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Effect of build location on microstructural characteristics and corrosion behavior of EB-PBF built Alloy 718
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6610-1486
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7663-9631
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. GE Additive | Arcam EBM, Designvägen 2, Mölnlycke, 435 33, Sweden. (PTW)
Sandvik Additive Manufacturing, Sandviken, 811 81, Sweden.
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2020 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 106, no 7-8, p. 3597-3607Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electron beam-powder bed fusion (EB-PBF), a high-temperature additive manufacturing (AM) technique, shows great promise in the production of high-quality metallic parts in different applications such as the aerospace industry. To achieve a higher build efficiency, it is ideal to build multiple parts together with as low spacing as possible between the respective parts. In the EB-PBF technique, there are many unknown variations in microstructural characteristics and functional performance that could be induced as a result of the location of the parts on the build plate, gaps between the parts and part geometry, etc. In the present study, the variations in the microstructure and corrosion performance as a function of the parts location on the build plate in the EB-PBF process were investigated. The microstructural features were correlated with the thermal history of the samples built in different locations on the build plate, including exterior (the outermost), middle (between the outermost and innermost), and interior (the innermost) regions. The cubic coupons located in the exterior regions showed increased level (~ 20 %) of defects (mainly in the form of shrinkage pores) and lower level (~ 30-35 %) of Nb-rich phase fraction due to their higher cooling rates compared to the interior and middle samples. Electrochemical investigations showed that the location indirectly had a substantial influence on the corrosion behavior, verified by a significant increase in polarization resistance (Rp) from the exterior (2.1 ± 0.3 kΩ.cm2) to interior regions (39.2 ± 4.1 kΩ.cm2). © 2020, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2020. Vol. 106, no 7-8, p. 3597-3607
Keywords [en]
3D printers; Additives; Aerospace industry; Corrosion; Corrosive effects; Electron beams; Hardness; High temperature applications, Alloy 718; Electrochemical investigations; Functional performance; Micro-structural characteristics; Micro-structural characterization; Microstructural features; Polarization resistances; Powder bed, Location
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-15004DOI: 10.1007/s00170-019-04859-9ISI: 000511506500069Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85077549789OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-15004DiVA, id: diva2:1395741
Funder
Knowledge FoundationEuropean Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Available from: 2020-02-24 Created: 2020-02-24 Last updated: 2020-11-10
In thesis
1. Electron beam-powder bed fusion of Alloy 718: Effect of process parameters on microstructure evolution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electron beam-powder bed fusion of Alloy 718: Effect of process parameters on microstructure evolution
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (AM) is the technology of building 3D parts through layer-by-layer addition of material. Of the different types of AM techniques, electron beam-powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) has been used in this study. EB-PBF can build parts by melting metallic powders using an electron beam as the energy source. Compared to conventional manufacturing processes, EB-PBF offers a convenient approach and enhanced efficiency in producing customized and specific parts in the aerospace, space, automotive, and medical fields. In addition, the EB-PBF process is used to produce complex parts with less residual stress due to the high-temperature environment within the process.

This thesis has been divided into four stages. In the first stage, the behavior of Alloy 718 during the EB-PBF process as a function of different geometry-related parameters is examined by building single tracks adjacent to each other (track-by track) and single tracks on top of each other (single-wall samples). In this stage,the focus is on understanding the effect of successive thermal cycling on microstructural evolution. In the second stage, the effect of the position-related parameters–including the distance or gap between samples, height from the build plate (in the Z direction), and sample location on the build plate (in the X–Y plane) –on the microstructural characteristics, are revealed. These three position related parameters can have significant effects on the defect content and niobium rich phase fraction. In the third stage, the correlations between the main machinerelated parameters, geometric (melt pool width, track height, remelted depth, and contact angle), and microstructural (grain structure, niobium-rich phase fraction,and primary dendrite arm spacing) characteristics of a single track are delineated.

The results obtained in stages one to three were used as a guideline for the reduction of the internal–external defects and columnar-to-equiaxed transition(CET) in the grain structure of a typical cubic part. The final stage reveals two different strategies that were developed using machine-related parameters (scanning speed, beam current, focus offset, line offset, and line order number) to tailor the grain structures. All investigated parameters with respect to the proper selection of the processing window played a critical role in the solidification parameters (thermal gradient, growth rate, and cooling rate) on the solidification front, which could induce formation of more fine equiaxed grains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West, 2020. p. 75
Series
PhD Thesis: University West ; 2020:37
Keywords
Additive manufacturing; Electron beam-powder bed fusion; Microstructure evolution; Microstructure tailoring; Process understanding; Alloy 718
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16013 (URN)978-91-88847-65-2 (ISBN)978-91-88847-64-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-12-01, F131, Trollhättan, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-11-10 Created: 2020-11-10 Last updated: 2020-11-10Bibliographically approved

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Karimi Neghlani, PariaSadeghi, EsmaeilÅlgårdh, JoakimAndersson, Joel

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