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Kajonius, P. & Björkman, T. (2020). Individuals with dark traits have the ability but not the disposition to empathize. Personality and Individual Differences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individuals with dark traits have the ability but not the disposition to empathize
2020 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Empathy is fundamental to social cognition and societal values. Empathy is theorized as having both the ability as well as the disposition to imagine the content of other people’s minds. We tested whether the notorious low empathy in dark personalities (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism; the Dark Triad) is best characterized by a lack of capacity (ability) or lack of disposition (trait). Data was collected for 278 international participants through an anonymous online survey shared on the online platform LinkedIn, consisting of trait-based Dark Triad personality (SD3) and empathy (IRI), and cognitive ability (ICAR16) and ability-based empathy (MET). Dark personality traits had no relationship with ability-based empathy, but strongly so with trait-based empathy (β = -0.47). Instead, cognitive ability explained ability-based empathy (β = 0.31). The finding is that dark personalities in a community sample is normally cognizant to empathize but has a low disposition to do so. This finding may help shed further light on how personality is interlinked with ability.

Keywords
Cognitive ability, Dark triad, Empathy, Personality
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14745 (URN)10.1016/j.paid.2019.109716 (DOI)
Note

Available from: 2019-12-11 Created: 2019-12-11 Last updated: 2019-12-16Bibliographically approved
Dåderman, A. M., Hallberg, A., Skog, S. & Kajonius, P. (2019). A Leadership Meta-Resource Factor Explicates Task Performance, Work Engagement, and Perceived Stress. In: : . Paper presented at Perpsy19 World Conference on Personality, 2-6 April 2019, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Leadership Meta-Resource Factor Explicates Task Performance, Work Engagement, and Perceived Stress
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Past research links emotional leadership resources (e.g., emotional intelligence) positively with important working life outcomes, such as health, job satisfaction, job performance, organizational commitment, and leadership effectiveness. However, no study has yet described emotional leadership resources based on traits linked with work motivation and stress resilience. The aim was to describe emotional leadership resources based on traits in a novel fashion (meta-traits, based on structural trait analysis). Our hypothesis was that an emotional leadership meta-resource factor would converge with motivation and stress resilience. Participants (N = 344) were leaders aged between 23 and 65 years (M = 49, SD = 8.6; 58% women) who completed an online questionnaire including measures of common traits (e.g., trait emotional intelligence, Big Six), and coping resources. We estimated work motivation by self-rated work engagement, and stress resilience by the level of perceived stress. We used an exploratory factor analysis approach to describe and structure our data, and structural equation modelling (SEM) to test whether an emotional leadership meta-resource factor would converge with work motivation and stress resilience. Our findings revealed that the investigated traits and resources could be described along four broad emotional leadership resource factors, namely (1) Externalizing, (2) Moral goodness, (3) “Destrudo”, and (4) Rational mastery. As expected, the emotional leadership meta-resource factor showed a strong convergence (~.80) with both work motivation and stress resilience. “Externalizing” and “Rational mastery” were the most important emotional resource factors. The findings are discussed using Hobfoll’s motivational Conservation of Resources (COR) theory. It is concluded that common traits, including personality traits, and coping resources comprise an emotional leadership meta-resource factor, which to a high degree converges with work motivation and stress resilience. The results imply that organizations may strengthen work motivation and reduce stress by recruiting leaders possessing valuable emotional leadership resources.

Keywords
Sweden, Leadership, Work Performance, Emotional Intelligence, Personality, Coping Resources, Empathy, Performance-Based Self-Esteem, Work Engagement, Perceived Stress
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14819 (URN)
Conference
Perpsy19 World Conference on Personality, 2-6 April 2019, Hanoi, Vietnam
Projects
“Det medmänskliga ledarskapet” [The human/charitable leadership]Emotional IntelligenceWork Performance
Available from: 2019-12-27 Created: 2019-12-27 Last updated: 2019-12-30Bibliographically approved
Kajonius, P. & Johnson, J. A. (2019). Assessing the structure of the five factor model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 260-275
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the structure of the five factor model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain
2019 (English)In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 260-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Assessment of individual differences in personality traits is arguably one of the hallmarks of psychological research. Testing the structural validity of trait measurements is paramount in this endeavor. In the current study, we investigated 30 facet traits in one of the accessible and comprehensive public-domain Five Factor Model (FFM) personality inventories, IPIP-NEO-120 (Johnson, 2014), using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). We present structural loadings for all trait facets organized into respective FFM-trait domain (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Both hierarchical second-order and bi-factor models showed tolerable model fit indices, using confirmatory factor analysis in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. Some facet traits were substantially more representative than others for their respective trait domain, which facilitate further discussions on FFM-construct content. We conclude that IPIP-NEO is sufficiently structurally robust for future use, for the benefit of research and practice in personality assessment. © 2019, PsychOpen. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PsychOpen, 2019
Keywords
personality, structure, Five Factor Model, IPIP
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14479 (URN)10.5964/ejop.v15i2.1671 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068748812 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2020-01-10Bibliographically approved
Dåderman, A. M., Hallberg, A., Skog, S. & Kajonius, P. (2019). Emotional Leadership in Relation to Task Performance, Work Engagement, and Perceived Stress. In: Prof. Franco Fraccaroli (Ed.), Working for the greater good: Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society. Paper presented at 19th Eawop Congress, 29th May – 1st June 2019, Turin, ITALY. Turin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional Leadership in Relation to Task Performance, Work Engagement, and Perceived Stress
2019 (English)In: Working for the greater good: Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society / [ed] Prof. Franco Fraccaroli, Turin, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To describe and explore emotional leadership meta-resources based on traits (self-esteem, emotional intelligence, leadership intelligence, empathy, Big Six, narcissism) and coping resources (e.g. cognitive), using Hobfoll’s motivational Conservation of Resources (COR). Our hypothesis was that leadership resources would be positively related to work engagement and negatively to perceived stress.

Methodology: Participants (N = 344) were leaders aged between 23 and 65 years (M = 49, SD = 8.6; 58% women) who completed an online questionnaire including measures of common traits and coping resources. Work engagement was measured by Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004), and stress by Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10; Cohen & Williamson, 1988). We used an exploratory factor analysis approach to describe and structure our data, and structural equation modelling (SEM) to test whether an emotional leadership meta-resource factor would be positively related to work engagement and negatively to perceived stress.

Results: The investigated traits and resources could be described along four broad emotional leadership resource factors: (1) Externalizing; (2) Moral goodness; (3) Destrudo; (4) Rational mastery. As expected, the emotional leadership meta-resource factor showed a strong convergence (~.80) with both work engagement (positively) and perceived stress (negatively). 

Research/Practical Implications: The results imply that organizations may strengthen work engagement and reduce stress by recruiting leaders possessing valuable emotional leadership resources.

Originality/Value: Our study is the first to describe emotional leadership resources based on traits linked with work engagement and perceived stress in a novel fashion (meta-traits, based on structural trait analysis).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Turin: , 2019
Keywords
Swedish Leaders, Emotional Leadership Meta-Resources, COR, Self-Esteem, Emotional Intelligence, Leadership Intelligence, Empathy, HEXACO, Narcissism, Coping Resources, Work-integrated learning
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology; Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14820 (URN)
Conference
19th Eawop Congress, 29th May – 1st June 2019, Turin, ITALY
Available from: 2019-12-27 Created: 2019-12-27 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Persson, B., Kajonius, P. & Garcia, D. (2019). Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad. Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), 26(1), 3-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad
2019 (English)In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism,and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has beenconducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings. In subsequent studies, two- and three-factor models fitted the data similarly, with the best fitting model beinga bifactor model with items from Machiavellianism and psychopathy modelled as one specific factor, and narcissism as asecond specific factor. On this basis, we suggest that the SD3 does not seem to capture the different mental processestheorized to underlie the similar behaviors generated by Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Additionally, we recommend the use of a single SD3 composite score, and not subscale scores, as subscales contain small amounts of reliable variance beyond the general factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Dark Triad, SD3, factor analysis, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11874 (URN)10.1177/1073191117701192 (DOI)000453103900001 ()2-s2.0-85019867160 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01229
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Mac Giolla, E. & Kajonius, P. (2019). Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding.. International Journal of Psychology, 54(6), 705-711
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding.
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 705-711Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this research by using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22 countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, have underestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strong correlation (r = .69) between a country's sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additional analyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. We speculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

Keywords
Big five, Country comparisons, Gender equality, Personality, Sex differences
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12943 (URN)10.1002/ijop.12529 (DOI)30206941 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053411189 (Scopus ID)
Note

First published online: 11 September 2018

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2019-12-13Bibliographically approved
Kajonius, P. & Johnson, J. A. (2019). Supplementary materials to "Assessing the structure of the Five Factor Model of Personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain".
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supplementary materials to "Assessing the structure of the Five Factor Model of Personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain"
2019 (English)Data set
Abstract [en]

Supplementary materials to "Kajonius, P. J., & Johnson, J. A. (2019). Assessing the structure of the Five Factor Model of Personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 12(2), 260-275. https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v15i2.1671"1.) Scoring Key for the IPIP-NEO-300 and IPIP-NEO-120; 2.) Files containing data from the Johnson (2005) JRP study and documentation for those files: a) ipip20993.dat contains 20,993 cases of item responses to the IPIP-NEO-300 in ASCII format. The file also contains facet and domain scale scores and two measures of intra-individual reliability described in the publication. Variables are listed at the top of the file; b) ipip20993.por contains these same data in portable SPSS format, and ipip20993.sav contains these data in SPSS 10.0 sav format; c) DAT20993.doc is a MS Word file that describes the variables in these files and how they are coded. 3.) Files containing data from the Johnson (2014) JRP study and documentation for those files: a) IPIP300.dat contains 307,313 cases of item responses to the IPIP-NEO-300 in ASCII format; b) IPIP300.por.zip contains those data in portable SPSS format; c) DAT300.doc is a MS Word file that describes the formatting of these data files; d) IPIP120.dat contains 619,150 cases of item responses to the IPIP-NEO-120; e) IPIP120-.por.zip contains those data in portable SPSS format; f) DAT120.doc is a MS Word file that describes the formatting of these data files.

Keywords
personality, Five Factor Model, structure, IPIP
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14840 (URN)10.23668/psycharchives.2448 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2020-01-10
Kajonius, P. (2019). The Future of Personalized Care: Scientific, Measurement, and Practical Advancements in Personality and Brain Disorders. In: Garcia, Danilo; Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M. (Ed.), Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions (pp. 269-281). Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Future of Personalized Care: Scientific, Measurement, and Practical Advancements in Personality and Brain Disorders
2019 (English)In: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Garcia, Danilo; Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M., Springer International Publishing , 2019, p. 269-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Person-centered care sciences are experiencing rapid progress. Personalization in care services is becoming the norm, and implementation from scientific knowledge is increasingly acknowledged and mandated. Advances in personality and brain disorder research are crucial in assisting the future development of personalized care. Aim: We will attempt to present glimpses into the future of personalized care with support from frontline science, measurement, and practice, updating with input from personality genetics and measurement theory. Outline: We present three broad developments: (1) scientific advancements in understanding how personality and genetics are central in predicting mental health and disorders, with the potential to increase predictive diagnosis and treatment validity; (2) measurement advancements with help of trait dimensions and latent structures, with the potential to increase reliability in assessing personalized care needs and functioning; (3) practical advancements in implementing a personalized approach in care services, with the potential to increase effectiveness and satisfaction with patients. We review this glimpse into the future by referencing key findings in personality and assessment meta-analyses, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and trait measurements in psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Personalizing care services will benefit practitioners and patients. We suggest and recommend that personalized care diagnosis and treatment is the way forward and that the future will be potentially revolutionized by incorporating the presented advancements in personality research and brain sciences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Person-centered care, Personality, Personality assessment, Genetics, Patient satisfaction
National Category
Psychiatry Neurosciences
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13898 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-90065-0_12 (DOI)978-3-319-90064-3 (ISBN)978-3-319-90065-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-12-13Bibliographically approved
Kajonius, P. & Björkman, T. (2018). Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress. Current Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress
2018 (English)In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Stress is a factor that greatly impacts our lives. Previous research has examined individual differences in relation to stress. However, research regarding malevolent personality traits in relation to how stress is perceived is limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between dark malevolent personality traits; psychopathy (EPA), Machiavellianism (MACH-IV), vulnerable narcissism (HSNS), grandiose narcissism (NPI-13), and perceived stress (PSS-10) in a community sample (N = 346). The results showed a strong positive relationship between vulnerable narcissism and perceived stress, while grandiose narcissism and psychopathy showed a small negative relationship with perceived stress. The discussion centers on that narcissism should be treated as two separate traits, and that psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap in relation to the experience of stress in everyday life.

Keywords
Dark triad, Stress, Personality
National Category
Psychology Applied Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12950 (URN)10.1007/s12144-018-9948-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85051428745 (Scopus ID)
Note

First Online: 13 August 2018

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
Garcia, D., Persson, B. N., Al Nima, A., Brulin, J. G., Rapp-Ricciardi, M. & Kajonius, P. (2018). IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Heliyon, 4(3), Article ID e00569.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 3, article id e00569Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) can be captured quickly with 12 items using the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Jonason and Webster, 2010). Previous Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses of the original English Dark Triad Dirty Dozen have shown that all three subscales adequately tap into the dark domains of personality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen using IRT. Method: 570 individuals (nmales = 326, nfemales = 242, and 2 unreported), including university students and white-collar workers with an age range between 19 and 65 years, responded to the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Garcia et al., 2017a,b). Results: Contrary to previous research, we found that the narcissism scale provided most information, followed by psychopathy, and finally Machiavellianism. Moreover, the psychopathy scale required a higher level of the latent trait for endorsement of its items than the narcissism and Machiavellianism scales. Overall, all items provided reasonable amounts of information and are thus effective for discriminating between individuals. The mean item discriminations (alphas) were 1.92 for Machiavellianism, 2.31 for narcissism, and 1.99 for psychopathy. Conclusion: This is the first study to provide IRT analyses of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Our findings add to a growing literature on the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen scale in different cultures and highlight psychometric characteristics, which can be used for comparative studies. Items tapping into psychopathy showed higher thresholds for endorsement than the other two scales. Importantly, the narcissism scale seems to provide more information about a lack of narcissism, perhaps mirroring cultural conditions. © 2018 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Clinical psychology, Psychiatry, Psychology
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12233 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00569 (DOI)000432033900018 ()2-s2.0-85043592571 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01229
Note

Published online15 Mar 2018

Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0629-353X

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