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Multi-Robot Motion Planning Optimisation for Handling Sheet Metal Parts
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0044-2795
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Motion planning for robot operations is concerned with path planning and trajectory generation. In multi-robot systems, i.e. with multiple robots operating simultaneously in a shared workspace, the motion planning also needs to coordinate the robots' motions to avoid collisions between them. The multi-robot coordination decides the cycle-time for the planned paths and trajectories since it determines to which extend the operations can take place simultaneously without colliding. To obtain the quickest cycle-time, there needs to bean optimal balance between, on the one hand short paths and fast trajectories, and on the other hand possibly longer paths and slower trajectories to allow that the operations take place simultaneously in the shared workspace. Due to the inter-dependencies, it becomes necessary to consider the path planning, trajectory generation and multi-robot coordination together as one optimisation problem in order to find this optimal balance.This thesis focusses on optimising the motion planning for multi-robot material handling systems of sheet metal parts. A methodology to model the relevant aspects of this motion planning problem together as one multi-disciplinary optimisation problem for Simulation based Optimisation (SBO) is proposed. The identified relevant aspects include path planning,trajectory generation, multi-robot coordination, collision-avoidance, motion smoothness, end-effectors' holding force, cycle-time, robot wear, energy efficiency, part deformations, induced stresses in the part, and end-effectors' design. The cycle-time is not always the (only) objective since it is sometimes equally/more important to minimise robot wear, energy consumption, and/or part deformations. Different scenarios for these other objectives are therefore also investigated. Specialised single- and multi-objective algorithms are proposed for optimising the motion planning of these multi-robot systems. This thesis also investigates how to optimise the velocity and acceleration profiles of the coordinated trajectories for multi-robot material handling of sheet metal parts. Another modelling methodology is proposed that is based on a novel mathematical model that parametrises the velocity and acceleration profiles of the trajectories, while including the relevant aspects of the motion planning problem excluding the path planning since the paths are now predefined.This enables generating optimised trajectories that have tailored velocity and acceleration profiles for the specific material handling operations in order to minimise the cycle-time,energy consumption, or deformations of the handled parts.The proposed methodologies are evaluated in different scenarios. This is done for real world industrial case studies that consider the multi-robot material handling of a multi-stage tandem sheet metal press line, which is used in the automotive industry to produce the cars' body panels. The optimisation results show that significant improvements can be obtained compared to the current industrial practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West , 2017. , 196 p.
Series
PhD Thesis: University West, 10
Keyword [en]
Multi-robot systems, motion planning, modelling and simulation, optimisation
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-10947ISBN: 978-91-87531-58-3 (print)ISBN: 978-91-87531-57-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-10947DiVA: diva2:1098575
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-24 Created: 2017-05-24 Last updated: 2017-05-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Constructive cooperative coevolutionary optimisation for interacting production stations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constructive cooperative coevolutionary optimisation for interacting production stations
2015 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 78, no 1-4, 673-688 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optimisation of the control function for multiple automated interacting production stations is a complex problem, even for skilled and experienced operators or process planners. When using mathematical optimisation techniques, it often becomes necessary to use simulation models to represent the problem because of the high complexity (i.e. simulation-based optimisation). Standard optimisation techniques are likely to either exceed the practical time frame or under-perform compared to the manual tuning by the operators or process planners. This paper presents the Constructive cooperative coevolutionary (C3) algorithm, which objective is to enable effective simulation-based optimisation for the control of automated interacting production stations within a practical time frame. C3 is inspired by an existing cooperative coevolutionary algorithm. Thereby, it embeds an algorithm that optimises subproblems separately. C3 also incorporates a novel constructive heuristic to find good initial solutions and thereby expedite the optimisation. In this work, two industrial optimisation problems, involving interaction production stations, with different sizes are used to evaluate C3. The results illustrate that with C3, it is possible to optimise these problems within a practical time frame and obtain a better solution compared to manual tuning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Springer London, 2015
Keyword
Manufacturing automation, metaheuristic optimisation algorithm, optimised production technology, interacting production stations, sheet metal press line
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-7586 (URN)10.1007/s00170-015-7012-7 (DOI)000359835000055 ()2-s2.0-84939260196 (Scopus ID)
Note

Published online 2 April 2015

Available from: 2015-05-07 Created: 2015-05-07 Last updated: 2017-05-24Bibliographically approved
2. Multi-objective constructive cooperative coevolutionary optimization of robotic press-line tending
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-objective constructive cooperative coevolutionary optimization of robotic press-line tending
2016 (English)In: Engineering optimization (Print), ISSN 0305-215X, E-ISSN 1029-0273, 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article investigates multi-objective optimization of the robot trajectories and position-based operation-coordination of complex multi-robot systems, such as press lines, to improve the production rate and obtaining smooth motions to avoid excessive wear of the robots’ components. Different functions for handling the multiple objectives are evaluated on realworld press lines, including both scalarizing single-objective functions and Pareto-based multi-objective functions. Additionally, the Multi-Objective Constructive Cooperative Coevolutionary (moC3) algorithm is proposed, for Pareto-based optimization, which uses a novel constructive initialization of the subpopulations in a co-adaptive fashion. It was found that Paretobased optimization performs better than the scalarizing single-objective functions. Furthermore, moC3 gives substantially better results compared to manual online tuning, as currently used in the industry. Optimizing robot trajectories and operation-coordination of complex multi-robot systems using the proposed method with moC3 significantly improves productivity and reduces maintenance. This article hereby addresses the lack of systematic methods for effectively improving the productivity of press lines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keyword
Multi-objective optimization, coevolutionary optimization, press tending, multi-robot coordination
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Robotics
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-10341 (URN)10.1080/0305215X.2016.1264220 (DOI)2-s2.0-85006124128 (Scopus ID)
Note

Kolla upp ScopusID

Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-19 Last updated: 2017-05-24Bibliographically approved
3. An energy model for press line tending robots
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An energy model for press line tending robots
2016 (English)In: ESM'2016, the 2016 European simulation and Modelling Conference: Modelling and Simulation '2016 / [ed] José Evora-Gomez & José Juan Hernandez-Cabrera, Eurosis , 2016, 377-383 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today most industries aim at reducing energy consumption to become sustainable and environment-friendly. The automotive industry, with mass production and large volumes, is one such example. With many robots working round the clock, there is great potential to save energy. In this climate there is a need for robot simulation models that can be used for motion and task execution optimisation and which are aimed lowering energy consumption. This paper presents an energy consumption model for 2D-belt robots for press line tending in the automotive sector. The energy model is generic for 2D-belt robots and is entirely based on component specifications (e.g., dimensions, masses, inertia). An implementation and validation against a real 2D-belt tending robot used in the automotive industry is performed and presented. The purpose and usefulness of the energy model is also demonstrated by two application cases; the investigation of potential energy reductions achieved by reducing the weight of gripper tools, and by using mechanical brakes when the robot is idle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eurosis, 2016
Keyword
Industrial robots, energy model, energy consumption, energy minimisation
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Production Technology; ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-10133 (URN)978-9077381-953 (ISBN)
Conference
30th European Simulation and Modelling Conference - ESM'2016, October 26-28, 2016, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, Spain
Note

This work was performed at University West’s Production Technology West research centre and supported in part by Västra Götalandsregionen under the grant PROSAM+ RUN 612-0208-16.

Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-10 Last updated: 2017-05-24Bibliographically approved

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