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A physical simulation technique for cleaner and more sustainable research in additive manufacturing
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6242-3517
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0234-3168
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8822-2705
2021 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 285, article id 124910Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (AM) introduces a new domain for zero waste and cleaner production. Research for verification of materials in AM and effects of the process on the material behavior, however, demands a significant amount of materials, energy, and man-hours. The design of suitable physical simulation techniques that can duplicate complex AM thermal cycles without performing AM is therefore crucial for cleaner and more sustainable AM research. This paper aims at introducing a novel technique to reproduce AM thermal cycles in a controlled way on a small sample, thereby supporting sustainable alloy verification and cleaner research. In this technique, a stationary arc is applied to a disc-shaped sample mounted on a water-cooled chamber, where the arc and water provide rapid heating and cooling, respectively. In the present study, a super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) was used as the experimental alloy to simulate the evolution of microstructure and properties during wire-arc additive manufacturing. The experiment was performed using the stationary arc with the holding time of 5 s, applied 1, 5, or 15 times. The total processing time was only 450 s (7.5 min) for the 15 a.m. thermal cycles experiment. The SDSS showed a progressive increase in the austenite fraction at 600–1200 °C and the formation of detrimental sigma phase at 700–1000 °C, but a reduction of austenite fraction above 1300 °C. The results were in good agreement with the literature, verifying the applicability of the physical simulation technique for AM research. Calculations showed that using arc heat treatment as the initial step is 6–20 times more efficient in different respects (materials, energy, and man-hours) compared to wire arc additive manufacturing. Therefore, this methodology can be implemented to gain an understanding of materials in AM applications thereby eliminating the need for investments in additive manufacturing of a specific component. © 2020

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2021. Vol. 285, article id 124910
Keywords [en]
Additives; Austenite; Duplex stainless steel; Heat treatment; Industrial research; Investments; Microstructural evolution; Pollution control; Thermal cycling; Wire, Cleaner production; Experimental alloys; Microstructure and properties; Physical simulation; Specific component; Super duplex stainless steel; Total processing time; Water-cooled chambers, 3D printers
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16046DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124910ISI: 000609482500014Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85095834411OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-16046DiVA, id: diva2:1502847
Available from: 2020-11-22 Created: 2020-11-22 Last updated: 2022-01-17Bibliographically approved

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Hosseini, VahidCederberg, EmilHurtig, KjellKarlsson, Leif

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