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Gupta, M. K., Markocsan, N., Li, X.-H. & Kjellman, B. (2019). Development of bondcoats for high lifetime suspension plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings. Surface & Coatings Technology, 371(SI), 366-377
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of bondcoats for high lifetime suspension plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings
2019 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 371, no SI, p. 366-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fabrication of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) seems to be a promising alternative for the industry as SPS TBCs have the potential to provide lower thermal conductivity and longer lifetime than state-of-the-art allowing higher engine efficiency. Further improvements in lifetime of SPS TBCs and fundamental understanding of failure mechanisms in SPS TBCs are necessary for their widespread commercialisation. In this study, the influence of varying topcoat-bondcoat interface topography and bondcoat microstructure on lifetime was investigated. The objective of this work was to gain fundamental understanding of relationships between topcoat-bondcoat interface topography, bondcoat microstructure, and failure mechanisms in SPS TBCs. Seven sets of samples were produced in this study by keeping same bondcoat chemistry but varying feedstock particle size distributions and bondcoat spray processes. The topcoat chemistry and spray parameters were kept identical in all samples. Three-dimensional surface measurements along with scanning electron microscopy images were used to characterise bondcoat surface topography. The effect of varying interface topography and bondcoat microstructure on thermally grown oxide formation, stresses and lifetime was discussed. The results showed that varying bondcoat powder size distribution and spray process can have a significant effect on lifetime of SPS TBCs. Smoother bondcoats seemed to enhance the lifetime in case of SPS TBCs in case of same bondcoat chemistry and similar bondcoat microstructures. When considering the samples investigated in this study, samples with high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) bondcoats resulted in higher lifetime than other samples indicating that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords
Air, Failure (mechanical), Microstructure, Particle size, Plasma jets, Plasma spraying, Scanning electron microscopy, Size distribution, Sprayed coatings, Surface measurement, Surface topography, Thermal conductivity, Thermal spraying, Topography, Bond coats, Interface topography, Lifetime, Suspension plasma spraying, Thermal barrier coating (TBCs), Thermally grown oxide, Thermal barrier coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13178 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.11.013 (DOI)000472694300037 ()2-s2.0-85056458705 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160022
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved
Jonnalagadda, K. P., Zhang, P., Gupta, M. K., Li, X.-H. & Peng, R. L. (2019). Hot gas corrosion and its influence on the thermal cycling performance of suspension plasma spray TBCs. In: Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2019: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition. Paper presented at ASME Turbo Expo: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, June 17-21, 2019. New York, NY: American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hot gas corrosion and its influence on the thermal cycling performance of suspension plasma spray TBCs
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2019: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, New York, NY: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured with suspension plasma spray (SPS) are promising candidates for use in gas turbines due to their high strain tolerance during thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF). However, corrosion often occurs alongside thermal fatigue and coating durability under these conditions is highly desirable. The current study focuses on understanding the corrosion behavior and its influence on the thermal cyclic fatigue life of SPS TBCs. Corrosion tests were conducted at 780 OC using a mixed-gas (1SO2-0.1CO-20CO2-N2(bal.) in vol. %) for 168h. They were later thermally cycled between 100-1100 ⁰C with a 1h hold time at 1100 ⁰C. Corrosion test results indicated that the damage predominantly started from the edges and a milder damage was observed at the center. Nickel sulfide was observed on top of the top coat and also in the columnar gaps of the top coat. Chromium oxides were observed inside the top coat columnar gaps but close to the bond coat/top coat interface. They were believed to reduce the strain tolerance of SPS TBCs to an extent and also amplify the thermal mismatch stresses during TCF tests. This, together with a fast growth of alumina during the TCF, resulted in a significant drop in the TCF life compared to the standard TCF tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2019
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14701 (URN)
Conference
ASME Turbo Expo: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, June 17-21, 2019
Available from: 2019-11-04 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-11-19
Aranke, O., Gupta, M. K., Markocsan, N., Li, X.-H. & Kjellman, B. (2019). Microstructural Evolution and Sintering of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), 28(1-2), 198-211
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural Evolution and Sintering of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings
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2019 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 198-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Suspension plasma spray (SPS) is capable of producing coatings with porous columnar structure, and it is also a much cheaper process compared to the conventionally used electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Although TBCs with a columnar microstructure that are fabricated using SPS have typically lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD, they are used sparingly in the aerospace industry due to their lower fracture toughness and limited lifetime expectancy. Lifetime of TBCs is highly influenced by the topcoat microstructure. The objective of this work was to study the TBCs produced using axial SPS with different process parameters. Influence of the microstructure on lifetime of the coatings was of particular interest, and it was determined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. The effect of sintering on microstructure of the coatings exposed to high temperatures was also investigated. Porosity measurements were taken using image analysis technique, and thermal conductivity of the coatings was determined by laser flash analysis. The results show that axial SPS is a promising method of producing TBCs having various microstructures with good lifetime. Changes in microstructure of topcoat due to sintering were seen evidently in porous coatings, whereas dense topcoats showed good resistance against sintering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASM International, 2019
Keywords
columnar microstructure, sintering, suspension plasma spray, thermal barrier coating, thermal conductivity, thermal cyclic test
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13077 (URN)10.1007/s11666-018-0778-z (DOI)000456599500018 ()2-s2.0-85055871819 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

First Online: 25 October 2018

This article is an invited paper selected from presentations at the 2018 International Thermal Spray Conference, held May 7-10, 2018, in Orlando, Florida, USA, and has been expanded from the original presentation.

Available from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Musalek, R., Tesar, T., Medricky, J., Lukac, F., Chraska, T. & Gupta, M. K. (2019). Microstructures and properties of thermal barrier coatings deposited by hybrid water-stabilized plasma torch. In: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference: . Paper presented at Conference of International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition: New Waves of Thermal Spray Technology for Sustainable Growth, ITSC 2019 ; Conference Date: 26 May 2019 Through 29 May 2019 (pp. 738-745). ASM International
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructures and properties of thermal barrier coatings deposited by hybrid water-stabilized plasma torch
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference, ASM International, 2019, p. 738-745Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Hybrid Water-Stabilized Plasma (WSP-H) torch provides high-enthalpy plasma which may be utilized for high-throughput and yet economical spraying of coatings from powders, suspensions, and solutions. It was previously demonstrated that microstructures and functional properties of the WSP-H coatings may be tailored to a wide extent for various new applications, namely those requiring high coating thickness and/or coating of large components. In this study, applicability of WSP-H technology for spraying of novel thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is demonstrated. WSP-H technology was used for spraying of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top-coats from powder, suspension and solution. Yttria content in the top-coat feedstock was 7-8 wt.%. NiCrAlY bond-coat was also sprayed by WSP-H and Hastelloy-X alloy was used as substrate material. Microstructure, phase composition, and endurance of the deposited coatings in thermal cycling fatigue (TCF) test were evaluated. Each thermal cycle consisted of rapid heating to 1100 °C, followed by one hour dwell and rapid cooling. All coatings showed excellent stability and TCF resistance withstanding more than 700 cycles surpassing in TCF test some of the currently commercially used TBCs. Lifetime of TBC with columnar top-coat deposited from suspension exceeded even more than 900 cycles. © 2019 ASM International. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASM International, 2019
Keywords
Microstructure; Sustainable development; Thermal cycling; Thermal fatigue; Thermal spraying; Thickness measurement; Waterworks; Yttria stabilized zirconia; Yttrium oxide; Zirconia, Deposited coatings; Functional properties; Hastelloy x alloys; Microstructures and properties; Substrate material; Thermal barrier coating (TBCs); Water stabilized plasmas; Yttria-stabilized zirconias (YSZ), Thermal barrier coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14670 (URN)2-s2.0-85073876666 (Scopus ID)9781510888005 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference of International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition: New Waves of Thermal Spray Technology for Sustainable Growth, ITSC 2019 ; Conference Date: 26 May 2019 Through 29 May 2019
Available from: 2019-11-04 Created: 2019-11-04 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
Uczak de Goes, W., Somhorst, J., Markocsan, N., Gupta, M. K. & Illkova, K. (2019). Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings for Light-Duty Diesel Engines. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), 28(7), 1674-1687
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings for Light-Duty Diesel Engines
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2019 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1674-1687Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Demands for improved fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions of diesel engines have been the driving force for car industry in the past decades. One way to achieve this would be by using thermal spraying to apply a thermal insulation layer on parts of the engine’s combustion chamber. A candidate thermal spray process to give coatings with appropriate properties is suspension plasma spray (SPS). SPS, which uses a liquid feedstock for the deposition of finely structured columnar ceramic coatings, was investigated in this work for application in light-duty diesel engines. In this work, different spray processes and materials were explored to achieve coatings with optimized microstructure on the head of aluminum pistons used in diesel engine cars. The functional properties of the coatings were evaluated in single-cylinder engine experiments. The influence of thermo-physical properties of the coatings on their functional properties has been discussed. The influence of different spray processes on coating formation on the complex piston head profiles has been also discussed. The results show that SPS can be a promising technique for producing coatings on parts of the combustion chamber, which can possibly lead to higher engine efficiency in light-duty diesel engines.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14511 (URN)10.1007/s11666-019-00923-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074254826 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-11-13
Gupta, M. K., Markocsan, N., Rocchio-Heller, R., Liu, J., Li, X.-H. -. & Östergren, L. (2018). Failure Analysis of Multilayered Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Applications. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), 27(3), 402-411
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Failure Analysis of Multilayered Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Applications
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2018 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 402-411-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Improvement in the performance of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is one of the key objectives for further development of gas turbine applications. The material most commonly used as TBC topcoat is yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). However, the usage of YSZ is limited by the operating temperature range which in turn restricts the engine efficiency. Materials such as pyrochlores, perovskites, rare earth garnets are suitable candidates which could replace YSZ as they exhibit lower thermal conductivity and higher phase stability at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work was to investigate different multilayered TBCs consisting of advanced topcoat materials fabricated by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The investigated topcoat materials were YSZ, dysprosia-stabilized zirconia, gadolinium zirconate, and ceria–yttria-stabilized zirconia. All topcoats were deposited by TriplexPro-210TM plasma spray gun and radial injection of suspension. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue and thermal shock testing. Microstructure analysis of as-sprayed and failed specimens was performed with scanning electron microscope. The failure mechanisms in each case have been discussed in this article. The results show that SPS could be a promising route to produce multilayered TBCs for high-temperature applications.

National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11978 (URN)10.1007/s11666-017-0683-x (DOI)000425622500014 ()2-s2.0-85039851194 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

First Online: 02 January 2018

Available from: 2018-01-10 Created: 2018-01-10 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Ganvir, A., Vaidhyanathan, V., Markocsan, N., Gupta, M. K., Pala, Z. & Lukac, F. (2018). Failure analysis of thermally cycled columnar thermal barrier coatings produced by high-velocity-air fuel and axial-suspension-plasma spraying: A design perspective. Ceramics International, 44(3), 3161-3172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Failure analysis of thermally cycled columnar thermal barrier coatings produced by high-velocity-air fuel and axial-suspension-plasma spraying: A design perspective
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2018 (English)In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 3161-3172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Axial-suspension-plasma spraying (ASPS) is a fairly recent thermal spray technology which enables production of ceramic top coats in TBCs, incorporating simultaneously the properties of both the conventional-plasma sprayed (highly insulating porous structures) and electron-beam-physical-vapor-deposited (strain-tolerant columnar structures) top coats. TBCs are required to insulate the hot components in a gas turbine engine against high temperature and harsh operating conditions. Periodic heating and cooling of turbine engines during operation can create severe thermal cyclic fatigue conditions which can degrade the performance of these coatings eventually leading to the failure. An in-depth experimental investigation was performed to understand the failure behavior of columnar TBCs subjected to thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF) test at 1100 C. The study revealed that the TCF performance was influenced to an extent, by the top coat microstructure, but was primarily affected by the severity of thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth at the bond coat-top coat interface. Mixed failure modes comprising crack propagation through the bond coat-TGO interface, through TGO and within the top coat were identified. Based on the analysis of the experimental results and thorough discussion a novel design of microstructure for the high TCF performance columnar TBC is proposed. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.

Keywords
Air; Coatings; Engines; Gas turbines; Microstructure; Plasma jets; Plasma spraying; Sprayed coatings; Structural design; Suspensions (components); Thermal spraying, Columnar structures; Experimental investigations; High velocity air fuels; Physical vapor deposited; Suspension plasma spraying; Thermal cyclic fatigue; Thermal spray technology; Thermally grown oxide, Thermal barrier coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11920 (URN)10.1016/j.ceramint.2017.11.084 (DOI)000423891900070 ()2-s2.0-85034822127 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västra Götaland, RUN 612-0974-13
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Gupta, M. K., Markocsan, N., Li, X.-H. -. & Östergren, L. (2018). Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), 27(1-2), 84-97
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings
2018 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 27, no 1-2, p. 84-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is of high commercial interest as SPS has been shown capable of producing highly porous columnar microstructures similar to the conventionally used electron beam–physical vapor deposition. However, lifetime of SPS coatings needs to be improved further to be used in commercial applications. The bondcoat microstructure as well as topcoat–bondcoat interface topography affects the TBC lifetime significantly. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different bondcoat deposition processes for SPS topcoats. In this work, a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat deposited by high velocity air fuel (HVAF) was compared to commercial vacuum plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY and PtAl diffusion bondcoats. All bondcoat variations were prepared with and without grit blasting the bondcoat surface. SPS was used to deposit the topcoats on all samples using the same spray parameters. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. Isothermal heat treatment was performed to study bondcoat oxidation over time. The effect of bondcoat deposition process and interface topography on lifetime in each case has been discussed. The results show that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs.

Keywords
bondcoats, high velocity air fuel spraying, interface topography, lifetime, suspension plasma spraying, thermal barrier coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11934 (URN)10.1007/s11666-017-0672-0 (DOI)000419001600009 ()2-s2.0-85037677163 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

This article is an invited paper selected from presentations at the 2017 International Thermal Spray Conference, held June 7-9, 2017, in Düsseldorf, Germany, that has been expanded from the original presentation.

Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Kuhn, J., Gupta, M. K., Kesler, O. & Björklund, S. (2018). The Effect of Fuel Electrode Roughness on the Properties of Plasma Sprayed Solid Oxide Cells. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165(9), F693-F701
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Fuel Electrode Roughness on the Properties of Plasma Sprayed Solid Oxide Cells
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 9, p. F693-F701Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solid oxide cell electrolytes fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying are frequently found to have considerable gas leak rates.Electrode surface roughness is known to have an influence on electrolyte leak rates. A jet of high velocity air, produced with an airknife, was aimed at the plasma plume during fuel electrode deposition to reduce the surface roughness prior to electrolyte deposition.The resulting fuel electrode masses, electrode compositions, and electrode surface roughnesses were measured for varying air knifeinlet pressures. Surface asperity populations and maximum heights were significantly reduced using air knife pressures of >6 barat the expense of deposition efficiency. The nickel volume fraction in the fuel electrode increased slightly with increasing air knifepressure. Open circuit voltages were larger on the smoother fuel electrodes that were produced at higher air knife pressures, but nosignificant effect of air knife pressure on cell power density could be discerned.© 2018 The Electrochemical Society

Keywords
air knife, solid oxide cell, surface roughness
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13050 (URN)10.1149/2.1141809jes (DOI)2-s2.0-85049345029 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funders: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Gupta, M. K., Kumara, C. & Nylén, P. (2017). Bilayer Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings with Enhanced Thermal Cyclic Lifetime: Experiments and Modeling. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), 26(6), 1038-1051
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bilayer Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings with Enhanced Thermal Cyclic Lifetime: Experiments and Modeling
2017 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 1038-1051Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) has been shown as a promising process to produce porous columnar strain tolerant coatings for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines. However, the highly porous structure is vulnerable to crack propagation, especially near the topcoat-bondcoat interface where high stresses are generated due to thermal cycling. A topcoat layer with high toughness near the topcoat-bondcoat interface could be beneficial to enhance thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs. In this work, a bilayer coating system consisting of first a dense layer near the topcoat-bondcoat interface followed by a porous columnar layer was fabricated by SPS using Yttria-stabilised zirconia suspension. The objective of this work was to investigate if the bilayer topcoat architecture could enhance the thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs through experiments and to understand the effect of the column gaps/vertical cracks and the dense layer on the generated stresses in the TBC during thermal cyclic loading through finite element modeling. The experimental results show that the bilayer TBC had significantly higher lifetime than the single-layer TBC. The modeling results show that the dense layer and vertical cracks are beneficial as they reduce the thermally induced stresses which thus increase the lifetime.

Keywords
bilayer coating system; finite element modeling; lifetime; suspension plasma spraying; stresses; thermal barrier coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11411 (URN)10.1007/s11666-017-0595-9 (DOI)000407335200005 ()2-s2.0-85022002318 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4201-668x

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