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Combined effect of the interlayer temperature with travel speed on features of thin wall WAAM under two cooling approaches
Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlândia (BRA).
Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlândia, MG, (BRA).
Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlândia, MG (BRA).
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlândia, MG (BRA). (KAMPT)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1005-5895
2023 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 126, p. 273-289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents the evaluation of the interlayer temperature (IT) with travel speed (TS) combined effect for a given wire feed speed (WFS) on operational, geometrical, and metallurgical features of thin walls with the same width deposited by wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) with a low alloy steel, using or not active cooling. A preliminary experimental design was carried out to define a range of IT that could prevent the molten pool from running down and, then, be used in the main experimental design. The main tests were planned and performed to find different IT and TS combinations for a given WFS capable of depositing walls with the same target effective wall width. After selecting the parameters, six walls were deposited, three under natural cooling (NC) and three under near immersion active cooling (NIAC). A more significant temperature variability along the layer length (ΔT/ΔLL) is observed in increasing IT-TS combination and under NIAC. Regardless of the cooling approach, a worse surface aspect was observed with lower IT and TS. However, NC or NIAC do not affect the wall width (effective or external) or the layer height. On the other hand, they are affected by the IT with TS combination. A shorter production time was obtained on the walls with NIAC and higher IT-TS. No marked microstructural differences were observed comparing the walls, regardless of the cooling approach. However, microstructure tempering (hardness reduction) was observed in the walls deposited with NC using higher IT levels.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023. Vol. 126, p. 273-289
Keywords [en]
Alloy steel; Statistics; Thin walled structures; Active cooling; Geometrical feature and surface finishing; Geometrical features; Geometrical surfaces; Idle time; Natural cooling; Surface finishing; Travel speed; Wire arc; Wire arc additive manufacturing; Cooling
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19824DOI: 10.1007/s00170-023-11105-wISI: 000938815200003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85148599147OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-19824DiVA, id: diva2:1810603
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CC-BY 4.0

Available from: 2023-11-08 Created: 2023-11-08 Last updated: 2024-01-04Bibliographically approved

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Scotti, Americo

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