterization
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology; ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11841 (URN)
Note

Ingår i avhandling

Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(104 kB)56 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 104 kBChecksum SHA-512
7c991055b43e80e7b225281db5ed7467bdf2df549d8c07b7c3cee94fb03b2b54b784e070c7367c5674cd907c01de0df543a9256ce29610d4bd8a2bee73a97229
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
fulltext(27049 kB)187 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 27049 kBChecksum SHA-512
971dec0683c14248d50daba4072f97f40c3b10ae50b9b90470d6e2ad1d9d8d8fd70d569fb4f56e2c971c6ec17e50cad1eee6466342de228cfc4899f54a2b3884
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Authority records BETA

Segerstark, Andreas

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Segerstark, Andreas
By organisation
Division of Welding Technology
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 243 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 2044 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf