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Platformization: Co-Designing Digital Platforms in Practice
University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. (LINA)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4563-0001
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Digital platforms are slowly becoming an important part of both research and everyday work. However, much of the research focus has been on platforms that are already established. Little focus has been on platformization (i.e., design, development and use of platforms in the nascent phases) and the socio-technical aspects of designing platforms for specific practices or purposes, i.e., practicebased platforms. While it is truly important to understand technological aspects and market logics of platform efforts, it is also to understand how platforms become platforms, when designing them alongside end-users. This thesis contributes to the platform discussion with research that focuses both on the technological sides of building platforms while also unpacking the social aspectsof the collaborative design situation (i.e., co-design) and development where endusers meet and later use the platforms. This thesis explores the research questions:How can practice-based platforms be designed and developed? What impact does end-user engagement in platformization have on the practices involved? How can platformization efforts be approached and researched? through a study of the design of platforms in care settings, one 2.5–year study within home care and one 2.5–year study within cancer rehabilitation where the end-users' practices involved in the co-design processes are caregivers and care recipients in bothstudies. This thesis thereby unpacks the platformization process through a roughly five–year longitudinal AR project, based on these two studies. With thehelp of the boundary literature, the design, development and use of platforms inthe nascent phases of platformization is analysed in these two studies. Through aco-design effort in both studies, the practices that are going to use the platforms contribute to a) the design of which boundary resources (i.e., modules in terms of code blocks) will be developed within the platform; b) the design of the boundary object (i.e., working tools in terms of apps) that they are using together inconsensus; and c) the design of a boundary practice in which they will later use the digital artifacts together. The end-users' practices had impact on the design of all layers of the platform through the co-design approach, including an influence on the boundary resources that were developed within the platform. The platforms also had impact on the practices, which designed new ways of interacting. The results thereby both show the impact of the end-users' practices (caregivers and care recipients, which are heterogeneous) on the platform design, as well as the impact of the platform on the design of their boundary practice. In this thesis, the design and development of the two platforms is thereby researched and the design of the platforms is validated by studying the use of the platformsas well. The main contribution of this thesis is a conceptualization of the platformization process where the key characteristics of designing such platforms with heavy user engagement are illustrated in a platformization model and in seven platformization principles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West , 2018. , p. 123
Series
PhD Thesis: University West ; 25
Keywords [en]
Platforms; Platformization; Co-design; Practice-based platforms; Healthcare; Care sector; Home care; Cancer rehabilitation; Nascent phases of platformization; Action research; Boundary resources; Boundary objects; Boundary practice; Platformization principles
Keywords [sv]
Plattformar; Plattformisering; Co-design; Praktikplattformar; hälso- och sjukvård; Hemtjänst; Cancer rehabilitering; Tidiga faser av plattformisering; Aktionsforskning; Gränsresurser; Gränsobjekt; Gränspraktik; Plattformiseringsprinciper
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning; SOCIAL SCIENCE, Informatics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12821ISBN: 978-91-88847-02-7 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88847-01-0 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-12821DiVA, id: diva2:1238297
Public defence
2018-08-31, Albertsalen, Trollhättan, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Co-creation and Fine-Tuning of Boundary Resources in Small-Scale Platformization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-creation and Fine-Tuning of Boundary Resources in Small-Scale Platformization
2016 (English)In: Nordic Contributions in IS Research: 7th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2016 and IFIP8.6 2016, Ljungskile, Sweden, August 7-10, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Ulrika Lundh Snis, Springer, 2016, Vol. 259, p. 149-162Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Most research on platform innovation studies the phenomena from a distance due to lack of access. This paper reports from within an action research case of platform development in a small-scale context. The case is based on a regional business initiative with the goal to establish an arena for mobile commerce and stimulate local industry growth. It was conducted in collaboration between researchers and third-party developers. The article shows how the initial phases of platformization are characterized by socio-technical arrangements, co-creation of boundary resources and intimate knowledge communication. The paper contributes to platform research by acknowledging a small-scale context for platform research. It further develops distributed tuning of boundary resources into an intimate fine-tuning process that we illustrate is valid for a small-scale context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348
Keywords
Platform Platformization, Knowledge communication, Fine-tuning Co-creation, Boundary, resources
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning; SOCIAL SCIENCE, Informatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-10193 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-43597-8_11 (DOI)2-s2.0-84981321033 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-43596-1 (ISBN)978-3-319-43597-8 (ISBN)
Conference
7th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2016 and IFIP8.6 2016, Ljungskile, Sweden, August 7-10, 2016
Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
2. From Co-Design to Co-Care: Designing a Collaborative Practice in Care
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Co-Design to Co-Care: Designing a Collaborative Practice in Care
2018 (English)In: Systems, Signs & Actions, ISSN 1652-8719, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The design of digital artifacts in general and mobile apps in particular has not been investigated fully from a practice perspective. Mobile apps are commonly designed from a distant, armslength relationship where they are developed without taking the users' practices into account.This paper problematizes this notion and takes the point of departure from a collaborative design (co-design) process where the goal was to design a mobile app supporting grocery shopping forthe home care sector. We analyse the role of designing a mobile app as a facilitator for collaboration between the elderly's everyday practice and the caregivers work practice and investigatehow these two practices become intertwined. The research questions are: How can the design process be organized in order to foster the formation of a prospective collaborative care practice? What aspects are important to consider when designing with a boundary practice perspective? The findings of this study indicate that organizing the design activities in a certain collaborative manner empowered the elderly and their caregivers and led to the formation of a common, collaborative care practice (herein called co-care). The focus of the design process thereby shifted from designing the digital artifact (framed as a boundary object) to designing the co-carepractice (framed as a boundary practice). Our contribution is discussed in terms of design considerations,which can be applied for the facilitation of a collaborative boundary practice. The considerations are of particular relevance for settings where two or more practices are to collaborate and where new conditions are to be created for future co-practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University, 2018
Keywords
Co-design, boundaries, boundary practice, practice-oriented research, home care, platforms, platformization, mobile apps
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning; SOCIAL SCIENCE, Informatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12818 (URN)
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
3. Learning in home care: a digital artifact as a designated boundary object-in-use
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning in home care: a digital artifact as a designated boundary object-in-use
2017 (English)In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 29, no 7-8, p. 577-587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to understand how the role of an mHealth artifact plays out in home care settings. An mHealth artifact, in terms of a mobile app, was tested to see how the quality of home care work practice was enhanced and changed. The research question is: In what ways does an mHealth artifact re-shape a home care practice and how does this affect the interaction between caregivers and the elderly and learning opportunities for the caregivers? Design/methodology/approach: An action research approach was taken and the study was conducted in a home care organization in a Swedish municipality. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and observations that were conducted during home visits. Concepts of learning and boundary objects were used to analyze and distinguish interactions and conversations with the mHealth artifact. Findings: The study shows how an mHealth artifact is re-shaping a home care practice and how this affects interactions and identifies learning opportunities. Views on the mHealth artifact as a designated boundary object as well as a boundary object-in-use must co-exist. Originality/value: The study provides qualitative descriptions from using an mHealth artifact for home care, which is an emerging area of concern for both research and practice. It focuses on the interactional and organizational values generated from the actual use of the designed mobile application. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2017
Keywords
nformal learning, Information systems, mHealth, Boundary object-in-use, Caring conversation, Designated boundary object
National Category
Nursing Interaction Technologies
Research subject
NURSING AND PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE, Nursing science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11919 (URN)10.1108/JWL-04-2016-0027 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034839866 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-12 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
4. Co-Designing a Digital Platform with Boundary Objects: Bringing Together Heterogeneous Users in Healthcare
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-Designing a Digital Platform with Boundary Objects: Bringing Together Heterogeneous Users in Healthcare
(English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Healthcare is increasingly permeated with digital platforms supporting cooperative care involving different professional groups and also patients. New mobile technologies allow for patients to continuously monitor and document their symptoms to support better healthcare, as well as self-care. The successful design of such multi-user platforms calls for new design approaches involving heterogeneous conditions and goals. This paper analyzes theuse of boundary objects in design as a mediator for different users' needs and conditions. Our research is conducted at a clinic supporting cancer survivors in their struggles with treatment induced illnesses, a treatment heavily dependent on new medical research as well as on patient involvement. The data is collected ethnographically over two years following a design project that developed a digital platform to support the care provided by the clinic. We describe how useful boundary objects transform over time, from rich narratives, to conceptual formulations and finally into concrete prototypes of the platform. We argue that understanding such a transformation can inform the design of healthcare platforms and guide future design processes, where co-designing with boundary objects can be especially useful as a design approach when doing design complex settings, such as healthcare settings.

Keywords
Co-Design, Health informatics, Cancer rehabilitation, Information Systems, Designing boundary object, Emergent Boundary Objects, Digital Platform, Healthcare Platforms
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning; SOCIAL SCIENCE, Informatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12819 (URN)
Note

Ingår i avhandling

Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
5. Data Supported Practice for Co-Creation of Value in Healthcare
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data Supported Practice for Co-Creation of Value in Healthcare
(English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The prevalence of information systems in healthcare enables the use of health data for purposes related to data-driven decision-making. The technology "promise" is to make healthcare organizations more efficient. Despite the increased interest in health data in general and patient generated data in particular, there is a need for additional research on how data support health practices. This paper therefore conducts a case study of a nurse-led clinic for cancer rehabilitation to examine how a data-supported practice achieves value. By breaking down the data-gathering process, with a focus on value, we show how value is co-created by a range of different actors, including patients, nurses and researchers. In this case, the value co-creation consist of two parallel processes. A knowledge process revolving around a research practice with the aim to produce new knowledge. It is a process which provide a foundation and structure for the clinical practice. The interactional process work in parallel and describes the interaction with and about data between the different actors and how the interaction is an essential resource to achieve data value.

Keywords
e-health; value; cancer rehabilitation; nurse practice; PGHD; co-creation
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning; SOCIAL SCIENCE, Informatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12820 (URN)
Note

Ingår i avhandling

Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved

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Islind, Anna Sigridur

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