Seed layer-assisted low temperature solution growth of 3D ZnO nanowall architecture for hybrid solar cells
2017 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 116, 219-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Aligned metal oxide nanostructures carry electrons efficiently, and are therefore ideal building blocks for next-generation optoelectronic devices. Herein, we report the seed-layer-assisted low-temperature solution growth of aligned 3D ZnO nanowall architecture on arbitrary substrates. By introducing a controlled amount of Al into a seed-layer, the morphology of ZnO nanostructure is gradually changed from nanowire to 3D nanowalls. Time-dependent growth experiments suggest that hydroxyl-ions present in growth solution react with Al to form Al(OH)4− which in turn binds to the positively charged Zn2 +surface and partially blocking ZnO growth along the (0001) direction and promoting lateral growth. Such aligned 3D ZnO nanowall architecture, with the unique combination of high surface-area and cage-like pores, grown on seed-layer coated transparent conductive substrate is found to be beneficial for electron transporting material (ETM) in perovskite solar cells and a maximum photocurrent density (JSC) of 7.5 mA.cm− 2 and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 2.4% are demonstrated. Our facile approach readily allows further growth of ZnO nanowires on 3D ZnO nanowall surface; thereby improving the perovskite-ZnO interface and increasing the JSC and η to 9.7 and 3.3%, respectively. This 3D ZnO nanowall-nanowire architecture opens up a novel configuration for designing high-performance optoelectronic devices.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Reigate, Surrey: Scientific and technical P. , 2017. Vol. 116, 219-226 p.
Seed layer; Nanowall; Hydrothermal; Electron transport; Solar cell
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject Production Technology; ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-10507DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2016.12.018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-10507DiVA: diva2:1063019