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Pyrometrical Interlayer Temperature Measurement in WAAM of Thin Wall: Strategies, Limitations and Functionality
Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes (Laprosolda), Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlândia (BRA).
Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes (Laprosolda), Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlândia (BRA).
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes (Laprosolda), Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlândia (BRA). (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1005-5895
2022 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Significant efforts have been spent determining or monitoring interlayer temperatures (IT) to increase quality in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM). However, an uneven thermal profile in the wall and a temperature gradient along the layer length are expected after a thin wall layer deposition, questioning the effectiveness of IT and its measuring approaches. After identifying the holistic meaning of IT, this work aimed at confronting two strategies using infrared pyrometers, elucidating their advantages and limitations for both open and closed‐loop control. The proposed Upper and Sideward Pyrometer strategies were presented in detail and then assessed at different distances from the heat source. A calibration procedure was proposed. The results confirmed the existence of a natural temperature gradient along the wall. In addition, they showed how differently the arc heat affects the measured points (in intensity and steadiness) according to the strategy. Therefore, the interlayer temperature measured at a specific point on a part manufactured by WAAM should be taken as a reference and not an absolute value; the absolute value changes according to the measuring approach, sensor positioning and calibration. Using a temperature reference, both strategies can be used in open‐loop control to reach repeatability (geometrical and metallurgical) between layers. However, the Sideward Pyrometer strategy is more recommended for feedback control of production, despite being less flexible. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022. Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1-17
Keywords [en]
Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing; IR pyrometer; interlayer temperature; control; quality
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18392DOI: 10.3390/met12050765ISI: 000801699300001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85129133792OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-18392DiVA, id: diva2:1699462
Note

This study was supported by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), through grants 165902/2020-5 and 302863/2016-8, and by the Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), through Finance Code 001

Available from: 2022-09-28 Created: 2022-09-28 Last updated: 2022-09-28

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Scotti, Americo

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