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Review of laser powder bed fusion of gamma-prime-strengthened nickel-based superalloys
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. (PTW)
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9065-0741
Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspång, 612 83, Sweden.
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7675-7152
2020 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 996Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reviews state of the art laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) manufacturing of γ′ nickel-based superalloys. L-PBF resembles welding; therefore, weld-cracking mechanisms, such as solidification, liquation, strain age, and ductility-dip cracking, may occur during L-PBF manufacturing. Spherical pores and lack-of-fusion voids are other defects that may occur in γ′-strengthened nickel-based superalloys manufactured with L-PBF. There is a correlation between defect formation and the process parameters used in the L-PBF process. Prerequisites for solidification cracking include nonequilibrium solidification due to segregating elements, the presence of liquid film between cells, a wide critical temperature range, and the presence of thermal or residual stress. These prerequisites are present in L-PBF processes. The phases found in L-PBF-manufactured γ′-strengthened superalloys closely resemble those of the equivalent cast materials, where γ, γ′, and γ/γ′ eutectic and carbides are typically present in the microstructure. Additionally, the sizes of the γ′ particles are small in as-built L-PBF materials because of the high cooling rate. Furthermore, the creep performance of L-PBF-manufactured materials is inferior to that of cast material because of the presence of defects and the small grain size in the L-PBF materials; however, some vertically built L-PBF materials have demonstrated creep properties that are close to those of cast materials.© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG , 2020. Vol. 10, no 8, article id 996
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-15747DOI: 10.3390/met10080996ISI: 000564737100001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85088689740OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-15747DiVA, id: diva2:1461256
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-05175Available from: 2020-08-26 Created: 2020-08-26 Last updated: 2021-11-18
In thesis
1. Processability of Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Alloy 247LC: Influence of process parameters on microstructure and defects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Processability of Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Alloy 247LC: Influence of process parameters on microstructure and defects
2020 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is about laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of the nickel-based superalloy: Alloy 247LC. Alloy 247LC is used mainly in gas turbine blades and processing the blades with L-PBF confers performance advantage over the blades manufactured with conventional methods. This is mainly because L-PBF is more suitable, than conventional methods, for manufacturing the complex cooling holes in the blades. The research was motivated by the need for academia and industry to gain knowledge about the processability of the alloy using L-PBF. The knowledge is essential in order to eventually solve the problem of cracking which is a major problem when manufacturing the alloy. In addition, dense parts with low void content should be manufactured and the parts should meet the required performance. Thus, the thesis answered some of the important questions related to process parameter-microstructure-defect relationships.

The thesis presented an introduction in chapter 1. A literature review was made in chapter 2 to 4. In chapter 2, the topic of additive manufacturing was introduced followed by an overview of laser powder bed fusion. Chapter 3 focused on superalloys. Here, a review was made from the broader perspective of superalloys but was eventually narrowed down to the characteristics of nickelbased superalloys and finally Alloy 247LC. Chapter 4 reviewed the main research on L-PBF of Alloy 247LC. The methodology applied in the thesis was discussed in chapter 5. The thesis applied statistical design of experiments to show the influence of process parameters on the defects and microstructure, so a detail description of the method was warranted. This was given at the beginning of chapter 5 and followed by the description of the L-PBF manufacturing and the characterization methods. The main results and discussions, in chapter 6, included a preliminary investigation on how the process parameters influenced the amount of discontinuity in single track samples. This was followed by the results and discussions on the investigation of voids, cracks and microhardness in cube samples (detail presentation was given in the attached paper B). Finally, the thesis presented results of the microstructure obtainable in L-PBF manufactured Alloy 247LC. The initial results of the microstructure investigation were presented in paper A.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West, 2020. p. 59
Series
Licentiate Thesis: University West ; 31
Keywords
laser powder bed fusion; Alloy 247LC; additive manufacturing; nickel-based superalloys; processability; cracks; voids.
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16114 (URN)978-91-88847-71-3 (ISBN)978-91-88847-70-6 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-12-14 Created: 2020-12-14 Last updated: 2021-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. Processability of Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Alloy 247LC-Influence of process parameters on microstructure and defects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Processability of Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Alloy 247LC-Influence of process parameters on microstructure and defects
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is about laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of the nickel-basedsuperalloy Alloy 247LC. Alloy 247LC is mainly used in gas turbine blades and processing the blades with L-PBF may confer performance advantage over the blades manufactured with conventional methods. This is mainly because L-PBFis more suitable, than conventional methods, for manufacturing the complex cooling holes in the blades. The research was motivated by the need for academia and industry to gain knowledge about the processability of the alloy using L-PBF. The knowledge is essential to eventually solve the problem of cracking encountered when processing the alloy. In addition, dense parts with low void content should be processed and the microstructure and properties should meett he required performance. Heat-treatment is usually performed to acquire final properties, so it is also of interest to study this aspect. Thus, the thesis answered some of the important questions related to process parameter-microstructure- property relationships.

Abstract [sv]

Populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning

Denna avhandling handlar om laserpulverbäddsmältning (L-PBF) av legeringen247LC. Legering 247LC används i gasturbinblad och tillverkningen av bladen medL-PBF ger fördelar i förhållande till bladen tillverkade med konventionella metoder. Detta beror huvudsakligen på att L-PBF är mer lämpad än konventionella metoder för att tillverka de komplexa geometrier som krävs förbladen. Forskningen var motiverad utifrån behovet hos akademi och industri att få kunskap om legeringens processbarhet gällande L-PBF. Kunskapen är nödvändig för att kunna lösa problemet med sprickbildning, vilket är ett stort problem vid tillverkningen av legeringen. Avhandlingen besvarade några av de viktiga frågorna relaterade till förhållandet mellan processparametrar och mikrostruktur.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West, 2021. p. 134
Series
PhD Thesis: University West ; 45
Keywords
Laser powder bed fusion, Alloy 247LC, additive manufacturing, nickel-based superalloys, processability, cracks, voids, Laserpulverbäddssmältning, legering 247LC, additiv tillverkning, superlegeringar, processbarhet, sprickor, porositet.
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17799 (URN)978-91-89325-05-0 (ISBN)978-91-89325-06-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-12-16, F131 + zoom, Gustava Melins gata 2, Trollhättan, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VinnovaKnowledge Foundation
Note

Till avhandlingen hör en inskickad artikel (paper D) , som inte visas  nu.

Available from: 2021-11-22 Created: 2021-11-18 Last updated: 2022-01-19Bibliographically approved

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Adegoke, OlutayoAndersson, JoelPederson, Robert

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