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Fefekos, A. G., Gupta, M. K., Mahade, S., Björklund, S. & Joshi, S. V. (2023). Effect of spray angle and substrate material on formation mechanisms and properties of HVAF sprayed coatings. Surface & Coatings Technology, 452, Article ID 129115.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of spray angle and substrate material on formation mechanisms and properties of HVAF sprayed coatings
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2023 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 452, article id 129115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermally sprayed coatings are often used to enhance the surface properties (wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc.) of engineering components in order to extend their performance and service lifetime. Typically, the industrial components to be coated possess complex geometries and are fabricated using different materials, which can influence the deposited coating’s microstructure and performance. High-velocity air fuel (HVAF) process is a relatively new thermal spray processing technique that has shown tremendous potential to deposit high performance coatings for durable industrial components. However, no detailed studies have been reported on HVAF sprayed coating formation mechanisms so far in relation to the spray angle and substrate properties, and the influence of coating material on the above. The objective of this work was to study the influence of spray angles and substrate materials on splat characteristics, coating microstructure evolution, properties and performance for two distinct coating materials. In this study, one cermet (WC-CoCr) and one metallic (Inconel 625) feedstock were deposited onto three different substrates (aluminium alloy, carbon steel and Hastelloy-X) utilising different spray angles (40°, 60° and 90°). The coating evolution was analysed utilising SEM/EDS, image analysis, and micro-indentation. To determine the tribological performance, coatings were subjected to dry sliding wear test utilising alumina ball as counter surface and specific wear rates were obtained. The results showed that initial splat characteristics were substantially altered on changing the substrate and the spray angle. However, the final coating properties were not affected significantly even though the deposition rate was reduced significantly at lower spray angle, suggesting the versatility of the HVAF process. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Air; Alumina; Coated materials; Corrosion resistance; Corrosion resistant coatings; Deposition rates; Metal substrates; Microstructure; Sprayed coatings; Tribology; Wear of materials; Wear resistance; Coating formation; Dry sliding wear; Dry sliding wear testing; Formation mechanism; High velocity air fuel spraying; High velocity air fuels; Splat characteristic; Spray angle; Substrate material; Wear-testing; Aluminum oxide
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19503 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2022.129115 (DOI)000898604200003 ()2-s2.0-85143850042 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20170198
Note

CC-BY 4.0

Available from: 2022-12-29 Created: 2022-12-29 Last updated: 2024-04-12
Torkashvand, K., Gupta, M. K., Björklund, S. & Joshi, S. V. (2023). Tribological Performance of Thin HVAF-Sprayed WC-CoCr Coatings Fabricated Employing Fine Powder Feedstock. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), 32, 1033-1046
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tribological Performance of Thin HVAF-Sprayed WC-CoCr Coatings Fabricated Employing Fine Powder Feedstock
2023 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 32, p. 1033-1046Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, sliding and abrasion wear performance of WC-CoCr coatings deposited by high velocity air–fuel (HVAF) spraying with various thicknesses (i.e., 240, 150, 100, 50 and 30 µm), fabricated from fine feedstock powder (5–15 µm), were evaluated. The main aim was to investigate how thinner coatings (30 and 50 µm) perform compared to conventional thick coatings (> 100 µm), in an effort to address the supply and cost concerns associated with Co and W.

The feedstock powder and deposited coatings were characterized in terms of microstructure. The hardness of the thin and thick coatings was measured using Vickers hardness method from both cross section and top-surface. It was found that, regardless of the thickness, extremely dense coatings with very high hardness ( 1500 HV) can be deposited employing HVAF and fine feedstock powder. Thin and thick coatings were found to perform similarly under sliding wear with a normal load of 10 N or lower as well as under abrasion wear conditions which highlights the possibility of employing thinner coatings for a majority of the real applications.

The results suggest that peening effect does not have a considerable influence on the microstructure or performance of the deposited coatings. However, for sliding wear tests with a 20 N normal load, it was noticed that wear resistance of the coatings slightly declines with decreasing thickness of the coating beyond 150 µm. The main reason was identified to be the involvement of substrate effect when performing tests under severe Hertzian contact pressure.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
abrasion, coatings, HVAF, sliding wear, thickness, WC-CoCr
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19505 (URN)10.1007/s11666-022-01506-w (DOI)000895619600001 ()2-s2.0-85143848781 (Scopus ID)
Note

 The authors would like to thank Arashk Memarpour, Oliver Lanz from Höganäs for supporting this study through helpful discussions and by providing feedstock powders. Thank to Magnus Sandberg for assistance in preparing the samples. Also, financial support of the Knowledge Foundation, Sweden, for project HiPerCOAT (Dnr. 20180197) is gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2023-01-23 Created: 2023-01-23 Last updated: 2024-03-21
Torkashvand, K., Joshi, S. V. & Gupta, M. K. (2022). Advances in Thermally Sprayed WC-Based Wear-Resistant Coatings: Co-free Binders, Processing Routes and Tribological Behavior. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), 31(3), 342-377
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advances in Thermally Sprayed WC-Based Wear-Resistant Coatings: Co-free Binders, Processing Routes and Tribological Behavior
2022 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 342-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A growing understanding of wear behavior of various thermally sprayed ceramic–metallic matrix coatings has occurred over recent years. This has resulted from the continuous evolution in spraying methods as well as material feedstock, and the corresponding new aspects of the field that have been thoroughly explored. This paper aims to review recent developments in thermally sprayed tungsten carbide-based coatings, with specific emphasis on evaluating alternative binders, processing routes and tribological behavior of the coatings. A comprehensive evaluation of various compositions as binders for WC-based coatings, considering environmental concerns and market requirements has been carried out. The properties and performance of various potential alternatives for cobalt as a conventional binder for these coatings have been assessed. Moreover, different thermal spray methods have been reviewed, particularly highlighting the role of processing parameters, phase change and feedstock characteristics in the high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) techniques. A comparison is made between HVAF and HVOF coatings in terms of their performance under different wear environments. Finally, various scenarios of material removal in HVAF and HVOF coatings, under various wear conditions, have also been reviewed.

Keywords
Co-free binders, HVAF, HVOF, tribology, WC-based coatings, wear mechanisms
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-20916 (URN)10.1007/s11666-022-01358-4 (DOI)000763240100001 ()2-s2.0-85125521489 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 4.0

Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2023-11-09
Ossiansson, M., Gupta, M. K., Löbel, M., Lindner, T., Lampke, T. & Joshi, S. V. (2022). Assessment of CrFeCoNi and AlCrFeCoNi High-Entropy Alloys as Bond Coats for Thermal Barrier Coatings. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), 31, 1404-1422
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of CrFeCoNi and AlCrFeCoNi High-Entropy Alloys as Bond Coats for Thermal Barrier Coatings
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2022 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 31, p. 1404-1422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-entropy alloys (HEAs) represent a relatively new group of multicomponent alloys that have shown great potential for applications requiring tribological and oxidation resistant properties. Consequently, thermally sprayed coatings of different HEA chemistries have received increasing research attention. In this paper, atomized equimolar CrFeCoNi and AlCrFeCoNi feedstocks were used for high velocity air-fuel spraying (HVAF) to produce overlay coatings using two different nozzle configurations. The microstructure, phase constitution and hardness of the coatings were analyzed along with the primary aim of testing the coatings for their oxidation behavior. The performance of the two HEA chemistries was compared with two commercial MCrAlY coatings that are well-established bond coat materials for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). An investigation was conducted to test the coatings’ performance as bond coats by applying suspension plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats and evaluating the thermal cycling behavior of the TBCs. The AlCrFeCoNi-coating was found to demonstrate a lower oxidation rate than the CrFeCoNi-coating. However, the AlCrFeCoNi-coating was found to form more rapid oxide scales compared with the commercial bond coat material that also contained reactive elements. © 2022, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
Keywords
Air; Aluminum alloys; Cobalt alloys; Entropy; High-entropy alloys; Iron alloys; Oxidation; Oxidation resistance; Plasma jets; Plasma spraying; Sprayed coatings; Thermal barrier coatings; Yttria stabilized zirconia; Yttrium oxide; Alloy chemistry; Bond coat materials; Bond coats; High entropy alloys; High velocity air fuels; Isothermal oxidations; Multi-component alloy; Oxidation resistant; Property; Thermally sprayed coatings; Chromium alloys
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18310 (URN)10.1007/s11666-022-01388-y (DOI)000781743400008 ()2-s2.0-85128101158 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-09-26 Created: 2022-09-26 Last updated: 2022-09-26
Uczak de Goes, W., Ossiansson, M., Markocsan, N., Gupta, M. K., Honnerová, P. & Veselý, Z. (2022). Influence of Spray Angle on Microstructure and Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print) (31), 2068-2090
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Spray Angle on Microstructure and Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings
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2022 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, no 31, p. 2068-2090Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely utilized in gas turbine engines for power generation. In recent years, the application of TBCs in automotive has been introduced to improve engine efficiency. Low thermal conductivity and high durability are desired coating properties for both gas turbine engines and automotive. Also, suspension plasma spraying (SPS) permits a columnar microstructure that combines both properties. However, it can be challenging to deposit a uniform columnar microstructure on a complex geometry, such as a gas turbine component or piston head, and achieve similar coating characteristics on all surfaces. This work’s objective was to investigate the influence of spray angle on the microstructure and lifetime of TBCs produced by SPS. For this purpose, SPS TBCs were deposited on specimens using different spray angles. The microstructures of the coatings were analyzed by image analysis for thickness, porosity, and column density. Thermal and optical properties were evaluated on each TBC. Lifetime tests, specifically designed for the two applications, were performed on all investigated TBCs. The lifetime results were analyzed with respect to the TBC microstructure and thermal and optical properties. This investigation showed that there is a limit to the spray angle that achieves the best compromise between TBC microstructure, thermal properties, optical properties, and lifetime. © 2022, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Gas turbines; Geometry; Microstructure; Optical properties; Plasma jets; Plasma spraying; Sprayed coatings; Thermal conductivity; Automotives; Coating microstructures; Columnar microstructures; Complex geometries; Complex geometry substrate; Gas turbine engine; Plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating; Power- generations; Spray angle; Suspension plasma spraying; Thermal barrier coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19178 (URN)10.1007/s11666-022-01436-7 (DOI)000825229000002 ()2-s2.0-85133597109 (Scopus ID)
Note

The optical properties measurement wassupported by ERDF project ‘‘LABIR-PAV / Pre-application research of infrared technologies’’ reg. no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/18_069/0010018.

This article is licensed under a Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International License

Available from: 2022-12-02 Created: 2022-12-02 Last updated: 2022-12-02Bibliographically approved
Uczak de Goes, W., Gupta, M. K., Markocsan, N., Thibblin, A., Veselý, Z. & Honnerová, P. (2022). Porous thermal barrier coatings for enhancing the efficiency of internal combustion engines. International Journal of Engine Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Porous thermal barrier coatings for enhancing the efficiency of internal combustion engines
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2022 (English)In: International Journal of Engine Research, ISSN 1468-0874, E-ISSN 2041-3149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Internal combustion engines have a key role in the social and economic advancement of modern society but also a significant contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. For these engines, to preserve their role, a higher efficiency, that dramatically reduces the environmental impact, is necessary. To achieve increased engine efficiency, a technical solution is to lower the heat losses in the combustion chamber. Among them, the heat losses to the pistons are the preferential route, due to their extensive impact on fuel consumption. In this paper, porous thermal barrier coatings with large pores were applied to the pistons of diesel engines to improve engine efficiency. Atmospheric Plasma Spray (APS) process and porosity former TBC feedstock were employed to obtain high porosity coatings with large pores. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was utilized to investigate the microstructure of the coating in coupons and pistons. The optical properties of the coatings were explored with two methods: the spectral normal hemispherical reflectivity at room temperature (SNHRRT) and spectral normal emissivity at high temperature (SNEHT). The coatings’ behavior under thermal cyclic conditions was assessed by Flame Rig Test. Microstructure analysis was also performed before and after the test to identify the failure mechanisms. The engine efficiency was evaluated by measuring the Indicated Specific Fuel Consumption (ISFC) in a single-cylinder engine test. The results showed that porous coating with large pores combined with a higher emissivity can withstand the engine environment well and have the potential to provide enhancements in engine efficiency.

Keywords
Engines, environmental impact
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18318 (URN)10.1177/14680874221093143 (DOI)000787321700001 ()2-s2.0-85129632322 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-09-23 Created: 2022-09-23 Last updated: 2022-09-26Bibliographically approved
Uczak de Goes, W., Markocsan, N. & Gupta, M. K. (2022). Thermal Swing Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coatings for Internal Combustion Engines. Coatings, 12(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal Swing Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coatings for Internal Combustion Engines
2022 (English)In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 12, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The efficiency of internal combustion engines is gaining increased interest due to the impact of fuel consumption on greenhouse gas emissions and the goals of countries to minimize emissions. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have shown great potential in improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines. The TBCs, applied on the surface of the piston, apart from thermal isolation, should also follow the surface temperature variations in the combustion chamber, reducing the energy loss and not affecting volumetric efficiency, and thus accomplish a raise in fuel efficiency. This characteristic of the TBC can be associated with the thermal properties, but the best performance test for TBCs is the single cylinder engine test. The single cylinder engine test is an expensive and time demanding procedure, making it not easily accessible. The purpose of this work was to develop a thermal swing test method to evaluate the applicability of TBCs in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. This was carried out by measuring the temperature variation on the surface of the coating (thermal swing response) exposed to heat pulses from a high velocity air fuel (HVAF) spray torch. The TBCs were tested as sprayed (AS) and after grinding them to reduce roughness (RR) in order to ensure similar thickness and roughness along the different TBCs. Characterization of the coating microstructure was carried by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with image analysis techniques, and the thermal properties were measured by laser flash analysis (LFA). By correlating the thermal swing response with the microstructure and thermal properties of the coatings, it was determined that the coatings with large open pores exhibited the highest thermal swing response, which was as high as 200 degrees C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
thermal barrier coatings; internal combustion engines; porous coatings; thermal swing test
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19213 (URN)10.3390/coatings12060830 (DOI)000817534200001 ()2-s2.0-85132374761 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20210092
Note

CC-BY 4.0

Available from: 2022-12-16 Created: 2022-12-16 Last updated: 2022-12-16
Torkashvand, K., Joshi, S. V., Testa, V., Ghisoni, F., Morelli, S., Boleli, G., . . . Gupta, M. K. (2022). Tribological behavior of HVAF-sprayed WC-based coatings with alternative binders. Surface & Coatings Technology, 436, Article ID 128296.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tribological behavior of HVAF-sprayed WC-based coatings with alternative binders
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2022 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 436, article id 128296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The tribological performance of High Velocity Air-Fuel (HVAF) sprayed WC-based cermet coatings with binders containing no or very limited amount of cobalt was evaluated under dry sliding, erosion, and abrasion wear conditions. The wear and corrosion behaviors of WC-NiMoCrFeCo, WC-FeNiCrMoCu and WC-FeCrAl HVAF sprayed coatings were investigated and compared to standard WC-CoCr coatings as benchmark. Microstructure characterization along with XRD analysis was conducted on all powders as well as the corresponding coatings. Comprehensive post wear analysis was conducted on all coatings subjected to ball-on-disk, gas jet erosion and dry sand-rubber wheel abrasion tests. Moreover, all coatings were exposed to 3.5% (wt./vol.) NaCl aqueous solution to evaluate their corrosion performance through electrochemical testing. XRD results showed negligible phase transformation between the powders and the deposited coatings. The WC-NiMoCrFeCo coating exhibited the best sliding wear and electrochemical corrosion performance, with an average specific wear rate value of 3.1 x 10(-8) (mm(3).N-1.m(-1)) and a corrosion current density of 1.9 mu A/cm2. This coating also showed comparable abrasive wear resistance to the WC-CoCr coating. Under erosive wear conditions, too, the WC-FeNiCrMoCu and WC-FeCrAl coatings showed a comparable performance to the benchmark. Dominant wear mechanisms for the reference WC-CoCr coating, under sliding wear conditions, were abrasion (deep grooving) and surface fatigue (crack propagation and pitting). On the contrary, no pitting was observed in WC-NiMoCrFeCo and WC-FeCrAl coatings during the sliding wear test. No considerable difference was identified in the wear mechanisms of the different coatings under abrasion and erosion wear conditions. The results highlight the promise of some of the environment friendly binders studied to replace Co.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Sliding wear; Erosion; Abrasion; Electrochemical polarization; Cermet coatings; High Velocity Air-Fuel (HVAF)
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18313 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2022.128296 (DOI)000779413000001 ()2-s2.0-85125519738 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, HiPerCOAT (Dnr. 20180197)
Available from: 2022-09-26 Created: 2022-09-26 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
Kumar, N., Gupta, M. K., Mack, D. E., Mauer, G. & Vassen, R. (2021). Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced by Different Thermal Spray Processes. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), 30, 1437-1452
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced by Different Thermal Spray Processes
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2021 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 30, p. 1437-1452Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) are the only thermal spray technologies shown to be capable of producing TBCs with columnar microstructures similar to the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process but at higher deposition rates and relatively lower costs. The objective of this study was to achieve fundamental understanding of the effect of different columnar microstructures produced by these two thermal spray processes on their insulation and lifetime performance and propose an optimized columnar microstructure. Characterization of TBCs in terms of microstructure, thermal conductivity, thermal cyclic fatigue lifetime and burner rig lifetime was performed. The results were compared with TBCs produced by the standard thermal spray technique, atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Bondcoats deposited by the emerging high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) spraying were compared to the standard vacuum plasma-sprayed (VPS) bondcoats to investigate the influence of the bondcoat deposition process as well as topcoat-bondcoat interface topography. The results showed that the dense PS-PVD-processed TBC had the highest lifetime, although at an expense of the highest thermal conductivity. The reason for this behavior was attributed to the dense intracolumnar structure, wide intercolumnar gaps and high column density, thus improving the strain tolerance and fracture toughness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
burner rig testing; columnar microstructure; lifetime; thermal barrier coatings; thermal conductivity; thermal cyclic fatigue
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17161 (URN)10.1007/s11666-021-01228-5 (DOI)000670181200002 ()2-s2.0-85109272903 (Scopus ID)
Funder
German Research Foundation (DFG), VA 163/8
Available from: 2021-12-22 Created: 2021-12-22 Last updated: 2021-12-22
Torkashvand, K., Gupta, M. K., Björklund, S., Marra, F., Baiamonte, L. & Joshi, S. V. (2021). Influence of nozzle configuration and particle size on characteristics and sliding wear behaviour of HVAF-sprayed WC-CoCr coatings. Surface & Coatings Technology, 423, 127585-127585, Article ID 127585.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of nozzle configuration and particle size on characteristics and sliding wear behaviour of HVAF-sprayed WC-CoCr coatings
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2021 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 423, p. 127585-127585, article id 127585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, effect of feedstock particle size and nozzle configuration on deposition, microstructural features, hardness and sliding wear behaviour of high velocity air fuel (HVAF)-sprayed WC-CoCr coatings was evaluated. Three different WC-CoCr powders with nominal particle sizes of 5/20 μm (fine), 5/30 μm (medium) and 15/45 μm (coarse) were sprayed employing a HVAF gun with four distinct DeLaval nozzle configurations involving different lengths and/or exit diameters. Microstructure, phase constitution and mechanical characteristics of the coatings were evaluated using SEM, EDS, XRD and micro indentation testing. Specific wear rate for all the samples was determined under sliding conditions and a comprehensive post wear analysis was conducted. X-ray diffraction analysis showed negligible decarburization in all the HVAF-sprayed coatings. It was shown that decrease in particle size of employed feedstock results in discernible changes in microstructural features of the coatings as well as considerable improvement in their performance. Also, notable changes in wear mechanisms were identified on reducing particle size from coarse to medium or fine. Fine and coarse feedstock powders were found to be sensitive to the type of nozzle used while no major difference was observed in coatings from powders with medium cut size sprayed with different nozzles. 

Keywords
Particle size, Nozzle configuration, HVAF, WC-CoCr, Sliding wear
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-20918 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2021.127585 (DOI)000697566200017 ()2-s2.0-85108196054 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180197
Note

Knowledge Foundation, Sweden for project HiPerCOAT (Dnr. 20180197)

Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
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