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Kajonius, P. & Johnson, J. A. (2019). Assessing the structure of the five factor model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 260-275
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the structure of the five factor model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain
2019 (English)In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 260-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Assessment of individual differences in personality traits is arguably one of the hallmarks of psychological research. Testing the structural validity of trait measurements is paramount in this endeavor. In the current study, we investigated 30 facet traits in one of the accessible and comprehensive public-domain Five Factor Model (FFM) personality inventories, IPIP-NEO-120 (Johnson, 2014), using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). We present structural loadings for all trait facets organized into respective FFM-trait domain (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Both hierarchical second-order and bi-factor models showed tolerable model fit indices, using confirmatory factor analysis in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. Some facet traits were substantially more representative than others for their respective trait domain, which facilitate further discussions on FFM-construct content. We conclude that IPIP-NEO is sufficiently structurally robust for future use, for the benefit of research and practice in personality assessment. © 2019, PsychOpen. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PsychOpen, 2019
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14479 (URN)10.5964/ejop.v15i2.1671 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068748812 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-10-02
Persson, B., Kajonius, P. & Garcia, D. (2019). Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad. Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), 26(1), 3-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad
2019 (English)In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism,and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has beenconducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings. In subsequent studies, two- and three-factor models fitted the data similarly, with the best fitting model beinga bifactor model with items from Machiavellianism and psychopathy modelled as one specific factor, and narcissism as asecond specific factor. On this basis, we suggest that the SD3 does not seem to capture the different mental processestheorized to underlie the similar behaviors generated by Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Additionally, we recommend the use of a single SD3 composite score, and not subscale scores, as subscales contain small amounts of reliable variance beyond the general factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Dark Triad, SD3, factor analysis, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11874 (URN)10.1177/1073191117701192 (DOI)000453103900001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01229
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Kajonius, P. (2019). The Future of Personalized Care: Scientific, Measurement, and Practical Advancements in Personality and Brain Disorders. In: Garcia, Danilo; Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M. (Ed.), Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions (pp. 269-281). Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Future of Personalized Care: Scientific, Measurement, and Practical Advancements in Personality and Brain Disorders
2019 (English)In: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Garcia, Danilo; Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M., Springer International Publishing , 2019, p. 269-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Person-centered care sciences are experiencing rapid progress. Personalization in care services is becoming the norm, and implementation from scientific knowledge is increasingly acknowledged and mandated. Advances in personality and brain disorder research are crucial in assisting the future development of personalized care. Aim: We will attempt to present glimpses into the future of personalized care with support from frontline science, measurement, and practice, updating with input from personality genetics and measurement theory. Outline: We present three broad developments: (1) scientific advancements in understanding how personality and genetics are central in predicting mental health and disorders, with the potential to increase predictive diagnosis and treatment validity; (2) measurement advancements with help of trait dimensions and latent structures, with the potential to increase reliability in assessing personalized care needs and functioning; (3) practical advancements in implementing a personalized approach in care services, with the potential to increase effectiveness and satisfaction with patients. We review this glimpse into the future by referencing key findings in personality and assessment meta-analyses, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and trait measurements in psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Personalizing care services will benefit practitioners and patients. We suggest and recommend that personalized care diagnosis and treatment is the way forward and that the future will be potentially revolutionized by incorporating the presented advancements in personality research and brain sciences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Person-centered care, Personality, Personality assessment, Genetics, Patient satisfaction
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13898 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-90065-0_12 (DOI)978-3-319-90064-3 (ISBN)978-3-319-90065-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-07-25Bibliographically approved
Kajonius, P. & Björkman, T. (2018). Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress. Current Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress
2018 (English)In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Stress is a factor that greatly impacts our lives. Previous research has examined individual differences in relation to stress. However, research regarding malevolent personality traits in relation to how stress is perceived is limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between dark malevolent personality traits; psychopathy (EPA), Machiavellianism (MACH-IV), vulnerable narcissism (HSNS), grandiose narcissism (NPI-13), and perceived stress (PSS-10) in a community sample (N = 346). The results showed a strong positive relationship between vulnerable narcissism and perceived stress, while grandiose narcissism and psychopathy showed a small negative relationship with perceived stress. The discussion centers on that narcissism should be treated as two separate traits, and that psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap in relation to the experience of stress in everyday life.

Keywords
Dark triad, Stress, Personality
National Category
Psychology Applied Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12950 (URN)10.1007/s12144-018-9948-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85051428745 (Scopus ID)
Note

First Online: 13 August 2018

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
Garcia, D., Persson, B. N., Al Nima, A., Brulin, J. G., Rapp-Ricciardi, M. & Kajonius, P. (2018). IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Heliyon, 4(3), Article ID e00569.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 3, article id e00569Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) can be captured quickly with 12 items using the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Jonason and Webster, 2010). Previous Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses of the original English Dark Triad Dirty Dozen have shown that all three subscales adequately tap into the dark domains of personality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen using IRT. Method: 570 individuals (nmales = 326, nfemales = 242, and 2 unreported), including university students and white-collar workers with an age range between 19 and 65 years, responded to the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Garcia et al., 2017a,b). Results: Contrary to previous research, we found that the narcissism scale provided most information, followed by psychopathy, and finally Machiavellianism. Moreover, the psychopathy scale required a higher level of the latent trait for endorsement of its items than the narcissism and Machiavellianism scales. Overall, all items provided reasonable amounts of information and are thus effective for discriminating between individuals. The mean item discriminations (alphas) were 1.92 for Machiavellianism, 2.31 for narcissism, and 1.99 for psychopathy. Conclusion: This is the first study to provide IRT analyses of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Our findings add to a growing literature on the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen scale in different cultures and highlight psychometric characteristics, which can be used for comparative studies. Items tapping into psychopathy showed higher thresholds for endorsement than the other two scales. Importantly, the narcissism scale seems to provide more information about a lack of narcissism, perhaps mirroring cultural conditions. © 2018 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Clinical psychology, Psychiatry, Psychology
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12233 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00569 (DOI)000432033900018 ()2-s2.0-85043592571 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01229
Note

Published online15 Mar 2018

Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Kajonius, P. & Johnson, J. (2018). Sex differences in 30 facets of the five factor model of personality in the large public (N = 320,128). Personality and Individual Differences, 129, 126-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex differences in 30 facets of the five factor model of personality in the large public (N = 320,128)
2018 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 129, p. 126-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study reports on the scope and size of sex differences in 30 personality facet traits, using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). The study was one of the first to utilize the open access version of the Five-Factor Model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the large public. Overall, across age-groups 19–69 years old, women scored notably higher than men in Agreeableness (d = 0.58) and Neuroticism (d = 0.40). Specifically, women scored d > 0.50 in facet traits Anxiety, Vulnerability, Openness to Emotions, Altruism, and Sympathy, while men only scored slightly higher (d > 0.20) than women in facet traits Excitement-seeking and Openness to Intellect. Sex gaps in the five trait domains were fairly constant across all age-groups, with the exception for age-group 19–29 years old. The discussion centers on how to interpret effects sizes in sex differences in personality traits, and tentative consequences. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords
Five factor model, Measurement, Personality traits, Sex
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12234 (URN)10.1016/j.paid.2018.03.026 (DOI)000430901600023 ()2-s2.0-85044000162 (Scopus ID)
Note

Available online 20 March 2018.

Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Mac Giolla, E. & Kajonius, P. (2018). Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding.. International Journal of Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding.
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this research by using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22 countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, have underestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strong correlation (r = .69) between a country's sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additional analyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. We speculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

Keywords
Big five, Country comparisons, Gender equality, Personality, Sex differences
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12943 (URN)10.1002/ijop.12529 (DOI)30206941 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053411189 (Scopus ID)
Note

First published online: 11 September 2018

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Kajonius, P. & Dåderman, A. M. (2017). Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-count and Empathy Traits. International Journal of Testing, 17(2), 141-157
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-count and Empathy Traits
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 141-157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive interpersonal functioning, such as lack of empathy, are used for identifying psychopathology and particularly personality disorders (PD). The objective of the present study was to measure dispositions for DSM categories based on normal personality continuums, and to conceptualize these with empathy traits. We used a validated FFM-count method based on the five personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), and related these to 4 empathy traits (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and personal distress). The results showed that FFM-based PD scores overall could be conceptualized using only two of the empathy traits, low emphatic concern and high personal distress. Further, specific dispositions for personality disorders were characterized with distinct empathy traits (e.g., histrionic with high fantasy, and paranoid with low perspective-taking). These findings may have both theoretical and practical implications in capturing potential for personality disorders with ease and efficiency. © 2017, Copyright © International Test Commission.

National Category
Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11595 (URN)10.1080/15305058.2017.1279164 (DOI)000402241300003 ()2-s2.0-85011277383 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Kajonius, P. (2017). Cross-cultural personality differences between East Asia and Northern Europe in IPIP-NEO. International Journal of Personality Psychology (1), 1-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-cultural personality differences between East Asia and Northern Europe in IPIP-NEO
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, E-ISSN 2451-9243, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Psychological differences between nations are part of the challenges of globalization. The present study provides benchmarks of personality traits across 12 nations in East Asia and Northern Europe (N = 23,268). Personality was measured with the IPIP-NEO-120, which is a comprehensive, open-source version of the Five Factor Model (FFM). East Asia scored low in Openness and Agreeableness as opposed to high in Europe. Similarly, Neuroticism was higher in East Asia than in Europe. The IPIP-NEO instrument was subjected to measurement equivalence testing, and invariance could not be fully ruled out as part of the explanation. The discussion centers on how to understand the size, the relevance, and the mechanisms of cross-cultural personality differences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Association for Personality Psychology, 2017
Keywords
personality, structure, measurement invariance, Five Factor Model
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11872 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Roos, M. & Kajonius, P. (2017). Expert validity on non-verbal personality characters. In: Paula Ferreira, Aristides Ferreira, Inês Afonso, & Ana Margarida Veiga Simão (Ed.), 14th Conference on Psychological Assessment, July 5-8, 2017, Lisbon, Portugal: Book of Abstracts / [ed] ,.: . Paper presented at 14th European Conference of Psychological Assessment, Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 July, 2017 (pp. 81 p). Lisbon
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expert validity on non-verbal personality characters
2017 (English)In: 14th Conference on Psychological Assessment, July 5-8, 2017, Lisbon, Portugal: Book of Abstracts / [ed] ,. / [ed] Paula Ferreira, Aristides Ferreira, Inês Afonso, & Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Lisbon, 2017, p. 81 p-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lisbon: , 2017
Keywords
Consciousness; Cognitive Neuroscience
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11870 (URN)
Conference
14th European Conference of Psychological Assessment, Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 July, 2017
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0629-353X

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