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Inaccuracy in arc power calculation through a product of voltage and current averages
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes (Laprosolda), Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlândia, MG (BRA). (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1005-5895
Department of Food Engineering, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá (BRA).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8509-9828
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0067-8631
2022 (English)In: Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, ISSN 1678-5878, E-ISSN 1806-3691, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 1-9, article id 11Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Power is an indirect measurand, determined by processing voltage and current analogue signals through calculations. Using arc welding as a case study, the objective of this work was to bring up subsidies for power calculation. Based on the defnitions of correlation and covariance in statistics, a mathematical demonstration was developed to point out the diference between the product of two averages (e.g. P=UxI) and the average of the products (e.g. P=(UxI). Complementarily, a brief on U and I waveform distortion sources were discussed, emphasising the diference between signal standard deviations and measurement errors. It was demonstrated that the product of two averages is not the same as the average of the products, unless in specifc conditions (when the variables are fully correlated). It was concluded that the statistical correlation can easily fag the interrelation, but if assisted by covariance, these statistics quantify the inaccuracy between approaches. Finally, although the statistics' determination is easy to implement, it is proposed that power should always be calculated as the average of the instantaneous U and I products. It is also proposed that measurement error sources should be observed and mitigated, since they predictably interfere in power calculation accuracy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engin , 2022. Vol. 44, no 1, p. 1-9, article id 11
Keywords [en]
Electrical power measurement, Arc welding, Instantaneous power, Probability theory, Covariance, Correlation
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17966DOI: 10.1007/s40430-021-03317-6ISI: 000728176000002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85120972487OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-17966DiVA, id: diva2:1622651
Note

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Available from: 2021-12-23 Created: 2021-12-23 Last updated: 2024-04-12Bibliographically approved

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Scotti, AmericoEshagh, Mehdi

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Scotti, AmericoBatista, Márcio AndradeEshagh, Mehdi
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Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology

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