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Microstructure modelling of laser metal powder directed energy deposition of alloy 718
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4087-6467
GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Trollhättan, SE-461 81, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1472-5489
Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. (PTW)
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2019 (English)In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, E-ISSN 2214-7810, Vol. 25, p. 357-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A multi-component and multi-phase-field modelling approach, combined with transformation kinetics modelling, was used to model microstructure evolution during laser metal powder directed energy deposition of Alloy 718 and subsequent heat treatments. Experimental temperature measurements were utilised to predict microstructural evolution during successive addition of layers. Segregation of alloying elements as well as formation of Laves and δ phase was specifically modelled. The predicted elemental concentrations were then used in transformation kinetics to estimate changes in Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) and Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) diagrams for Alloy 718. Modelling results showed good agreement with experimentally observed phase evolution within the microstructure. The results indicate that the approach can be a valuable tool, both for improving process understanding and for process development including subsequent heat treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019. Vol. 25, p. 357-364
Keywords [en]
Phase-field, DED, Heat treatment, Thermal cycle, Modelling
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology; ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13195DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.11.024ISI: 000456378800034Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85057193791OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-13195DiVA, id: diva2:1270000
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Funders: European Regional Development Fund for project 3Dprint

Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2021-06-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Microstructure Modelling of Additive Manufacturing of Alloy 718
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure Modelling of Additive Manufacturing of Alloy 718
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) of Alloy 718 has received increasing interest in the field of manufacturing engineering owing to its attractive features compared to those of conventional manufacturing methods. The ability to produce complicated geometries, low cost of retooling, and control of the microstructure are some of the advantages of the AM process over traditional manufacturing methods. Nevertheless, during the building process, the build material undergoes complex thermal conditions owing to the inherent nature of the process. This results in phase transformation from liquid to solid and solid state. Thus, it creates microstructural gradients in the built objects, and as a result,heterogeneous material properties. The manufacturing process, including the following heat treatment that is used to minimise the heterogeneity, will cause the additively manufactured material to behave differently when compared to components produced by conventional manufacturing methods. Therefore, understanding the microstructure formation during the building and subsequent post-heat treatment is important, which is the objective of this work. Alloy 718 is a nickel-iron based super alloy that is widely used in the aerospace industry and in the gas turbine power plants for making components subjected tohigh temperatures. Good weldability, good mechanical properties at high temperatures, and high corrosion resistance make this alloy particularly suitablefor these applications. Nevertheless, the manufacturing of Alloy 718 components through traditional manufacturing methods is time-consuming and expensive. For example, machining of Alloy 718 to obtain the desired shape is difficult and resource-consuming, owing to significant material waste. Therefore, the application of novel non-conventional processing methods, such as AM, seems to be a promising technique for manufacturing near-net-shape complex components.In this work, microstructure modelling was carried out by using multiphase-field modelling to model the microstructure evolution in electron beam melting (EBM) and laser metal powder directed energy deposition (LMPDED) of Alloy 718 and x subsequent heat treatments. The thermal conditions that are generated during the building process were used as input to the models to predict the as-built microstructure. This as-built microstructure was then used as an input for the heat treatment simulations to predict the microstructural evolution during heat treatments. The results showed smaller dendrite arm spacing (one order of magnitude smaller than the casting material) in these additive manufactured microstructures, which creates a shorter diffusion length for the elements compared to the cast material. In EBM Alloy 718, this caused the material to have a faster homogenisation during in-situ heat treatment that resulting from the elevated powder bed temperature (> 1000 °C). In addition, the compositional segregation that occurs during solidification was shown to alter the local thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the alloy. This was observed in the predicted TTT and CCT diagrams using the JMat Pro software based on the predicted local segregated compositions from the multiphase-field models. In the LMPDED Alloy 718 samples, this resulted in the formation of δ phase in the interdendritic region during the solution heat treatment. Moreover, this resulted in different-size precipitation of γ'/γ'' in the inter-dendritic region and in the dendrite core. Themicro structure modelling predictions agreed well with the experimental observations. The proposed methodology used in this thesis work can be an appropriate tool to understand how the thermal conditions in AM affect themicro structure formation during the building process and how these as-built microstructures behave under different heat treatments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West, 2018. p. 52
Series
Licentiate Thesis: University West ; 23
Keywords
Phase-Field Modelling; Laser metal powder directed energy deposition; Electron Beam Melting; Heat Treatment; Superalloy
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology; ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13197 (URN)978-91-88847-10-2 (ISBN)978-91-88847-09-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-12-12, 10:00 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12
2. Microstructure Modelling of Additive Manufacturing of Alloy 718
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure Modelling of Additive Manufacturing of Alloy 718
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) of Alloy 718 has received increasing interest in the field of manufacturing engineering because of its attractive features compared with those of conventional manufacturing methods. Nevertheless, owing to the inherent nature of the process, the build material is exposed to complex thermal conditions that affect the microstructure. In addition, the post heattreatments applied to the built component further cause microstructural changes. Thus, obtaining the desired microstructure that gives the desired properties is still a challenging task. Therefore, understanding the microstructure formation during the build and subsequent post-heat treatment is important and is the objective of this thesis work.

To this end, a computational modelling approach was used that combines multiphase-field modelling with transformation kinetics modelling. Two different AM processes, laser metal powder directed energy deposition (LM-PDED) and electron beam powder bed fusion (EB-PBF), were considered in this study.Based on the modelling work, it was observed that solidification conditions (thermal gradients and cooling rates) that occur during the AM process have an impact on the as-solidified microstructure in Alloy 718 and the resultant Laves phase formation. With an increase in cooling rate, the Laves phase volume fraction becomes lower and the morphology tends to become discrete particles,which is important for resisting the formation of liquation cracks in Alloy 718. It was also found that the precipitates formed during the solidification process did not undergo any significant change during subsequent thermal cycles associated with the deposition of subsequent layers, given that the deposition of the subsequent layer does not increase the global temperature of the build to> 600 °C. If the global temperature increases above 600 °C, then phase changes are expected, depending on the temperature value. In the case of the EB-PBF process, the high build temperature maintained in the build chamber resulted in an ‘‘in situ’’ heat treatment, which had a homogenisation effect on the as-solidified microstructure because of the smaller dendrite spacing and relatively low Lavesphase size. In the case of the LM-PDED, the microsegregation of composition observed in the as-built microstructure was shown to change the equilibrium conditions and precipitation kinetics of Alloy 718. As a result, excess precipitationof γ'/γ″ and δ was observed in the interdendritic region compared with the dendrite core, depending on the type of heat treatment used.

In addition, modelling was performed to evaluate the elastic properties of EB-PBF Alloy 718. To this end, crystallographic orientation data gathered from EBSD data and single-crystal elastic constants were used. The prediction showed good agreement with published literature data. The hatch (bulk) region of the EB-PBF samples showed significant anisotropic elastic properties because of the strong crystallographic texture observed in the microstructure. The lowest Young’s modulus was observed along the build direction. Normal to the build direction, the elastic properties were shown to be isotropic. Overall, the elastic behaviour of the hatch region was similar to that of a transversely isotropic case

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West, 2020. p. 89
Series
PhD Thesis: University West ; 43
Keywords
Phase-Field Modelling; Additive Manufacturing; Phase Transformation; Solidification; Heat Treatment; Superalloy
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16118 (URN)978-91-88847-83-6 (ISBN)978-91-88847-82-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-12-16, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-12-15 Created: 2020-12-15

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Kumara, ChamaraSegerstark, AndreasDixit, NikhilJoshi, Shrikant V.Moverare, JohanNylén, Per

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