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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Bjurström, E., Schüler, M., Strömberg, A. & Roxström, G. (2023). Data quality and analysts’ role in AI enhanced C2. In: International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) proceedings: . Paper presented at 28th International Command And Control Research & Technology Symposium 28-30 November 2023 - Laurel, Maryland, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data quality and analysts’ role in AI enhanced C2
2023 (English)In: International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) proceedings, 2023Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Command and Control (C2) raises questions about the interaction between operators on different levels on the one hand and AI-supported information systems on the other. For some purposes, the aggregation and analysis of large “big data”-sets creates potential for prediction and calculations of probabilities, while for other purposes human heuristics may be as promising depending on the situation. What has been more rarely discussed, is the very quality of data underpinning such calculations, and thus also operators’ awareness of the validity of predictions in relation to any specific situation. This is an urgent debate, considering the fact that full transparency may be impossible and underpinning data may be based on exercises, simulations, real-time data, or a mix thereof. Based on a fundamental classification of different kinds of uncertainties, this article discusses how data of different origins and quality can be managed and communicated to allow for operators to assess on what basis predictions are made. The article further suggests that looking at other fields of research may be useful for exploring unconventional ways of highlighting the existence and quality of different kinds of data of different origins in order to assess its predictive power. Finally, the article discusses how AI may change the role of analysts with regard to such issues.

Series
International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) proceedings, ISSN 2577-1604
Keywords
Artificial Intelligence (AI), Command and Control (C2)
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-21138 (URN)
Conference
28th International Command And Control Research & Technology Symposium 28-30 November 2023 - Laurel, Maryland, USA
Available from: 2023-12-27 Created: 2023-12-27 Last updated: 2023-12-27
Schüler, M. (2023). Human and machine learning. In: Lome, Ragnild (Ed.), Collection Of Abstracts Nato In The Nordics, August 30-31, 2023. Conference Organized By The Scandinavian Journal Of Military Studies (Sjms) & The Swedish Centre For Studies Of Armed Forces And Society (Csms): . Paper presented at NATO IN THE NORDICS, Organized by the Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies (SJMS) & the Swedish Centre for Studies of Armed Forces and Society (CSMS), 30-31 August, 2023 (pp. 9-10). Swedisch Centre for Studies of Armed Forces and Society; Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human and machine learning
2023 (English)In: Collection Of Abstracts Nato In The Nordics, August 30-31, 2023. Conference Organized By The Scandinavian Journal Of Military Studies (Sjms) & The Swedish Centre For Studies Of Armed Forces And Society (Csms) / [ed] Lome, Ragnild, Swedisch Centre for Studies of Armed Forces and Society; Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies , 2023, p. 9-10Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential effects of machine learning and artificial intelligence on military organizations, on a general basis. ChatGPT, has sparked a debate in universities all over the world, and language model software’s are likely to impact how military personnel conduct their work – several officers work on tasks that could benefit from machine learning integration, such as logistics, healthcare, maintenance, intelligence, and others. However, officers will need to develop skills to ask relevant questions to extract information from the algorithm and train the algorithm to process relevant information with sufficient quality. That is, the military organization needs to develop different methods of learning. Exercises, particularly two-sided field exercises with a friendly and a hostile side, now have two additional learners, the friendly and the hostile algorithm. The potential risks of learning faults and errors from exercises are always present, and introducing algorithms increases these risks. Humans learn by facing different situations and Collection of Abstracts NATO in the Nordics10 reflecting on their actions, while algorithms learn by classifying available data. Understanding the learning needs of humans and algorithms has strategic implications. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Swedisch Centre for Studies of Armed Forces and Society; Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies, 2023
Keywords
Human, machine learning, artificial intelligence, military organizations
National Category
Computer Sciences Learning Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-20661 (URN)
Conference
NATO IN THE NORDICS, Organized by the Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies (SJMS) & the Swedish Centre for Studies of Armed Forces and Society (CSMS), 30-31 August, 2023
Available from: 2023-09-04 Created: 2023-09-04 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Schüler, M. (2023). Innovate or Die: A guide into the military research ecosystem. Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademiens handlingar och tidskrift (3), 145-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovate or Die: A guide into the military research ecosystem
2023 (English)In: Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademiens handlingar och tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna artikel är att diskutera hur ett innovativt ekosystem kan skapas för att stödja militär innovation. Krigföring har alltid varit beroende av innovation för att öka soldaternas dödlighet, säkerhet och överlevnad. Sverige och Försvarsmakterna kommer sannolikt att ansluta sig till Nato med dess fokus på teknisk innovation. Strategiska dokument som reglerar hur forskning beställs inom Försvarsmakterna har analyserats med hjälp av aktivitetsteori. Resultaten indikerar att flera regler är motsägande och stödjer inte kunskapsförvärv inom okända områden. Systemdesignen för att förvärva kunskap bygger på antagandet om värde, vissa typer av kunskap är mer värdefulla än andra typer av kunskap. Intressant nog bedöms kunskap om militär praktik och militär ledningsfilosofi som meningslös enligt systemdesignen. Denna studie har flera begränsningar, en av dem är tillgängliga dokument som beskriver hur forskning och kunskap ordnas mellan Försvarsmakterna och andra forskningsenheter. En annan begränsning är den militära sökmotorn, som inte verkar visa söksvaret på ett tillgängligt och tillförlitligt sätt. Framtida forskning bör fokusera på interventioner och förändringsledning för att hjälpa Försvarsmakterna att utveckla ett innovativt ekosystem.

Keywords
Misson command; Innovation; ecosystem; Activity theory; military
National Category
Business Administration Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-20895 (URN)
Note

Martin Schüler har fått tillstånd att publicera abstractet från journalen. / 2/11-23

Available from: 2023-11-02 Created: 2023-11-02 Last updated: 2024-01-10
Schüler, M. & Bjurström, E. (2023). Navigating in the zoo. In: International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) proceedings: . Paper presented at 28th International Command And Control Research & Technology Symposium 28-30 November 2023 - Laurel, Maryland, USA (pp. 1-7).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Navigating in the zoo
2023 (English)In: International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) proceedings, 2023, p. 1-7Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) are taking the world by storm. Armed forces around the world are thinking about new concepts or adaptations to integrate ML and AI in different functions affecting the military work environment. The purpose of this article is to broaden the perspective and challenge the perception of a military ML or AI integration. Military exercises are important tools for armed forces throughout the world. Learning to fight wars in a safe environment which emphasizes learning, saves lives on the battlefield. Through the theoretical framework of human activity, it is possible to understand the challenges soldiers and officers face when conducting double-sided live field exercises. The introduction of ML and AI in the exercise environment also creates a new learning environment with two more learning participants. By understanding the human zone of proximal development, we can also better understand the learning limitations and constraints an integrated ML or AI must consider before adjusting the algorithm. Simply accepting every collected data stream from a double-sided live field exercise might lead to learned faults and errors endangering the lives of soldiers and officers. To mediate the risk a new type of exercise needs to be developed with a focus on all participants learning opportunities both human and machine

Series
International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) proceedings, ISSN 2577-1604
Keywords
Machine learning, ML, AI, military, artificial intelligence
National Category
Learning Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-21048 (URN)
Conference
28th International Command And Control Research & Technology Symposium 28-30 November 2023 - Laurel, Maryland, USA
Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Schüler, M. & Vega Matuszczyk, J. (2022). A Multi-Domain instrument for safety Climate: Military safety climate questionnaire (MSCQ) and NOSACQ-50. Safety Science, 154, Article ID 105851.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multi-Domain instrument for safety Climate: Military safety climate questionnaire (MSCQ) and NOSACQ-50
2022 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 154, article id 105851Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to adjust and develop Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ-50) specifically for the military domain. Many safety climate instruments have been developed for complex organizations but few with a military perspective including military exercises and physical training. Data were collected during two separate occasions, experiment one (n = 956) and experiment two (n = 377). The questionnaire was distributed to civilian and military personnel working in the Swedish Armed Forces and to military cadets. The results of experiment one was then analyzed using principal component analyses and confirmatory factor analyses, the factor structure was reproduced in experiment two. The results from the study confirmed the reliability and validity of NOSACQ-50 as a safety climate instrument in the military organization. However, several new factors were identified with the military safety climate questionnaire (MSCQ). Physical fitness and exercises are important activities in the military but are less important in other organizations which could explain why it isn’t present in traditional safety climate instruments. This study identifies several limitations one being the design of questions suitable for both military and civilian personnel. Another limitation is combat operations, this data collection recognizes the field but was unable to capture data from actual combat operations. Further research is needed to fully develop more dimensions for both exercises and combat operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Safety climate, Military, Multi-domain, Vulnerability
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Work Sciences
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19068 (URN)10.1016/j.ssci.2022.105851 (DOI)000821870500010 ()2-s2.0-85132787310 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-18 Created: 2022-08-18 Last updated: 2024-04-10Bibliographically approved
Schüler, M. & Bjurström, E. (2022). Blurring the lines: Merging aspects of human cognition and artificial intelligence. In: 27th ICCRTS Proceedings: Theme: Collective C2: Working with Partners Track 3: Coping with Constraints, Complexity and Ambiguity.. Paper presented at 27 th International Command And Control Research & Technology Symposium 25-27 October 2022 – Quebec City, Canada. (pp. 1-6). International C2 Institute
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blurring the lines: Merging aspects of human cognition and artificial intelligence
2022 (English)In: 27th ICCRTS Proceedings: Theme: Collective C2: Working with Partners Track 3: Coping with Constraints, Complexity and Ambiguity., International C2 Institute , 2022, p. 1-6Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this article is to discuss the transformation of Twitter from a usable tool for spreading information to a space for learning. When we talk about different software, we in many cases can’t phantom their outreach and connectivity. Specific software solutions have been integrated into our lives making them a part of ourselves. Specific tools can be designed to enhance specific functions within the software such as automatic accounts spreading keywords users write. Users are humans and perceive their cyber environment in the same way as they perceive human interaction in real life. The transformation changed the tool to an area of operation where different stakeholders can interact with each other. From an intelligence perspective, the distinction between technology and HUMINT no longer serves its purposes of classification – it has merged into one and the same. From the perspective of C2, information technology in itself is still emphasized at the cost of other dimensions, hence obscuring the very mechanisms of how what is only seen as social media in fact is a dimension of itself. While the human dimension is sometimes addressed, there is a dearth of research exploring its workings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International C2 Institute, 2022
Series
ICCRTS Symposium, ISSN 2577-1604
Keywords
software, artifical intelligence
National Category
Applied Psychology Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19447 (URN)
Conference
27 th International Command And Control Research & Technology Symposium 25-27 October 2022 – Quebec City, Canada.
Available from: 2022-12-06 Created: 2022-12-06 Last updated: 2022-12-07
Schüler, M. (2022). Planning for Safety when Preparing for War: Competition Brings Out the Wickedness of the Military. In: 27th ICCRTS Proceedings: Theme: Collective C2: Working with Partners Track 7: Experimentation, Analysis, Assessment, and Metrics. Paper presented at 27 th International Command And Control Research & Technology Symposium 25-27 October 2022 – Quebec City, Canada. Theme: Collective C2: Working with Partners Track 3: Coping with Constraints, Complexity and Ambiguity (pp. 1-16). International Command and Control Institute
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Planning for Safety when Preparing for War: Competition Brings Out the Wickedness of the Military
2022 (English)In: 27th ICCRTS Proceedings: Theme: Collective C2: Working with Partners Track 7: Experimentation, Analysis, Assessment, and Metrics, International Command and Control Institute , 2022, p. 1-16Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The study investigates how two-sided military exercises affect learning and participating personnel's ability to perform tasks safely when confronted with an equally matched opponent. Data were collected from two separate events the Northern Wind 2019 Final Planning Conference and the Northern Wind 2019 exercise using participatory observations and shadowing. The outline of the critical incident technique was used as a guide when designing the data collection and the activity theory framework was used for coding and analyzing the data. The results indicate that a driven desire to win two-sided military exercises can create unsafe work practices by performing work tasks without regard for occupational-, electrical- or fire safety. The results also indicate a need for reshaping the conception of a two-sided military exercise by treating the exercise as a learning opportunity and recognizing the impact of the participating unit on each other’s learning. The study is based on the results of one army exercise and requires further research to understand the activities that take place and how they affect learning and safety. However, it gives some insight into the learning problems occurring during military field exercises.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Command and Control Institute, 2022
Series
ICCRTS Symposium, ISSN 2577-1604
Keywords
war, military, competition
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Applied Psychology
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19448 (URN)
Conference
27 th International Command And Control Research & Technology Symposium 25-27 October 2022 – Quebec City, Canada. Theme: Collective C2: Working with Partners Track 3: Coping with Constraints, Complexity and Ambiguity
Available from: 2022-12-07 Created: 2022-12-07 Last updated: 2022-12-07
Schüler, M. (2022). Säkerhetsklimat i en militär organisation. (Doctoral dissertation). Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Säkerhetsklimat i en militär organisation
2022 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Den militära organisationen inkluderar olika verksamheter vilket skiljer den fran civila organisationer. Den militära organisationen har sin motsvarighet i flera olika civila organisationer som sjöfart, luftfart, sjukvård och transport for att nämna några områden. Den allomfattande militära verksamheten regleras av samma lagar som övriga aktörer i samhället forhåller sig till. Det som är unikt med den militära organisationen är den kontinuerligt tränar och övar för krig. Organisationens personal exponeras för utmaningen att tankemässigt växla mellan individuell och kollektiv risktagning att tänka och träna (krig), Sveriges säkerhet. Samtidigt förvantas individen förebygga risker i de farliga situationer som påverkar den individuella säkerheten som individen möter i sitt arbete.

Säkerhetsklimat ar organisationsmedlemmarnas kollektiva uppfattning om området säkerhet (Neal & Griffin, 2002; Zohar, 1980). Uppfattningarna skapas genom att gruppen ser hur säkerhet uttrycks, prioriteras och hanteras i organisationen till exempel i organisationens regler, rutiner, instruktioner och dokument (Kines et al., 2011). Uppfattningar ar särskilt viktiga i organisationens säkerhetsarbete och bidrar till att vissa säkerhetsomraden uppfattas som mer eller mindre viktiga i det dagliga arbetet (Fahlbruch & Wilpert, 1999; Flin, 1998; Flin et al., 2000). Dessa uppfattningar påverkar aven förekomsten av olyckor och tillbud som kan orsaka skador pa människor, utrustning och miljö (Beus et al., 2010; Christian et al., 2009; Fugas et al., 2012; Kuenzi & Schminke, 2009; Nahrgang et al., 2011; Tholen et al., 2013). For att kartlägga säkerhetsklimatet används olika enkätinstrument. Det finns inga säkerhetsklimatinstrument som är anpassade  till  hela  den  militära  organisationens verksamhet. De säkerhetsklimatinstrument som finns mäter säkerhetsklimat utifrån en specifik verksamhet som till exempel sjöfart. I den föreliggande avhandlingen har en modifierad version av instrumentet Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire använts för att mäta säkerhetsklimat i flera olika delar av den militära organisationen. Ytterligare områden har adderats till instrumentet for att fånga de situationer som militär personal möter i den dagliga verksamheten dvs övning, etik, och fysikträning.

Avhandlingens syfte är att utveckla ett verktyg för att undersöka säkerhetsklimat i en militär organisation samt att undersöka relationen mellan säkerhet och lärande i det militära arbetet.

Resultaten visar att det anpassade instrumentet NOSACQ-50 diskriminerar mellan olika stridskrafter och nivåer i den militära organisationen. Resultaten visar att de nyskapade dimensionerna: Ledningens stöd, Kunskap om lagar, Etik, Prioritering av träning, Undvikande av träning, Rättvis utvärdering, Acceptans av vulnerabilitet mäter andra aspekter av säkerhet som har relevans for den miliära organisationen.

Vidare har säkerhet undersökts under en militär övning. Datainsamlingen designades efter  metoden  kritiska  incidenter.  Deltagande  observationer genomfördes av planeringen inför övningen Northern Wind 2019 (NW19). Skuggning användes for att följa övningsdeltagarna under övningen NW19. Resultaten visar att begäret att vinna övningen påverkar hur deltagarna arbetar med säkerhet. Deltagande enheter blir med sina beslut och aktioner omedvetet varandras lärare. Övningsdeltagarna påverkas av "gamer mode" vilket medför att säkerhetsreglerna upplevs hindrande for övningsvinsten. Övningsscenariot skapar en situation där verklighetsliknande situationer sammanblandas med autentiska. Konkreta uppgifter går att imitera (flytta den gröna lådan) medan abstrakta uppgifter inte kan imiteras (samarbeta med andra myndigheter som Polisen). Problematiken skapar ett underlag som kan vilseleda organisationen och skapa kunskap som inte fungerar utanför övningen. Problem och svårigheter synliggörs inte utan bildar organisatoriska svagheter som kan orsaka farliga situationer för individen och organisationen.

För att ytterligare förstå militar säkerhet behöver arbetet kompletteras med ytterligare studier riktade mot marina och flygvapenövningar. Vidare behöver instrumentet kompletteras med påståenden som fångar personalens uppfattning om säkerhetslösningens faktiska tillämpbarhet när den används i den militära verksamheten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst, 2022. p. 69
Series
PhD Thesis: University West ; 51
Keywords
Militär, Säkerhetsklimat, Lärande, Aktivitetsteori, Rutinarbete
National Category
Work Sciences Learning Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19061 (URN)978-91-89325-33-3 (ISBN)978-91-89325-32-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-09-30, F211, Gustava Melins gata 2, Trollhättan, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-08-31 Created: 2022-08-18 Last updated: 2022-12-07Bibliographically approved
Schüler, M. (2021). Planning for safety when preparing for war: winning or learning. In: : . Paper presented at 7th International Designs for Learning conference, Stockholm, May 25-26, 2021. Online..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Planning for safety when preparing for war: winning or learning
2021 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Preventing accidents within a complex environment like a force on force military exercise ischallenging for the organization. The aim of this study is to investigate safety behavior by usingactivity theory in combination with critical incident technique in order to identify conditions effectingthe health and safety of individuals employed by the Swedish armed forces (SwAF) participating inmilitary exercises. The empirical data was collected from two separate events final planningconference of Northern Wind 2019 (FPC-NW19) and the exercise Northern Wind 2019 (NW19). Datawas collected using observations and conversations with military, medical and safety professionals.One researcher followed the FPC-NW19 and the observed the exercise NW19 by shadowing staffmembers and safety personnel.Data was analyzed, thematized and coded using the third generation of activity theory and its areas:tools, rules, community, division of labor, subject and object as a guide for identifying contradictions.Results indicate that the methods used for planning and the use of safety equipment whenconducting military tasks during the exercise is influenced by the desire of winning the exercise.The results also indicate that activity theory can be a useful tool to identify contradictions affectingsafety performance. However, the study is only limited to two events with a narrow scope from theArmy. Further refinement is needed to develop a functioning method for analyzing safety behavior.

Keywords
Safety, Learning, Activity theory, Military
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16591 (URN)
Conference
7th International Designs for Learning conference, Stockholm, May 25-26, 2021. Online.
Available from: 2021-07-07 Created: 2021-07-07 Last updated: 2022-12-07Bibliographically approved
Schüler, M. & Bjurström, E. (2021). Speed vs thought. In: Alberts, David (Ed.), 26th ICCRTS International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium: Artificial Intelligence, Automation and Autonomy: C2 Implications, Opportunities and Challenges. Paper presented at 26th ICCRTS International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (pp. 1-8). Washington, Topic 3, Article ID 016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speed vs thought
2021 (English)In: 26th ICCRTS International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium: Artificial Intelligence, Automation and Autonomy: C2 Implications, Opportunities and Challenges / [ed] Alberts, David, Washington, 2021, Vol. Topic 3, p. 1-8, article id 016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the conception of speed in command and control (C2) systems’ impact on human thought and to introduce the notion of “Combat Integrated Learning” (CIL). In a context of increased complexity, unpredictability and ambiguity, adaptation not only concerns agility in terms of speed, but through resilience, self- healing and – in lack of calculable consequence ethics – an Aristotelian notion of virtue as a stable equilibrium of the soul as a basis for choice of action “knowingly and for its own sake”. As humans we have many cognitive functions which impact how we perceive information i.e., sensemaking and situation awareness. But the essence of thinking is a philosophical issue where philosophers like Arendt previously explained the emergence of banal evil as ordinary men having lost their ability to think. C2 systems that make us reactive to a piece of information, inciting speed to act, minimize human reflection and learning. Developing time effective C2 systems could in fact lead to the creation of military stupidity. Authority, organizational and administrative procedures may lead to normalization of risk, morally questionable attitudes and actions, routinized humiliation and behavior that ultimately break down sensemaking and the sense of “self” in degraded environments. C2 systems and their uses may hamper intelligent action through the loss of an active agency of the individual, thus impede understanding and management of the battlespace, especially in the light of deception and disinformation, and unclear causal relations of events in constrained environments. This paper points at potential good practices in the face of ambiguity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: , 2021
Series
International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) proceedings, ISSN 2577-1604
Keywords
Speed in command, control systems
National Category
Philosophy Educational Sciences Learning
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17430 (URN)
Conference
26th ICCRTS International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium
Note

ISBN 9780999724616

Available from: 2021-10-10 Created: 2021-10-10 Last updated: 2021-11-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0394-9724

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