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Proposal and Assessment of a Multiple Cycle-Continuous Cooling Transformation (MC-CCT) Diagram for Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Thin Walls
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (KAMPT)
University West, Department of Engineering Science.
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (KAMPT)
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (KAMPT)
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2023 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 1533Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of base metals are common in welding. They can be built using physical or numerical simulations, each with advantages and limitations. However, those are not usual for weld metal, considering its variable composition due to the dilution of the weld into the base metal. Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is a distinctive casein which the interest in materials comparable with weld composition raises attention to estimating their mechanical properties. Notwithstanding, this concept is still not used in WAAM. Therefore, the aim of this work was to address a methodology to raise MC-CCT (Multiple Cycle ContinuousCooling Transformation) diagrams for WAAM by combining physical and numerical simulations. A high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) feedstock (a combination of a wire and a shielding gas) was used as a case study. To keep CCT as representative as possible, the typical multiple thermal cycles for additive manufacturing thin walls were determined and replicated in physical simulations (Gleeble dilatometry). The start and end transformations were determined by the differential linear variation approach for each thermal cycle. Microstructure analyses and hardness were used to characterise the product after the multiple cycles. The same CCT diagram was raised by a commercial numerical simulation package to determine the shape of the transformation curves. A range of austenitic grain sizes was scanned for the curve position matching the experimental results. Combining the experimental data and numerically simulated curves made estimating the final CCT diagram possible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023. Vol. 13, no 9, article id 1533
Keywords [en]
T diagram; WAAM; physical simulation; numerical simulation
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-21100DOI: 10.3390/met13091533ISI: 001075952000001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85172810067OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-21100DiVA, id: diva2:1821320
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2018/1890 B20
Note

CC-BY 4.0

Funding: The Knowledge Foundation funded this research via the TAPERTECH: TAiloring of high-PERformance parts through laser and arc additive manufacturing TECHhnologies project (Referencenumber: 2018/1890 B20).

Available from: 2023-12-20 Created: 2023-12-20 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved

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Högström, MatsRahimi, AminLi, PeigangIgestrand, MattiasAndersson, JoelScotti, Americo

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