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Evaluation of test results and ranking criteria for Varestraint testing of an austenitic high-temperature alloy
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. Sandvik Materials Technology, SE-811 81 Sandviken, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7880-6002
Sandvik Materials Technology, SE-811 81 Sandviken, Sweden.
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8822-2705
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9065-0741
2020 (English)In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 64, p. 903-912Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Varestraint testing is commonly used to evaluate hot cracking susceptibility of materials. In this paper, the dependence of operators and evaluation technique on test results is studied for a high-temperature austenitic stainless steel (UNS S31035). Samples were tested at six different strain levels ranging from 0.7 to 3.8%. Four different operators evaluated the same samples following the same instructions on how to measure the cracks manually in an optical microscope at x 25 magnification. The largest variation among operators evaluation was found for low strain levels where small and few cracks were found. In addition, one of the four operators used image analysis to evaluate the samples at x 50 magnification. The average total crack length and total number of cracks in fusion zone and heat-affected zone were approximately 1.5 times higher when using image analysis compared with manual evaluation. Image analysis at x 50 made it possible to detect smaller cracks compared with manual evaluation at x 25 magnification, contributing to an increased number of cracks detected. The maximum crack length using image analysis at x 50 was similar to manual evaluation made at x 25 magnification and was the criterion that showed the least variation in this study. However, further comparisons using other magnifications are needed to verify the agreement between manual evaluation and image analysis found in this study. An advantage with evaluation using image analysis is that it provides traceable results. A harmonized standard for Varestraint testing, and especially for evaluation, would decrease the variation among operators and laboratories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2020. Vol. 64, p. 903-912
Keywords [en]
Varestraint testing; High-temperature austenitic stainless steel; Hot crack evaluation; Ranking criteria
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-15119DOI: 10.1007/s40194-020-00891-6ISI: 000522945300001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85083270874OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-15119DiVA, id: diva2:1424253
Funder
Knowledge FoundationAvailable from: 2020-04-16 Created: 2020-04-16 Last updated: 2020-04-25

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Johansson, MikaelKarlsson, LeifAndersson, Joel

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