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Differences between severely conduct-disordered juvenile males and normal juvenile males: the study of personality traits
Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för psykologi och organisationsstudier.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-8562-5610
1999 (engelsk)Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 827-845Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Personality traits among a group of 47 severely conduct-disordered (C-D) juvenile males from four Swedish national correctional institutions for serious offences were studied. The Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-I), including an impulsivity scale from the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy (IVE) inventory, and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales (SSS) form V, were administered to the C-D juveniles. The scores from the KSP for this group were compared to scores from a presentative group of 82 normal juvenile male subjects from the Swedish longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA). Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated between the KSP scales and scales from the EPQ-I, and between the SSS and scales from the EPQ-I and KSP inventories. The C-D juveniles displayed notably higher scores than the mean normal scores on psychopathy-related personality scales. The present results are consistent with earlier findings concerning personality dimensions in adult criminal psychopaths: high scores on impulsivity and sensation seeking, and low scores on conformity reflected in low socialization and high psychoticism.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1999. Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 827-845
Emneord [en]
Conduct-disordered juvenile delinquents; IDA study; Psychopathy; Sensation-seeking; Non-conformity
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP, Psykologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-4979DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00186-XOAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-4979DiVA, id: diva2:581295
Prosjekter
“Dr. Jekyll och Mr. Hyde beteende” bland manliga kriminella ungdomar i samband med alkohol kombinerad med bensodiazepiner: Biologiska och psykologiska indikatorer
Merknad

Ingår i doktorsavhandlingen "Personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R) in male juvenile delinquents", Stockholm universitet, 2002

Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-12-30 Laget: 2012-12-30 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R) in male juvenile delinquents
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R) in male juvenile delinquents
2002 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

 Abstract

 

State-administered correctional institutions in Sweden take care of approximately 600 juvenile delinquents every year. The treatment for these institutionalized young people is based mainly on environmental programs and milieu therapy.

Fifty-six conduct-disordered juvenile delinquents (mean age 17 years) from four institutions were studied with respect to their personality traits, and the prevalence of psychopathy (measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised, PCL-R). One objective was to study the reliability and validity of commonly used personality inventories. In particular, the validity of psychopathy-related personality traits, included in Schalling’s psychopathy model (1978), was examined by studying the relationships between personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R), the occurrence of previous treatment occasions, and relapse into crime. Four groups, the delinquent participants, a group of high sensation-seekers (air force pilot recruits), normal male adolescent participants, and another group of normal young males, completed a number of personality inventories, which enabled us to obtain measures of personality traits. The personality inventories used were the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales. In addition, the delinquent participants were rated on psychopathy according to the modified version of the PCL-R, designed to be used with young people (Fort, Hart, & Hare, 1990). Both variable-oriented (factor analysis, MANOVA) and person-oriented statistical methods (cluster analysis) were applied.

As expected, most personality traits in the delinquent participants deviated from published norms and from our control groups. The delinquent participants showed a high level of pathology or vulnerability for developing mental disorders (such as substance abuse). About 60% of the delinquent participants had scores above 30 on the PCL-R, and were thus classified as psychopaths according to the manual. Further, 73% had scores between 27 and 40, indicating a high level of psychopathy. Delinquent participants showed a different pattern of sensation-seeking behavior than air force pilot recruits and normal adolescent participants, and differed also in other personality traits. They had a low level of socialization, indicating a lack of ability to take the role of the generalized other, and a tendency to impulsiveness, somatic anxiety and extraversion-sociability. The construct validity (convergent and divergent) of the KSP scales was found to be adequate. Some of the personality traits in delinquent participants, however, showed a different correlation pattern than that found in noncriminal people. Some of the basic scales from the KSP had high reliability, but many were not reliable when used on delinquent participants. Four factors were extracted using the maximum likelihood method. No significant correlations were found between the personality scale scores and the PCL-R scores. Finally, cluster analysis of the reliable and valid psychopathy-related personality scales from the KSP (Impulsiveness, Monotony avoidance, Socialization, Verbal aggression, and Somatic anxiety) identified seven different clusters of delinquent participants.

The uncertain validity of some personality traits (e.g., psychoticism or detachment), the poor reliability of many of the KSP scales (e.g., Guilt, Suspicion, and Inhibition of aggression) when used on this population, together with some minor limitations of the studies (e.g., sample size) are discussed.

In conclusion, the high prevalence of psychopathy in the present sample of male delinquent participants may have important clinical treatment implications, particularly since some researchers have suggested that milieu therapy increases relapse rates into crime in adult psychopaths. Hopefully, appropriate assessment of personality traits and psychopathy (in addition to obvious routine assessments of mental disorders, such as substance abuse or disabilities such as dyslexia), supervision, and the implementation of effective correctional programs, may prevent young people with deviant personalities from aggravating their deviant style of living.

 

Key words: Personality traits, psychopathy (PCL-R), juvenile delinquents, reliability, validity, assessment.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2002. s. 252
Emneord
Personality traits, psychopathy (PCL-R), juvenile delinquents, reliability, validity, assessment
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP, Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-5359 (URN)91-7265-396-5 (ISBN)
Disputas
2002-01-25, Frescati, Hagväg 8, Stockholm, 08:54
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-05-29 Laget: 2013-05-29 Sist oppdatert: 2023-04-05bibliografisk kontrollert

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