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Balachandramurthi, A. R., Moverare, J., Dixit, N., Deng, D. & Pederson, R. (2019). Microstructural influence on fatigue crack propagation during high cycle fatigue testing of additively manufactured Alloy 718. Materials Characterization, 149, 82-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural influence on fatigue crack propagation during high cycle fatigue testing of additively manufactured Alloy 718
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2019 (English)In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 149, p. 82-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A study of the microstructure of additively manufactured Alloy 718 was performed in order to better understand the parameters that have an influence on the fatigue properties of the material. The specimens were manufactured using two powder bed fusion techniques – Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Four point bending fatigue tests were performed at room temperature with a stress ratio of R = 0.1 and 20 Hz frequency, on material that was either in hot isostatically pressed (HIP) and solution treated and aged (STA) condition or in STA condition without a prior HIP treatment. The grains in the SLM material in the HIP + STA condition have grown considerably both in the hatch and the contour regions; EBM material, in contrast, shows grain growth only in the contour region. Fractographic analysis of the specimens in HIP + STA condition showed a faceted appearance while the specimens in STA condition showed a more planar crack appearance. The crack propagation occurred in a transgranular mode and it was found that precipitatessuch as NbC, TiN or δ-phase, when present, did not affect the crack path. The areas with larger grains corresponded to the faceted appearance of the fracture surface. This could be attributed to the plastic zone ahead of the crack tip being confined within one grain, in case of the larger grains, which promotes single shear crack growth mode

Keywords
Electron beam melting, Selective laser melting, Alloy 718, Fatigue crack propagation, Microstructure, Hot isostatic pressing
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13460 (URN)10.1016/j.matchar.2019.01.018 (DOI)000475837800008 ()2-s2.0-85060346504 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160281
Available from: 2019-02-04 Created: 2019-02-04 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
Kumara, C., Segerstark, A., Hanning, F., Dixit, N., Joshi, S. V., Moverare, J. & Nylén, P. (2019). Microstructure modelling of laser metal powder directed energy deposition of alloy 718. Additive Manufacturing, 25, 357-364
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure modelling of laser metal powder directed energy deposition of alloy 718
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2019 (English)In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 25, p. 357-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A multi-component and multi-phase-field modelling approach, combined with transformation kinetics modelling, was used to model microstructure evolution during laser metal powder directed energy deposition of Alloy 718 and subsequent heat treatments. Experimental temperature measurements were utilised to predict microstructural evolution during successive addition of layers. Segregation of alloying elements as well as formation of Laves and δ phase was specifically modelled. The predicted elemental concentrations were then used in transformation kinetics to estimate changes in Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) and Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) diagrams for Alloy 718. Modelling results showed good agreement with experimentally observed phase evolution within the microstructure. The results indicate that the approach can be a valuable tool, both for improving process understanding and for process development including subsequent heat treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Phase-field, DED, Heat treatment, Thermal cycle, Modelling
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology; ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13195 (URN)10.1016/j.addma.2018.11.024 (DOI)000456378800034 ()2-s2.0-85057193791 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Funders: European Regional Development Fund for project 3Dprint

Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2019-04-03Bibliographically approved
Balachandramurthi, A. R. & Olsson, J. (2019). Microstructure tailoring in Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing and its potential consequences. Results in Materials, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure tailoring in Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing and its potential consequences
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2019 (English)In: Results in Materials, ISSN 2590-048X, Vol. 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion process for Alloy 718 was investigated, in the sense of microstructural evolution with varying process conditions. The existence of a geometric relationship between the melt front and the processing parameters was observed. By understanding and capitalizing on this relationship, it was possible to obtain columnar, equiaxed or bimodal microstructure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Alloy 718, Texture, Microstructure, Additive manufacturing, Powder bed fusion
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14331 (URN)10.1016/j.rinma.2019.100017 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-08-26 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Kumara, C., Deng, D., Hanning, F., Raanes, M., Moverare, J. & Nylén, P. (2019). Predicting the Microstructural Evolution of Electron Beam Melting of Alloy 718 with Phase-Field Modeling. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, 50A(5), 527-2537
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting the Microstructural Evolution of Electron Beam Melting of Alloy 718 with Phase-Field Modeling
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2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 50A, no 5, p. 527-2537Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electron beam melting (EBM) is a powder bed additive manufacturing process where a powder material is melted selectively in a layer-by-layer approach using an electron beam. EBM has some unique features during the manufacture of components with high-performance superalloys that are commonly used in gas turbines such as Alloy 718. EBM has a high deposition rate due to its high beam energy and speed, comparatively low residual stresses, and limited problems with oxidation. However, due to the layer-by-layer melting approach and high powder bed temperature, the as-built EBM Alloy 718 exhibits a microstructural gradient starting from the top of the sample. In this study, we conducted modeling to obtain a deeper understanding of microstructural development during EBM and the homogenization that occurs during manufacturing with Alloy 718. A multicomponent phase-field modeling approach was combined with transformation kinetic modeling to predict the microstructural gradient and the results were compared with experimental observations. In particular, we investigated the segregation of elements during solidification and the subsequent "in situ" homogenization heat treatment at the elevated powder bed temperature. The predicted elemental composition was then used for thermodynamic modeling to predict the changes in the continuous cooling transformation and time-temperature transformation diagrams for Alloy 718, which helped to explain the observed phase evolution within the microstructure. The results indicate that the proposed approach can be employed as a valuable tool for understanding processes and for process development, including post-heat treatments. © 2019, The Author(s).

Keywords
3D printers; Deposition rates; Electron beam melting; Electron beams; Forecasting; Gas turbines; Microstructural evolution; Solid solutions; Temperature, Additive manufacturing process; Continuous cooling transformation; Elemental compositions; Layer-by-layer approaches; Microstructural development; Microstructural gradients; Transformation diagrams; Transformation kinetics, Heat treatment
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13756 (URN)10.1007/s11661-019-05163-7 (DOI)000463991300038 ()2-s2.0-85062604965 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationEuropean Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-07-25Bibliographically approved
Balachandramurthi Ramanathan, A., Moverare, J., Mahade, S. & Pederson, R. (2018). Additive Manufacturing of Alloy 718 via Electron Beam Melting: Effect of Post-Treatment on the Microstructure and the Mechanical Properties.. Materials, 12(1), Article ID E68.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive Manufacturing of Alloy 718 via Electron Beam Melting: Effect of Post-Treatment on the Microstructure and the Mechanical Properties.
2018 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 1, article id E68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Alloy 718 finds application in gas turbine engine components, such as turbine disks, compressor blades and so forth, due to its excellent mechanical and corrosion properties at elevated temperatures. Electron beam melting (EBM) is a recent addition to the list of additive manufacturing processes and has shown the capability to produce components with unique microstructural features. In this work, Alloy 718 specimens were manufactured using the EBM process with a single batch of virgin plasma atomized powder. One set of as-built specimens was subjected to solution treatment and ageing (STA); another set of as-built specimens was subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP), followed by STA (and referred to as HIP+STA). Microstructural analysis of as-built specimens, STA specimens and HIP+STA specimens was carried out using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Typical columnar microstructure, which is a characteristic of the EBM manufactured alloy, was observed. Hardness evaluation of the as-built, STA and HIP+STA specimens showed that the post-treatments led to an increase in hardness in the range of ~50 HV1. Tensile properties of the three material conditions (as-built, STA and HIP+STA) were evaluated. Post-treatments lead to an increase in the yield strength (YS) and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). HIP+STA led to improved elongation compared to STA due to the closure of defects but YS and UTS were comparable for the two post-treatment conditions. Fractographic analysis of the tensile tested specimens showed that the closure of shrinkage porosity and the partial healing of lack of fusion (LoF) defects were responsible for improved properties. Fatigue properties were evaluated in both STA and HIP+STA conditions. In addition, three surface conditions were also investigated, namely the 'raw' as-built surface, the machined surface with the contour region and the machined surface without the contour region. Machining off the contour region completely together with HIP+STA led to significant improvement in fatigue performance.

Keywords
Alloy 718, electron beam melting, fatigue properties, microstructure, tensile properties, texture
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13364 (URN)10.3390/ma12010068 (DOI)000456410200068 ()30585242 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059182911 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160281
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Balachandramurthi, A. R., Moverare, J., Dixit, N. & Pederson, R. (2018). Influence of defects and as-built surface roughness on fatigue properties of additively manufactured Alloy 718. Materials Science & Engineering: A, 735, 463-474
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of defects and as-built surface roughness on fatigue properties of additively manufactured Alloy 718
2018 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 735, p. 463-474Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electron beam melting (EBM) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM) are powder bed based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. These, relatively new, processes offer advantages such as near net shaping, manufacturing complex geometries with a design space that was previously not accessible with conventional manufacturing processes, part consolidation to reduce number of assemblies, shorter time to market etc. The aerospace and gas turbine industries have shown interest in the EBM and the SLM processes to enable topology-optimized designs, parts with lattice structures and part consolidation. However, to realize such advantages, factors affecting the mechanical properties must be well understood – especially the fatigue properties. In the context of fatigue performance, apart from the effect of different phases in the material, the effect of defects in terms of both the amount and distribution and the effect of “rough” as-built surface must be studied in detail. Fatigue properties of Alloy 718, a Ni-Fe based superalloy widely used in the aerospace engines is investigated in this study. Four point bending fatigue tests have been performed at 20 Hz in room temperature at different stress ranges to compare the performance of the EBM and the SLM material to the wrought material. The experiment aims to assess the differences in fatigue properties between the two powder bed AM processes as well as assess the effect of two post-treatment methods namely – machining and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Fractography and metallography have been performed to explain the observed properties. Both HIPing and machining improve the fatigue performance; however, a large scatter is observed for machined specimens. Fatigue properties of SLM material approach that of wrought material while in EBM material defects severely affect the fatigue life. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Alloy 718, Fatigue, Surface roughness, Hot isostatic pressing, 3D printers, Bending tests, Binary alloys, Fatigue testing, Fighter aircraft, Fracture mechanics, Gas turbines, Hot isostatic pressing, Iron alloys, Mechanical properties, Melting, Nickel alloys, Sintering, Surface roughness, Alloy 718, Conventional manufacturing, Fatigue performance, Gas turbine industry, Lattice structures, Manufacturing complex, Post-treatment method, Selective laser melting, Fatigue of materials
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12956 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2018.08.072 (DOI)000447117300055 ()2-s2.0-85052655828 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160281
Note

Available online 23 August 2018

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8304-0221

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