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Bates, W. P., Patel, V., Rana, H., Andersson, J., De Backer, J., Igestrand, M. & Fratini, L. (2023). Correction to: Properties Augmentation of Cast Hypereutectic Al–Si Alloy Through Friction Stir Processing (Metals and Materials International, (2022), 10.1007/s12540-022-01207-7). Metals and Materials International, 29, Article ID 876.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correction to: Properties Augmentation of Cast Hypereutectic Al–Si Alloy Through Friction Stir Processing (Metals and Materials International, (2022), 10.1007/s12540-022-01207-7)
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2023 (English)In: Metals and Materials International, ISSN 1598-9623, E-ISSN 2005-4149, Vol. 29, article id 876Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The graphic abstract was missing from this article and it has been given in this correction. The original article has been corrected. © 2022, The Author(s) under exclusive licence to The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Korean Institute of Metals and Materials, 2023
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19592 (URN)10.1007/s12540-022-01270-0 (DOI)000907819300001 ()2-s2.0-85145551150 (Scopus ID)
Note

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.

Available from: 2023-09-13 Created: 2023-09-13 Last updated: 2024-02-15
Patel, V., Wouters, H., Baghdadchi, A., De Backer, J., Igestrand, M., Azimi, S. & Andersson, J. (2023). Robotic friction stir welding in lightweight battery assembly of extrusion-cast aluminium alloys. Journal of Advanced Joining Processes, 8, Article ID 100156.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robotic friction stir welding in lightweight battery assembly of extrusion-cast aluminium alloys
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Joining Processes, ISSN 2666-3309, Vol. 8, article id 100156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study focuses on developing lightweight assembly of two different aluminium alloys extruded and high pressure die cast (HPDC) for battery frame assembly in BEV. The goal is to produce defect-free welds in lap configuration with smooth surface finish. Stationary shoulder friction stir welding (SSFSW) was employed with welding speeds of 3–15 mm/s. EBSD analysis revealed two groups of grains in the stir zone (SZ) due to dynamic recrystallization. Moreover, the grain size of the SZ significantly decreased compared to both alloys. The cast alloy contains large iron particles, and that were broken by the rotating probe, and the stirred material consisted of fine dispersed precipitates. Tensile-shear test found the fracture location at the hook area near to cast, and a model representing fracture behavior is also discussed. With increasing welding speed from 3 to 5 mm/s, the tensile strength found ∼95 and ∼100 MPa, respectively without any significance difference in the fracture behavior and location. Overall, this study provides valuable insights such as materials mixing, grain refinement, and joint strength in dissimilar joining using SSFSW. The findings could be useful in developing optimized welding parameters and improving the overall quality and productivity of the SSFSW process for battery pack assembly in BEV.

Keywords
Stationary shoulder friction stir weldingAluminium alloysHPDCExtrusionLightweightBEV
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-21003 (URN)10.1016/j.jajp.2023.100156 (DOI)001085211200001 ()2-s2.0-85172304340 (Scopus ID)
Note

The funding support from the VINNOVA project of EVASTIR (2019-03114) with industry partners Volvo Cars Corporations, Hydro Extruded Solutions, ESAB, and i-Weld project H2020-MSCA-RISE-2018 (Project number: 823786) are highly acknowledged.

CC-BY 4.0

Available from: 2023-11-24 Created: 2023-11-24 Last updated: 2024-04-03Bibliographically approved
Patel, V., De Backer, J., Hindsefelt, H., Igestrand, M., Azimi, S., Andersson, J. & Säll, J. (2022). High speed friction stir welding of AA6063-T6 alloy in lightweight battery trays for EV industry: Influence of tool rotation speeds. Materials letters (General ed.), 318, Article ID 132135.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High speed friction stir welding of AA6063-T6 alloy in lightweight battery trays for EV industry: Influence of tool rotation speeds
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2022 (English)In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 318, article id 132135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Present work demonstrates high speed friction stir welding (HSFSW) of light weight battery trays assembly in electric vehicle (EV). Despite of solid-state and green nature of FSW, it suffers from the relatively low welding speed. With the help of suitable tool design and machine tool parameters, we successfully achieved defect-free welds at high welding speed of 4.0 and 4.5 m/min. Good quality welds are produced in 3 mm thick AA6063-T6 extruded aluminium alloy at such a high welding speeds by implementing violent material mixing i.e., higher tool rotation speeds (3500–4500 rpm) and plunge force (8.5–10.5 kN). The HSFSW cross-section registered curious hardness profile of ‘U’ shape. HSFSW resulted softening of weld stir zone (∼60 HV) along with HAZ (∼50 HV). The highest joint efficiency of 72 % was found for the weld produced at 4.0 m/min and 3500 rpm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Electric vehicles; Friction; Friction stir welding; Machine tools; Research laboratories; Secondary batteries; Speed; Aa6063-t6; High-speed friction stir welding; Light weight; Lightweight batteries; Lightweight battery tray; Tool designs; Tool machines; Tool rotation speed; Vehicle industry; Welding speed; Welds
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18299 (URN)10.1016/j.matlet.2022.132135 (DOI)000819872600005 ()2-s2.0-85127142726 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-03114
Note

We acknowledge the funding support from the VINNOVA project of EVASTIR (2019-03114) industry partners Volvo Cars Corporations, Hydro Extruded Solutions, and ESAB.

Available from: 2022-05-18 Created: 2022-05-18 Last updated: 2024-04-12
Patel, V., De Backer, J., Hindsefelt, H., Igestrand, M., Azimi, S., Andersson, J. & Säll, J. (2022). High-speed friction stir welding in light weight battery trays for the EV industry. Science and technology of welding and joining, 27(4), 250-255
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-speed friction stir welding in light weight battery trays for the EV industry
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2022 (English)In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 250-255Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Present work aims to achieve high welding speed during friction stir welding of lightweight battery trays in the electric vehicle industry. This study reports high-speed friction stir welding (HSFSW) up to 4.0 m mi -1 in AA6063-T6 alloys. The defect-free HSFSW joints are produced by adopting aggressive material mixing, i.e. higher tool rotation and plunge force. HSFSW weld cross-section reported an unusual hardness profile of "U"shape instead of "W"shape in conventional FSW of AA6xxx alloys. HSFSW resulted softening of weld stir zone (~60HV) along with HAZ (~53HV) against the base material (BM) hardness of ~90HV. The HSFSW at 4.0 m min -1 obtained good joint strength of 71% of the BM. Microstructure evolutions across the fractured weld cross-section are discussed using EBSD analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
high-speed friction stir welding, lightweight, battery trays, electric vehicle, welding speed
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18216 (URN)10.1080/13621718.2022.2045121 (DOI)000763120000001 ()2-s2.0-85126035722 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-03114
Note

The authors acknowledge the funding support from the Swedish funding body VINNOVA under the project of EVASTIR (2019-03114) and industry partners Volvo Car Corporation, Hydro Extruded Solutions, and ESAB.

Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2023-12-18
Bates, W. P., Patel, V., Rana, H., Andersson, J., De Backer, J., Igestrand, M. & Fratini, L. (2022). Properties Augmentation of Cast Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy Through Friction Stir Processing. Metals and Materials International
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Properties Augmentation of Cast Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy Through Friction Stir Processing
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2022 (English)In: Metals and Materials International, ISSN 1598-9623, E-ISSN 2005-4149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present endeavour is to augment mechanical attributes via friction stir processing (FSP) in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon castings by the means of microstructural modifications and defects reduction. Wherein, the study proceeds with mainly two approaches namely, alteration in tool revolution (TR) and the number of FSP passes. The prepared specimens were evaluated investigating volume fraction of porosities, microstructural characterizations and microhardness. Therefrom, the specimen with highest number of passes delivered most uniform properties resulting from the reduction in casting porosities and refined silicon particle uniform distribution throughout friction stir processed zone. This endeavour may be considered as a footstep towards more industrial readied material transformation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KOREAN INST METALS MATERIALS, 2022
Keywords
Casting modification; Materials processing; Friction stir processing; Aluminium; Porosity; Grain refinement
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18674 (URN)10.1007/s12540-022-01207-7 (DOI)000805051600002 ()2-s2.0-85131293157 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-06-30 Created: 2022-06-30 Last updated: 2024-04-12
Ferreira Magalhães, A. C., Cederqvist, L., De Backer, J., Håkansson, E., Ossiansson, B. & Bolmsjö, G. (2019). A Friction Stir Welding case study using Temperature Controlled Robotics with a HPDC Cylinder Block and dissimilar materials joining. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 46, 177-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Friction Stir Welding case study using Temperature Controlled Robotics with a HPDC Cylinder Block and dissimilar materials joining
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 46, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The automotive industry is going through a radical transformation from combustion engines to fully electric propulsion, aiming at improving key performance indicators related to efficiency, environmental sustainability and economic competitiveness. In this transition period, it is important to continue the innovation of combustion engines for e.g. plug-in hybrid vehicles. This led Volvo Cars to pursue radically new manufacturing processes such as Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The work presented in this paper is a case study whereby feasibility of using FSW to join a reinforcement element into the aluminium casted Cylinder Block was studied. The complex geometry of the joint required a flexible five-axis manipulator, i.e. an industrial robot, as well as advanced process control, i.e. temperature feedback control, in order to maintain a consistent weld quality throughout the whole component. The process was successfully demonstrated in a lab environment and offers a cost-efficient solution while maintaining the durability and higher efficiency. The outcome of this study shows the great potential of implementing the FSW process in combination with High Pressure Die Casted components, such a Cylinder Block. © 2019 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Aluminum; Automotive industry; Benchmarking; Casting; Combustion; Competition; Cylinder blocks; Dissimilar materials; Efficiency; Friction; Friction stir welding; Industrial manipulators; Intelligent control; Manipulators; Plug-in hybrid vehicles; Research laboratories; Robots; Sustainable development; Temperature control, Advanced Process Control; Automotive; Economic competitiveness; Environmental sustainability; Friction stir welding(FSW); Key performance indicators; Manufacturing process; Radical transformation, Process control
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Robotics
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14487 (URN)10.1016/j.jmapro.2019.08.012 (DOI)000493221100017 ()2-s2.0-85072050179 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-01 Created: 2019-10-01 Last updated: 2020-02-26Bibliographically approved
Ferreira Magalhães, A. C., De Backer, J., Martin, J. P. & Bolmsjö, G. (2019). In-situ temperature measurement in friction stir welding of thick section aluminium alloys. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 39, 12-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-situ temperature measurement in friction stir welding of thick section aluminium alloys
2019 (English)In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 39, p. 12-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a reliable joining technology with a wide industrial uptake. However, several fundamentals of the process such as the temperature inside the stirred zone of the weld and its influence on mechanical properties, are not yet fully understood. This paper shows a method for accurate temperature measurements in multiple locations around the tool, to identify the location of the peak temperature, the temperature variations between the advancing and the retreating side of the tool and its relation to the tool geometry. Both standardised thermocouples in the FSW tool and the novel "tool-workpiece thermocouple" method were used to record temperatures.Bead-on-plate welds in 20 mm thickness AA6082-T6 were produced while the temperatures were measured in three locations on the FSW tool: at the shoulder outer diameter, at the transition from shoulder to probe and at the probe tip. It was found that the hottest point in the stirred zone was 607 °C and was located at the transition between the shoulder and probe, on the retreating-trailing side of the tool. The lowest temperature was found at the probe tip on the retreating-leading side of the tool.The results offer a better understanding of the temperature distribution around a FSW tool. The method presented can be applied to verification of thermal simulation models, tool design optimization, quality assurance and temperature feedback control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Friction stir welding, Temperature measurement, Aluminium alloys, Thick section, Thermocouple, TWT
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13705 (URN)10.1016/j.jmapro.2019.02.001 (DOI)000464296700002 ()2-s2.0-85061529967 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västra Götaland, RUN 612-0254-15Knowledge Foundation, 20140130Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, 20200328
Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2020-02-26Bibliographically approved
Ferreira Magalhães, A. C., De Backer, J. & Bolmsjö, G. (2019). Thermal dissipation effect on temperature-controlled friction stir welding: [Efeito da dissipação térmica inducida durante soldadura por friçcão linear sob controlo de temperatura]. Soldagem & Inspeção, 24, Article ID e2428.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal dissipation effect on temperature-controlled friction stir welding: [Efeito da dissipação térmica inducida durante soldadura por friçcão linear sob controlo de temperatura]
2019 (English)In: Soldagem & Inspeção, ISSN 0104-9224, E-ISSN 1980-6973, Vol. 24, article id e2428Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of complex geometries, the thermal dissipation, induced by geometric features or the surrounding environment, may strongly affect the final weld quality. In order to guarantee a consistent weld quality for different conditions, in-process welding parameter adaptation is needed. This paper studies the effect of thermal dissipation, induced by the backing bar thermal conductivity, on the weld temperature and the temperature controller response to it. A new temperature sensor solution, the Tool-Workpiece Thermocouple (TWT) method, was applied to acquire online temperature measurements during welding. An FSW-robot equipped with temperature control, achieved by rotation speed adaptation, was used. AA7075-T6 lap joints were performed with and without temperature control. The cooling rate during welding was register plus macrographs and tensile tests were assessed. The controller demonstrated a fast response promoting the heat input necessary to maintain the set welding temperature. The results demonstrated that temperature control using the TWT method is suitable to achieve higher joint performance and provides a fast setup of optimal parameters for different environments. © 2019, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Aluminum alloys; Controllers; Cooling; Friction; Research laboratories; Temperature control; Temperature measurement; Temperature sensors; Tensile testing; Thermal conductivity; Thermoanalysis; Thermocouples; Welds, Cooling rates; Friction stir welding(FSW); Online temperature measurement; Surrounding environment; Temperature controllers; Thermal dissipation; TWT method; Welding temperatures, Friction stir welding
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14999 (URN)10.1590/0104-9224/SI24.28 (DOI)000510209200001 ()2-s2.0-85078163111 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västra Götaland, RUN 612-0254-15European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), No. 20200328
Available from: 2020-02-22 Created: 2020-02-22 Last updated: 2020-02-26
Bolmsjö, G., Ferreira Magalhães, A. C., Cederqvist, L. & De Backer, J. (2018). Robotic Friction Stir Welding of complex geometry and mixed materials. In: 50th International Symposium on Robotics, ISR 2018: . Paper presented at 50th International Symposium on Robotics, ISR 2018; Messe Munchen East EntranceMunich; Germany; 20 June 2018 through 21 June 2018 (pp. 35-41). VDE Verlag GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robotic Friction Stir Welding of complex geometry and mixed materials
2018 (English)In: 50th International Symposium on Robotics, ISR 2018, VDE Verlag GmbH , 2018, p. 35-41Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state process for joining materials which has demonstrated advantages compares with other methods which include joining of mixed materials, hard to weld alloys and consistent and high quality. This paper presents a study of robotic FSW initiated by Volvo Skövde plant to join an insert workpiece of extruded aluminium with a cylinder block of aluminium casting. A three-stage procedure was decided to determine the feasibility to apply robotic FSW. The stages included study of welding the mixed materials, weld along the complex joint line with holes and channels close to the joint, and finally welding the cylinder block. The results based on preliminary analysis indicate that the final tests were successful and the process is feasible for the challenging case study. However, further studies are recommended in order to identify the operating parameters window, tool design, and control of the process in order to optimize productivity and quality. © VDE VERLAG GMBH

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
VDE Verlag GmbH, 2018
Keywords
Aluminum castings, Cylinder blocks, Cylinders (shapes), Die casting inserts, Friction, Joining, Quality control, Research laboratories, Robotics, Welds, Complex geometries, Friction stir welding(FSW), Joining materials, Mixed materials, Operating parameters, Preliminary analysis, Robotic friction stir welding, Solid-state process, Friction stir welding
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13431 (URN)2-s2.0-85059384869 (Scopus ID)978-3-8007-4699-6 (ISBN)
Conference
50th International Symposium on Robotics, ISR 2018; Messe Munchen East EntranceMunich; Germany; 20 June 2018 through 21 June 2018
Available from: 2019-01-21 Created: 2019-01-21 Last updated: 2020-02-26Bibliographically approved
Silva, A., De Backer, J. & Bolmsjö, G. (2017). Temperature measurements during friction stir welding. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 88(9-12), 2899-2908
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature measurements during friction stir welding
2017 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 88, no 9-12, p. 2899-2908Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing industrial demand for lighter, more complex and multi-material components supports the development of novel joining processes with increased automation and process control. Friction stir welding (FSW) is such a process and has seen a fast development in several industries.This welding technique gives the opportunity of automation and online feedback control, allowing automatic adaptation to environmental and geometrical variations of the component.Weld temperature is related to the weld quality and therefore proposed to be used for feedback control. For this purpose, accurate temperature measurements are required. This paper presents an overview of temperature measurement methods applied to the FSW process. Three methods were evaluated in this work: thermocouples embedded in the tool, thermocouples embedded in the workpiece and the tool-workpiece thermocouple(TWT) method. The results show that TWT is an accurate and fast method suitable for feedback control of FSW.

Keywords
Friction stir welding, TWT method, temperature, aluminium, thermocouples
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-9531 (URN)10.1007/s00170-016-9007-4 (DOI)000394323600047 ()2-s2.0-84973646335 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västra Götaland, RUN 612-0254-15
Note

Funders: Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth through European Regional Development Fund, 20200328

Available from: 2016-07-08 Created: 2016-07-08 Last updated: 2020-02-26Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9553-7131

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